Journal of Cultural Relics 2022 KCI Impact Factor : 0.42

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2020, Vol.38, No.38

  • 1.

    Gonji who visited Japan, and the descendants

    Park, Jae-Yong | 2020, 38(38) | pp.1~19 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The Gongji was sent to Waeguk for a long time in the late 5th century. This was a measure of King Gaero to restrain Konji's forces in Baekje and to inherit the throne to his children. After settling in the Kawachi-Asuka area, Konji protected and united the Baekje immigrants and built an economic foundation. It is believed that Konji formed descendants while staying in Waeguk, and formed a support base both domestically and internationally by establishing relationships with the forces in Baekje. Based on this foundation, his son, King Dongseong, was able to take office despite internal and external chaos in the early days of Woongjin. In Waeguk a descendant clan named Asukabenomiyatuko-si succeeds Konji. Asukabenomiyatuko-si grows up by forming a close relationship with the Yamato Kingship based on the Asukabe-gun Kawachi-guk. Later, in the Nara and Hyeian era, many bureaucrats of statute were produced, and their descendants continue to emphasize that they are the descendants of Baekje Gonji. These descendants of Gonji played an important role in forming a culture rich in Baekje color in ancient Japan.
  • 2.

    The Spatial Structure and Landscape of the Gaya Capital City

    Choi, Gyong-Gyu | 2020, 38(38) | pp.21~57 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Among the Gaya empires, Geumgwan-Gaya, Dae-Ggaya, Ara-Gaya, and Dara-Guk were found to have fortresses where kings and rulers lived. The archaeological aspects, including the surrounding ruins, were organized and the structural features and scenery of the Gaya Kingdom were explored in a macro-level manner. No roads or temples were built based on urban areas such as Silla and Baekje. However, it was confirmed that royal palaces, settlements, royal tombs, ritual facilities, and production facilities were all part of the ancient capital city system. And the view that the royal palace and the Wangmyo station are close to each other within a kilometer of distance can be seen as one of the common characteristics of Gaya's royal castle. Gaya established the space structure of the fortress while building the fortress, which is a memorial facility for the royal palace. In particular, the pattern of placing important facilities in the center and moving special production facilities to the outskirts can be seen as evidence of the perception of the capital city system. However, in the case of Geumgwan Gaya, it must have been difficult to develop into a capital city system due to the 400 years of the southern conquest of Goguryeo and the westward advance of Silla after the establishment of an earthen rampart. It is understood that Dae-Gaya and Ara-Gaya, which were great kingdoms of the end of the Gaya period, were also not in a condition to concentrate on the development of the capital from the establishment of an earthen rampart to the late 5th century. In other words, Gaya is an unfinished city, and in other words, the best archaeological data showing the transition period of the ancient Korean peninsula's capital system is Gaya's royal castle.
  • 3.

    Based on Ancient Tombs Construction Techniques and Burial rites, The Characteristic of Ancient Tombs in So-gaya

    Jung, In-tae | 2020, 38(38) | pp.59~92 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The three ancient tombs in the So-gaya are the Jungchon-ri ancient tombs in Sancheong, Samga ancient tombs in Hapcheon, and Songhak- dong ancient tombs in Goseong. Jungchon ancient tombs were influenced by the construction technique of Dae-gaya ancient tombs and relics such as the long sword with ring pommel. Ancient tomb construction techniques include soil-building techniques, circular burial stone marker, and soil-building materials. Later, the construction techniques of Samga ancient tombs and Goa-dong stone chamber were also influenced. It served as a link between Dae-gaya and So-gaya. Samga ancient tombs is a multi-bracket system that extends the land horizontally and vertically. It is possible to have affected the lower tombs in Dae-gaya ancient tombs. The construction techniques of Ara-gaya ancient tombs, such as compartmental soil-building techniques and wooden structures, were influenced. Songhak-dong ancient tombs are the most strongly married places, including the structure of tombs, tomb layout, ditch enclosure, junction, twin tombs and horse harnesses. And clayblocks was used a lot in the construction of the clay.
  • 4.

    Construction and Transfer of Anheungjinseong Fortress

    Sim, Jeong-Bo | 2020, 38(38) | pp.93~134 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    During the early Joseon period, the Korean navy’s maritime defense consisted in loading up a battleship with weapons and provisions and in standing by on board, led by the officer. Such a naval system was based on the principle of on-board defense. Such a maritime defense principle had been initiated during the Goryeo period. This principle of on-board defense kept the country from constructing fortifications. During the 15th year of King Seongjong, there was a suggestion of building small stone fortifications in Gyeongsang and Jeolla Provinces in order to store up weapons and provisions there. Some government officials were against this idea, saying that the newly constructed fortifications at military posts would end up being officers’ residences. Nevertheless, King Seongjong said, “The project was already launched so we can’t stop it. If there is any problem later on, we will need to take separate measures.” In this way, the king went on with the construction project. Under these circumstances, a fortresss was built first at the Jepo port in October of the 17th year of King Seongjong. By 1522 (17th year of King Jungjong), Joseon built fortifications for the navy stationed at its east and west coasts. The first construction of Anheungjinseong Fortress is not documented. However, historical documents do explain that the fortress was moved to Hwajeongdo in 1653 (4th year of King Hyojong) and that it began to be built during the 6th year of King Hyojong. Such records are found in The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, Bibyeonsa Deungrok (records of the Border Defense Council of Joseon), Daedongjiji (geography book) and Jeungbo Munheon Bigo (encyclopedia). Referring to Daedongjiji, which describes how the fortress was transferred to Hwajeongdo to be built again there, the “Anheungjinseong Studies Report” says that the fortress was constructed in 1655 (6th year of King Hyojong). The cultural heritage search engine on the website of the Cultural Heritage Administration also says that the fortress was built during the reign of King Hyojong. However, Daedongjiji makes clear that Anheungjinseong Fortress was moved again from its new location in Hwajeongdo to its original location during the 10th year of King Hyeonjong. In addition, The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty and Bibyeonsa Deungrok elaborate on how the fortress was moved between its old and new locations. This means that Anheungjinseong Fortress was first constructed in its original location and that it was also constructed in its new location in Hwajeongdo. The date of the fortress’ first construction, which doesn’t appear in historical documents, has been unveiled thanks to a stone monument with a text inscribed on it. This monument was discovered in 1993 when Kongju National University Museum conducted research on the fortress. The text on the monument mentions the “11th year of the Wanli Emperor,” which is 1583 (16th year of King Seonjo). Therefore, the year 1583 came to be regarded as the date of the first construction of the original fortress of Anheungjinseong. Furthermore, two excavation projects of the fortress body of Anheungjinseong led to clarifying construction techniques dating from two historical periods, which came to be known as the period of its first construction and that of its additional construction respectively. Although a great volume of research has recently been conducted on the occasion of symposiums on Anheungjinseong Fortress, researchers have failed to shed light on the construction and additional work of the old and new fortresses. They have failed to explain the matter because they have overlooked the fact that Anheungjinseong Fortress was in its new location in Hwajeongdo for 16 years from the time when the fortress was moved to Hwajeongdo (4th year of King Hyojong) to the time when it was transferred again to its original location (10th year of King Hyeonjong). Supposing that the fortress wasn’t built in its new location in Hwajeongdo, they have tried to explain the construction of the old (original) fortress by mixing the facts about the new and old fortresses. Consequently, they have wrongly concluded that the fortress began to be built before March of the 7th year of King Hyojong and that it was completed in October of the 7th year of King Hyojong. Such a conclusion distorts the three-month construction work in the old location which was launched in August and completed in October. This is explained in the chapter “Anheung Bangeo Sasamok” in Bibyeonsa Deungrok, historical records of the 1st year of King Sukjong. Today’s Anheungjinseong Fortress, whose original and old location is described in historical records, was first constructed in 1583 (16th year of King Seonjo). The fortress was completed from August to October of the 6th year of King Hyojong, during the construction work in its new location. Bibyeonsa Deungrok (“Anheung Bangeo Sasamok”) doesn’t specify when the old fortress was built, generating confusion. Nevertheless, considering the tenure of Gwon Wu, governor of Chungcheong Province who supervised the construction project, it is certain that the fortress was built during the 6th year of King Hyojong. The project mobilized about 2,200 reservists from the left camp, one of the five military camps in Chungcheong Province, as well as monk soldiers. During the 4th year of King Hyojong, Anheungjinseong was moved to Hwajeongdo and its new fortress was built. This construction work was launched during the 6th year of King Hyojong and completed during the 7th year of King Hyojong. Historical documents say that the construction project caused a commotion throughout the province at that time. This implies that the project would have mobilized workers from all the villages in Chungcheong Province. During the 8th year of King Hyojong, the very existence of Anheungjinseong Fortress was jeopardized due to the water shortage at the new fortress. However, subjects at the Border Defense Council of Joseon and government officials persuaded the country to keep running the fortress in its new location. On February 4 of the 10th year of King Hyeonjong, Kim Jwa-myeong, then minister of culture and education, said, “The topography of the old fortress of Anheungjinseong was very good but ever since it was moved to its new location, we have had so many problems. Local soldiers have also complained about it while having a hard time.” At this, Heo Jeok, then first vice-premier. suggested moving the fortress to its old location and withdrawing local officials and naval forces from the new fortress. King Hyeonjong approved the suggestion. As a result, Anheungjinseong Fortress, which had been moved to Hwajeongdo in 1653 (4th year of King Hyojong), came back to its old location in 1669 (10th year of King Hyeonjong). The fortress is still found there today.
  • 5.

    A Study on White Porcelain Brush Cases in the Latter Part of Joseon

    Ryu, Ju-Hyeong | 2020, 38(38) | pp.135~156 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    A brush case is to hold brushes used to write or paint and is one of the stationery objects. A brush case was one of the stationery objects that were made in the largest amount along with Yeonjeok during Joseon. Porcelain-type brush cases were all white porcelain, and their production began in the latter part of Joseon, when white porcelain brush cases were not only made to serve practical purposes, but also cherished by classical scholars as a piece of living art to appreciate. There were three shapes of white porcelain brush cases: circle homotype, and square. The former was made more than the latter because it was easier to make and the most convenient to hold brushes. White porcelain brush cases were also divided into the ones with no patterns and the ones with patterns. They can further be classified into Somun, Cheolhwa, Cheonghwa, Yangak, Eumgak, and Tugak according to decoration techniques. Various patterns were used including plants, animals, flowers, and geometric ones, of which plant patterns recorded the highest percentage. The production of white porcelain brush cases became active in the latter part of Joseon, when the production of the entire white porcelain stationery objects including brush cases was more active than the previous period. The emergence of white porcelain brush cases in the latter part of Joseon holds significance in two ways: first, the introduction of the appreciation culture became visible. At the end of Ming, there was a huge trend among literary figures to make the old tradition of literary figures' culture a part of their life, appreciate it, and enjoy is as part of their daily convention. The trend was still in vogue during the latter part of Joseon and resulted in the collection and appreciation of stationery antiques enjoyed by the noblemen. White porcelain brush cases emerged in the latter part of Joseon and made the introduction of this appreciation culture visible. Secondly, it represented the popularization of white porcelain. In the latter part of Joseon, white porcelain was characterized by the Sabeon and privatization of branches, which created an opportunity for porcelain, which used to be restricted only to the ruling class, to spread to various social classes. White porcelain brush cases emerged and mass produced for these reasons.
  • 6.

    Japanese colonial era A Study on the Chongcheonsa of Gokjeong in Busan

    Eunryung Choi | 2020, 38(38) | pp.157~183 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Chongcheonsa Temple in Busan was the first temple to be opened in Korea by the Japanese Jogye Order. The location of the Chongcheonsa Temple is Gokjeong in the Japanese colonial era administrative district, where the Japanese cemetery and crematorium were located. After the opening of the port, the Japanese built a cemetery in Bokbyeongsan Mountain, which was close to the city's capital, and relocated the Japanese military's Busan Guard and the cemetery in 1907 to maintain the city's area. The Japanese cemetery on Bokbyeongsan Mountain was relocated to Gokjeong, and a crematorium for the latest facilities was built. Currently, Biseok Culture Village in Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Busan, is located in the Gokjeong Cemetery, where the ARMY Elementary School was located. Ami-dong Biseok Culture Village was transformed into a residential area after the Korean War, where refugees gathered to live. It is now known as Busan's representative mountain corridor village, and the spatiality of the site, which has been formed since Japanese colonial era, has attracted many researchers in various fields, including history, architecture, and folklore. The Gokjeong area, where the Chongcheons were located, is a place of death consisting of Japanese cemeteries and cremation facilities, and the fact that the Chongcheons were the only religious facilities makes us wonder about their existence and role. At that time, it was common for religious facilities in Japan to be located adjacent to the Japanese residence, and the same was true of other Buddhist sects. The Gokjeong Chongcheonsa Temple in Busan was the first temple to be opened in Joseon by the Japanese Jogye Order. It was located in Gokjeong, where the Japanese cemetery and crematorium were located, and mainly dedicated to funeral services for the Japanese people and cooperated with the Japanese community. In particular, the general angel took the lead in rationalizing the war in Japan and actively cooperated in the construction of a court and the Chungryeong Tower for Japanese war veterans. The Gokjeong Chongcheonsa Temple in Busan established many mission centers in the Busan area, solidifying the role of the Jogye Order of Japanese Buddhism only for the sake of the Japanese people and for the sake of the Japanese government until the liberation of Joseon. Japanese colonial era Education facilities were built with liberation on the site of the general angel of Gokjeong in Busan, and Ami Elementary School has remained there until now. A stone statue, a stone base called the Suho Tower, and other stone sculptures remain on the invisible ridge behind the school, and the surrounding information boards indicate that the statue and stone base were in a completely different form from those of Korea, suggesting that it was a Buddha statue of Japanese colonial era's general angel. In this paper, we could not discuss in detail the events and figures that appeared in the newspaper articles of the general angel of Busan, but we would like to leave them as assignments.