The researcher has reported that spoons and scissors found from Goryeo tombs were influenced by Liao Dynasty, China. In order to prove the influence, this work shed light on other research journals such as [Kaogu/Archaeology/考古] and [Wenwu/Cultural Relics/文物] published from China which contain all reported artefacts found from tombs of Song, Liao, Jin and Yuan Period. Firstly the spoons and scissors from the tombs were analysed and then coins and mirrors were studies together to understand the burial tendency. Therefore this research targets to comprehend the background of the spoon and scissor burial of Goryeo Period.
Those tombs from Song to Yuan Period are all 195 in its numbers and total 21 tombs (which is 11% overall) contain Bronze Spoons and they are all found from Liao Period tombs. It is not too much to say that the number 11% reached actually over 20% given natural extinction, illegal trading, and damages. Nineteen spoons from Song (including North and South) Period were found and it only reached 3% overall, in the mean time same amount of 3% were reported from Yuan tombs. So it seemed that Song and Yuan tombs share similar culture of burying rather small amounts of spoons and this is clearly different from Liao Tombs.
In case of iron scissors, eleven from Song tombs, nine from Liao, one from Jin Tombs and no scissor has been reported from Yuan tombs. So this is also showing that Liao contain rather high numbers of iron scissors. It is also interesting to point out that scissor-shape baked clay has been buried in Liao tombs and this is well proving that how Liao people treat scissor in their everyday life. To a certain extent, therefore, burial of scissors in Goryeo tombs could be influenced by Liao tombs.
Coins, found more than 30% from Song tombs were only reported 18% from Liao tombs. In the mean time, Jin coins were around 15.8% but gold and silver coins were also buried together which is similar culture with South Song Dynasty. In case of Yuan tombs, more than 23.5% coins were identified and so it is highly likely that Song culture had influenced Yuan Dynasty strongly.
Burial coins were definitely a tradition of Song tombs, and this is in line with Goryeo tombs' burial of coins. So this can be noted that coin burial in Goryeo period had a concrete influence from Song Dynasty, China.
Mirrors, found from 18% of Song tombs, 14.3% of Liao tombs, 6.7% of Jin tombs, and 15.5% of Yuan tombs. Apart from Jin tombs, they are all similar in numbers. Therefore, the way of Song to bury mirror together inside the tomb had been inherited by Liao and until Yuan Dynasty.
Given the fact that burial tendency of Song tombs has been similar to Liao tombs, Song's burial culture had influenced other Dynasties such as Jin and Yuan. In this sense, we could understand how Goryeo tombs ended up burying mirrors and Chinese coins. Using other words, Goryeo tombs highly influenced by Song and its culture.
However, bronze spoons were most likely found from Liao tombs and the amounts are also high compared to other periods. So in case of the spoons, the culture of Liao seemed to have strong impact onto Goryeo tomb burials. Liao's hunting culture is main way of life and also it is generally believed that people of Liao always carried spoons everywhere with themselves. In this sense, Liao's burying culture of spoons with the deceased is quite normal customs.
To conclude this work, it is reasonable to believe that Goryeo had close relationship with Liao, sharing and influencing food and funeral culture. This naturally led to Goryeo burying spoons to the tombs. In terms of the time scale, 11th century is the most reasonable time to accpet this culture. Presumably, early Goryeo had a tradition of regarding bronze spoon as a priceless object in relation with Unified Silla Period. This importance of bronze spoon perhaps was enhanced when Goryeo started to have a international connection with Song and Liao. Burying spoons in tombs were also settled since then.
Regarding the result of the journal research, tradition of Goryeo burial culture has been influence by Song, given Chinese coins and mirrors. However, the spoons burial culture of Goryeo tombs are definitely impacted by Liao, given Liao tombs burial culture and dietary culture. Therefore, Goryeo tombs and its burial tendency well highlight Goryeo's international relationship with Liao and North/South Song Dynasties.