A Study on Ceramic Ware of the Area Sangjang, Jangri, Gijang
A research of earth surface was conducted by me from February to July 2007 on the subject of ancient formation of ceramic art villages at Gijang county, Busan. The research, though it was just a survey of earth surface, is a significant work since no research has been conducted till now concerning pottery at Gijang area and reported officially to the learned circles.
From the pottery located at Janganri village was discovered ‘Buncheong ware’ that retains inscriptions such as ‘Ulsan Jangheung Go(warehouse)’ and ‘Gyeongbu Je (festival).’ In addition, utensils used in religious services such as ‘Jajeop,’ ‘Hijun,’ ‘Bo’ and ‘Gojokbae’ were confirmed through the Janganri pottery. The place seems identical to ‘Janganri-hyeon’ of Ulsan recorded in 『Gyeongsang-doSokchanJiriji』(geographical book published in Gyeongsang province) where low grade chinaware were produced.
The mentioned pottery was marred by posterity, so observation of its remained structure has become difficult. However, I decided that with the recovered slices, chronological research of the three remains is worth trying, so I brought it up as the object of my study.
To determine the production period of the potteries, I first reviewed the kinds and techniques of production, together with patterns and abnormalities of the slices. Bowls and dishes were focal points of my survey as they are kinds that have been recovered most so far. Other items such as ceramic slices and kiln tools were also investigated. However, I have encountered limitation in studying the whole composition of pattern since most of the excavated slices were small sized. Nonetheless, I have classified them into main pattern and subordinate pattern based on general composition of patterns and their locations as well as their appearing ratio. As for production skill, I observed cutting shape of ‘Yutae’ (special oil painting) and bottom of the slices, their firing technique, whether they are ‘Gapbeon’ (high-grade product) or ‘Pogae Gui’ fired one, and what material was used as prop. As a result of my observing the ceramic slices from Gijang area, I came to know that the most prominent features of the three potteries lie in ‘Yeondang Chomun’ celadon porcelains from Sinri and Daeryong potteries, the ‘Buncheong’ chinaware (with inscription of authorities) from Janganri pottery, and the utensil production for religious service.
Through the above analysis, along with study of documentary records and comparison with other remains that were recovered from stable stratum or bearing dates, I could surmise the specific production period of each pottery. As for the pottery at Janganri, I have surmised its production period through shapes of the remains recovered from 6 stable strata of pottery at Chunghyo-dong, Gwangju city, together with changed forms of religious utensils. I was also given important hint from the records on chinaware potteries at Ulsan county described in 『Gyeongsang- doSokchanJiriji』.
As the result of my research I conclude that the pottery at Janganri started ceramic production somewhere between 1450〜1470.