Journal of Cultural Relics 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.0

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2018, Vol.34, No.34

  • 1.

    Goseong Songhak-dong Tumuli and Gojaguk

    Ha, Seung-cheol | 2018, 34(34) | pp.1~32 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Sogaya(small state), along with Ara-Gaya was a major political force that formed the federation of Gaya states (A.D. 350 – A.D. 562). To this day, most researchers as well as public believed that the territory of Sogaya was the area around today’s Goseong in Gyeongsangnam-do. However, Sogaya was most likely the term that referred to many tribal states that existed in the western part of today’s Gyeongsangnam-do area, including Goseong. The result of recent archeological researches shows that the western part of Gyeongsangnam-do area exhibits a significant level of spiritual and physical homogeneity in terms of forms of pottery, tombs and funeral rituals. However, it is not plausible to think that Goseong was a center of development of such a wide cultural band. The distribution of tombs indicates that many small states existed around several areas that include Goseong, Jinju and Sancheong. It appears that these small states occupied a common cultural band. Pottery culture unique to Sogaya began to form around A.D. 5th century and geographic characteristics become prominent as time passed. During the growth period, production and distribution of Sogaya’s potteries took place in many regions: the Nam-gang river area including Sancheong and Jinju; the southern sea coast area including Goseong, Tongyoung, Sacheon and Hadong Based on pottery forms, tomb style and distribution of tombs, the development of Gojaguk could be described in terms of three stages: foundation period (A.D ~350), period of growth (A.D 350~525), period of decline (A.D 525~560) In terms of tomb style of Gojaguk, wooden coffin tombs are built during the 4th and the early 5th century, which are replaced by stone coffin tombs by the middle of the 5th century. Then, beginning in the 6th century, stone chamber tombs began to spread widely, starting with the upper class people. People who built Songhak-dong tumuli in Goseong is considered a leader of Sogaya from the late 5th to early 6th century. It is speculated that Gojaguk rapidly grew as it traded with other Gaya states, Baekje and Japan beginning in the late 5th century, which is proven by the distribution of potteries of Sogaya. After the mid-6th century, Baekja and Shilla began to encroach upon Gaya region, which led to the fall of Gojaguk, the fall of Gojaguk is speculated to be around A.D. 560.
  • 2.

    The character of Gyo-dong and Songhyun-dong tombs in Changnyeong

    Jung, In-tae | 2018, 34(34) | pp.33~61 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Gyo-dong and Songhyun-dong tombs are the central tombs of the Changnyeong area of the Three Kingdoms period. The characteristics of the tombs can be seen through of distribution, survey status, the construction of mound tomb and excavated remains. The construction of the mound tomb is classified into four period. Ⅰ․Ⅱ-period used stone outer coffin tomb with decorator entrance and stone chamber stomb with horizontal entrance(narrow rectangle type). Ⅲ-period used wooden chamber tomb covered by stone. Ⅳ-period used stone chamber stomb with horizontal entrance(rectangle type) and stone chamber tomb with corridor. Especially stone chamber stomb with horizontal entrance(narrow rectangle type) is unusual becouse it wasn’t additional burial. Also various construction techniques are used. There are Compartmentalized mound of tomb, distributing installations, circular burial protection stone, ditch enclosure and so on. Excavated remains have various characteristics. Changnyeong type pottery spreads to the west Gyeongnam and downstream areas of Nakdong River. The ornaments and horse harness are influenced by Silla, some are made in Changnyeong. In addition some ornaments and horse harness are relateded Daegaya and Wa. This material is an important resource for revealing ancient history and exchange history of Korea.
  • 3.

    Ancient Tombs in Yugok-ri and Durak-ri, Namwon, the Hub of Northeast Asia’s Cultural Exchanges

    Changkeun Kwak | 2018, 34(34) | pp.63~100 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The guidebook on South Korea’s traditional geography is Sangyeongpyo (『山經表』) which is symbolized by the Baekdudaegan Mountain Range. The Unbong Plateau in the east side of the Baekdudaegan Mountain Range is a typical plateau area at altitudes of around 500m, and the ancient tombs in Yugok-ri and Durak-ri, Namwon are located in this plateau. Gimunguk, which was a small country of the Gaya lineage based in the Unbong Plateau, first appeared in the late fourth century, and continued to exist as a small country of the Gaya lineage until the mid sixth century. The mountain range of the Baekdudaegan served as a natural fence on the country’s western side, and the Unbong Plateau was a gateway to cultural exchanges between Baekje and Gaya. The key driving force behind the country’s growth was the production and distribution of iron through the development of iron mines and trade networks. The existence of Gimunguk was archeologically proven by the excavation of about 180 mal(mol) tombs, medium and large-sized ancient tombs of the Gaya lineage, and the highest-grade prestige items. In addition to Baekje, small countries of the Gaya lineage such as Daegaya and Sogaya sent the best-quality prestige items and earthenware to Gimunguk, the kingdom of iron, to obtain nickel and iron that were produced in the Unbong Plateau. Later in the early sixth country, Gimunguk accepted the Baekje Mound System in earnest with the advance of Baekje’s King Muryeong, and then was politically subjected to Shilla around the mid sixth country. As the Gaya-lineage kingdoms of iron, which were based in eastern Jeollabuk-do including Gimunguk in the Unbong Plateau, politically subjected to Baekje or Shilla, a group of artisans who worked on iron may have crossed the sea and moved to Japan.
  • 4.

    A study of the Daejeon-ri mountain fortress

    Seong-Heun An , Kwang-hun Choi | 2018, 34(34) | pp.101~136 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    After organization of the excavation investigation result about Yeoncheon Daejeon-ri mountain fortress, this study is considered the construct method and the excavated relics of mountain fortresses made by stones, and the excavated relics of ancient tombs in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do area. As a result, Daejeon-ri mountain fortress was built in the middle or late of 6thC, and, after the occupation, Silla and Goguryeo got through to a basin of Imjingang River and Hantangang River. And when considering the earliest relics found in the fortresses and ancient tombs are applicable to the middle and the late 6thC, they were built intensively during a short time. However, taking account of the relics in this period are excavated small amount in each fortresses, the occupied territory was ruled over not a stable govern but privoted on a iodgement area. To analyzing the hard tiles, excavated in a rod tamoing layer of a water catchment facilities inside of Horogoru, and the charcoal atratum in the outside of fortress of Mudeungri 2nd fort. not only brush fires passed off along the boundary line, but also various occupation forms are existed.
  • 5.

    Irin pots in the Goryeo Dynasty

    Shin Eunjae | 2018, 34(34) | pp.137~158 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of iron pots in the name and function during the Goryeo Dynasty. Recently, iron pots with pier were named Ding(鼎), iron pots without pier were named Fu(釜) by many students. However, in the Goryeo period, the iron pots with or without pier, was also called a Fu(釜), according to Xujing(徐兢)’s argument. Therefore, the way to distinguish between Ding and Fu according to the presence or absence of pier, should be reconsidered. Nevertheless, iron pots, excavated in the Goryeo period, can be distinguished according to the presence or absence of piers in shape. The pot without pier was a relatively large scale, big pot was with mouth-diameter of about 50cm, a small one of 26cm, and an average of 35cm. They were obviously larger than the average mouth-diameter of a pot with pier. It’s mouth-diameter was the average of 35cm. The pot without pier was placed on the stove, named Bu-tu-mag. In the Chosun Dynasty, the shape of the pot without pier was changed. The ‘U’ shape in the pot became flat one with wide mouth-diameter. The question of whether these changes were universal according to the change of time, should be made through the examination of more data, but it seemed to have a tendency. The pot with pier was smaller than the pot without pier and the bottom was flat. In this pot, the change of shape did not occur even when entering the Chosun Dynasty. The pot with pier, which Xujing(徐兢) called ‘Zhoufu(鬻釜)’, was called "Nogu(鏀口)" in the late Joseon Dynasty. The Nogu pot was with pier or not, it was widely used in cooking, in the late Joseon Dynasty. The pot without pier, placed on Bu-tu-mag, was used to cook rice or boil something. The pot with pier, placed on anywhere, was used to cook various kinds of food like vegetables. Therefore, it was a necessary instrument in the cooking during the Goryeo period. These pots were made by certain villages or groups, and these groups also produced other irons such as plowshares. This pattern seems to have continued until the late Joseon Dynasty.
  • 6.

    On the Relics of Japanese Invasion Period in Gupo Waeseong-Jiseong

    LEE DONGJU | 2018, 34(34) | pp.159~182 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Imjinwaeran was the Major event that provided not only the culture of the Joseon Dynasty but also the epochal turning point of modern history in Korea. In addition to the division of times, it was accompanied by a change in the overall structure of the material culture of archeology such as costume, objects and tombs as well as castle structures and weapons due to military system and tactical changes. However, despite this great transformation, there are not many archaeologists who deal with the Waeseong left behind. In particular, to understand the breakthrough in the cultural history of the time, it is necessary to review the relics at that time, but most of them consist mainly of Waeseong structures and construction methods. The reason for this is probably not because there are not many investigations on Waeseong, but because it is very difficult to prove it simply by excavation or surface collection. However, in Gupo Waeseong, three settlements in the Joseon Dynasty were confirmed during the investigation, and it was judged that this dwelling was abandoned due to the construction of Gupo Waeseong. Therefore, this study investigated the characteristics of relics that were used during the Japanese Invasion of Korea through the review of the settlements and excavated artifacts.
  • 7.

    Study of <Hyeonwangdo(現王圖)> and <Bokjangwonmun(腹藏願文)> at Bogwangsa Temple in Sokcho

    kim, mi-kyuong | 2018, 34(34) | pp.183~205 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Bogwangsa Temple is a temple located in the heart of Sokcho and was founded in 1938. The history of this temple represents the changes and flow of Buddhism in Korea in the modern times. In the 1930s, Priest Hwadam, who was the head of Mt. Geumgang's Anyangam Hermitage and Mitaam Hermitage founded it in Buldanggol near Yeongnangho Lake in Sokcho to spread the religious teachings. As Anyangam Hermitage was lost in a heavy rainfall, Priest Hwadam brought Jijangbosalsang and two Buddhist paintings -Hyeonwangdo and Sinjangdo and so on- to enshrine at Bogwangsa Temple. This study discussed the images and characteristics of <Hyeonwangdo> which was created in 1865 and said to have been moved here from Mt. Geumgang's Anyangam Hermitage in the 1930s and examined the original place of enshrinement and creator through Bokjangwonmun. <Hyeonwangdo> in Bogwangsa Temple is a drawing of Hyeonwang who is seated in the middle holding a tablet in both hands in front of an eight-sided screen and his family is around him. His family, including Cheondongcheonnyeo and Pangwan holding symbolic objects, is arranged bilateral symmetrically. The position and arrangement of the family and the objects and screen in <Hyeonwangdo of Bogwangsa Temple> are almost the same with <Hyeonwangdo of Bodeoksa Temple (1865)> in Yesan. Both pieces succeed the layout and style of the old-fashioned <Hyeonwangdo> created in the early 18th Century and the same sketch was shared by Beobin, the Buddhist painter of <Hyeongwangdo of Bogwangsa Temple>, who also participated in creating <Hyeonwangdo of Bodeoksa Temple>. In this respect, <Hyeonwangdo of Bogwangsa Temple> would be a meaningful resource for the discovery of a new artist called Beobin.