Journal of Cultural Relics 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.0

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pISSN : 1975-6852

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2020, Vol.37, No.37

  • 1.

    Research on the Rehabilitation of Early Neolithic Period-focused on the Jeju Island and Southern areas-

    Choi, Jong-Hyuk | 2020, 37(37) | pp.1~18 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Subtle inquiries regarding time setting of early Neolithic Period in Korea are still underpinned in the academic world. Given the results found from Gosanri sites in Jeju Island, there are certain progresses of this research area while showing disparate tendency and absolute age differences compared to early stage of North-East Asia. Most of Korean researches on this certain period seem to focus on the systems and formalities which drains this kind of difference. Therefore, this work mainly sheds light on the everyday life, rehabilitation of early Neolithic Period. It is also certain that most of early stage sites are limited to Jeju Island, which means rather shortages of Neolithic sites in the peninsula. Natural resources of flora and fauna fluid that is crucial evidence of identifying rehabilitation of prehistoric times are hardly discovered which makes the relevant researches fragmentarily achieved. Based on the research about the location of sites and used implements, it seems that early people actively engaged with gathering and hunting while no certain evidence of fishing. Slightly later, both Jeju Island and Southern areas showed fishing activities and especially heavily engaged in the Southern areas. Earthenware bowl with raised pattern that is typical southern pottery of this period is also found in Jeju Island which proved rigorous interaction between two locals. Stone implements and resources, in the meantime, from peninsula of early stage Neolithic period are uncovered from Jeju Island which are clear proof of both areas. However, it seems there is no fishing evidence and no fishing sites in the Southern area which means inquiries are not yet answered enough. More substantial clue would be appeared in the near future.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Appearance and Characteristics of Roof Tile with Large Paddle-beat Pattern in Gyeongju Region during the Unified Silla Dynasty Period

    Cha, Soon-Chul | 2020, 37(37) | pp.19~56 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The question of when the use of the roof tile with large paddle-beat pattern had begun in Gyeongju region during the Unified Silla Dynasty period is a matter of the change in the roof tile production which were managed by the government rather than the introduction of a new production technology. In other words, this indicates that the roof tile production system that maintained a common production technology at the time changed for some reason. Silla used roof tiles with medium paddle-beat pattern. However, when the central control grew weak, new roof tiles with large paddle-beat pattern were produced mostly in the outskirts of the royal capital and rural areas, which brought changes to the standards for the roof tile. This change could not be confirmed through chronological data, however, can be confirmed through the artifacts excavated from a variety of roof tile kilns that were excavated and investigated in the outskirts of Gyeongju. The roof tile kilns that supplied roof tiles to the royal capital of Silla until the late Unified Silla Dynasty period produced roof tiles with medium paddle-beat pattern under the management and supervision of the Roof Tile Agency under the Ministry of Interior, but it is quite likely that the roof tile kilns located in the outskirts were outside the management and supervision of the authority. This is related with the political disorder and the emergence of powerful clans. It is estimated that the production of the roof tiles with large paddle-beat pattern began in the outskirts of Gyeongju, which is estimated to be after the 14th year in the reign of King Heondeok of Silla (822) considering the excavations in rural areas and the dating of the remains of the dwellings in Bangnae-ri, Gyeongju.
  • 3.

    Gwanbang-seong and Mokjang-seong in Namhae-gun during the Joseon Dynasty

    Lee, Sue-Hyun | 2020, 37(37) | pp.57~85 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Fortresses(seong), including Eup-seong, Gwanbang-seong, and Mokjang-seong, which were used for various purposed during the Joseon Dynasty(1392-1910), are located in Namhae-gun. Gwanbang-seong and Mokjang-seong to be discussed here are one of the materials to understand the identity of Namhae-gun during the Joseon Dynasty. Gwanbang-seong is a fortress designed for the defense against enemies such as Japanese invaders as the region is geographically adjacent to Japan and exposed in all directions. The fortress was firstly constructed from the reign of Seongjong(r. 1469-1494), when the naval forces were able to perform shore duty. The construction was particularly centered on southern Aenggang-man(bay), where the Japanese invaders often infested. In the early of the Joseon Dynasty, instead of building new fortresses, the old fort, Chiso-seong; existing fortresses located in Pyeongsan-hyeon, Nanpo-hyeon, and Seong-gogae; and other unidentified fortifications were reused. Newly built forts during the Joseon Dynasty were positioned on the base of a mountain and a hill like Seong-gogae and U-gogae. Sampowaeran riot(1510) led to taking an aggressive defensive posture and moving and rebuilding strongholds along the southern shorelines including Gok-po, Sangju-po, and Pyeongsan-po, during the reign of King Jungjong(r. 1506-1544). Most of the naval fortresses located along the south coast were, however, faded away by the reign of King Yeongjo(r. 1724-1776) as the Japanese invasions had decreased after the Jeongyuwaeran war(1597-1598). By the end of the Joseon Dynasty, only a few military positions, including Pyeongsanpo-jin, Mijohang-jin, and Jeokryang-jin, remained in Namhae-gun. Noryangjin-seong and Hopojin-seong might have played a role as Gwanbang-seong. However, so far as is now known, they were constructed to watch over ferries where granaries (haechang and jochang) were. Nammyeon Danghang-ri Gojin-seong refers to U-gogae-boseong in literature. It was first built as a Chiso in Nanpo-hyeon, moved to U-gogae, and then to Gok-po. The Seong-gogae-bo is a noteworthy case in terms of using the place name ‘Seong-gogae’ to call a fort(bo), which indicates that the region already had a fortress. Moreover, blue-gray stoneware pottery sherds and reddish-brown pottery sherds unearthed within the fortress through the surface survey show that the unidentified existing fortress was reutilized during the Joseon Dynasty. Based on a stele located in backyard of Nangoksa shrine, Naneum-ri, Idong-myeon, Namhaejang-seong (Geumsan ‘Mokjang-seong’) is known as Gwanbang-seong. However, considering various historical records, including maps of pastures in Jinju-mok and Namhae-hyeon in Gyeongsang-do, created in 1678; and the archaeological features of the site such as its size, form, and location, it is understood as the Geumsan Mokjang-seong. The vestiges of farms like horse pasture(jeommajang) are also found in Sangjuk-ri and Jindong-ri in Changseon, where was incorporated as part of Namhae from Jinju. Nonetheless, it is understood that a barrier (seong) was not built, as seen through related literature. It is, therefore, estimated that the entire island of Changseon-myeon was the farm. Further research will need to be carried out to understand the characteristics of Jijok-haebyeon-seong located within Changseon-do island. In conclusion, Gwanbang-seong was fortresses, tactically constructed within Namhae-gun during the Joseon Dynasty, to protect residents from Japanese raiders infested the southern coast. The fortresses were, therefore, lost their function and moved their locations following the rise and fall of Japanese invaders. Mokjang-seong was built around boundary areas, especially of large farms like Geumsan Mokjang, to help farmers damaged from grazing stock. A fortress was not constructed in a small island like Changseon, but instead, the whole area was used as a farm.
  • 4.

    A Study on Woo Shinchul as the first generation of western painter in Busan- Focused on landscapes painting -

    Lee, Sue-Hyun | 2020, 37(37) | pp.85~113 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Dankwang(丹光) Woo Shin Chul(禹新出, 1911~1991) is an artist of Western painting representing the original Busan painting circle. As non-being studied abroad, he was accepted for a major competition without systematic education on Western painting and stood shoulder to shoulder with the mainstream painters of Busan painting circle of the day. Not only, as a painter, he carried out flourishing activities as leading various group exhibitions centered on Busan area, but also he spent his effort to educate juniors as working in teaching profession for 40 years. Meanwhile, he produced his landscapes of the whole place in South Gyeongsang province and Busan city throughout his life. Woo Shin Chul, who lived a life through modern and contemporary Busan as a painter, has two significances in the Busan painting circle. First, he led the original Busan Western painting circle in 1930s. Although he could not go to study abroad on account of difficult family reasons, he completely learned modern art in the process of introducing Wester paintings in Busan. Therefore, it was able to identify the aspect of the original Busan painting circle through the process of Woo Shin Chul acquiring Western paintings. Second, he led the popularization of art in Busan. He took the initiative in the popularization of art as teaching art to the general public through the Gyeongnam Art Education Research Society and the Sunday Artists’Club.
  • 5.

    Another Axis Going through Cho Yang-gyu’s Artwork -An Essay on Mother-Child Image-

    Jeong Hyeon-A | 2020, 37(37) | pp.115~134 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Cho Yang-gyu’s series of work created in Japan for 13 years is a consistent embodiment of his thoughts, via more refined metaphor and intuitive motives from the perspective of a bottom feeder, on how Japan had sought profit-making using modern capitalism instead of expanding imperial colonies this time after August 1945, while Korea was going through the liberation period and Korean war. Not only <Warehouse series> and <Manhole series> but also <Little motive> <Mother-child motive> and <Laborer motive>, showing diverse forms of molding under a certain motive, are a good example to believe that Cho Yang-gyu’s thinking motives were expressed persistently in his work. Such a philosophical perspective found in Cho Yang-gyu’s work is closely related to his new life as an artist, who had had a career of leftism until this involved him in political events and forced him to board a smuggler to Japan. The existing studies connected his past in Korea to the philosophical themes and motifs of the work he created in Japan for 13 years. So Cho Yang-gyu has been chiefly illuminated by his political movement of leftist thinking in Korean liberation period and his related activity. However, this essay takes notice of his record of performances in Korea which has been unknown so far and the mother and child image found in his course of study. His mother-child image was initiated in his life in Busan in the liberation period and is considered due to Cho Yang-gyu’s unusual family history. This image is also deeply related to Kather Kollwitz by which he was fascinated when attending a teachers’ college and her major motif mother and child. This article, then, traces the mother-child image he continually sought in his activity as an artist in Japan and interaction with other authors in the relevant period of time. There are not many mother and child images found in Cho Yang-gyu’s work in Japan but, looking by division into work of expressing relational meaning between his mother country (Mother) and him (Child) and reproduction of actual mother and child image in molding, these two types of mother-child image are continually confirmed in his 13 years of activity in Japan. Moreover, relation to mother-child image discovered in interaction with other authors still proves his intentional pursuit of a mother-child image. To conclude, Cho Yang-gyu’s mother and child image was a fateful image which began in Korea’s liberation period with his personal family history and political movement, routine image sought in performing in Japan along with other philosophical motifs, and continual image sought constantly in performing work and social interaction, although not embodied in many works of his.