The Feature of the Gwaebul(掛佛) Representing the Crowned Bodhisattva Style(戴冠菩薩形) in Chungcheong Province in the 17th Century of Joseon Dynasty
Among the ninety paintings of the Gwaebull(掛佛) of Joseon Dynasty existing, there are around twenty paintings of the Gwaebu representing the crowned bodhisattva style(戴冠菩薩形), putting a splendid crown on the head and decorating a body uniquely. The Gwaebul representing the crowned bodhisattva style appeared in the 17th century, the advent period of the Gwaebul. Moreover, the Gwaebul are distributed in Chungcheong province with Magok-temple and its sub-temple. At that time, the main Buddha of the Gwaebul were the crowned bodhisattva with The Dharma talk of Mudra(說法印) which is an upturned palm or grasping a stem of lotus flower.
This icon of the crowned bodhisattva style as the Nirmanakaya(化身)-Shakyamuni Buddha(釋迦牟尼佛) or Sambhogakaya(報身)-Locana Buddha(盧舍那佛) is a typical example of a unified Avatamsaka(華嚴) and Saddharmapundarika(法花) idea. In addition, the icon of grasping a stem of a lotus flower blended Dhyana idea symbolizing the Holding a flower with a smile(拈花微笑 or 拈華示衆) appears with them. The icon of the crowned bodhisattva style means that Trikaya who are Dharmakaya(法身)-Vairochana Buddha(毘盧舍那佛), Sambhogakaya(報身)-Locana Buddha(盧舍那佛), and Nirmanakaya(化身)-Shakyamuni Buddha(釋迦牟尼佛) are one body or two buddha who are Dharmakaya and Nirmanakaya are one body. It is a multiple icon that the perspective of the Buddha body in Avatamsaka and Dhyana idea of the Holding a flower with a smile were combined in the world of space and time of The Vulture Peak assembly of addharmapundarika. This multiple icon was produced at the temple related to Avatamsaka of Chungcheong Province as a lead , and it did a role of a guide. After that, it is supposed that the icon proliferated to Gyeongbuk and Gyeongbuk province in the 18th century.
Furthermore, there are some interesting points for the form of the crown, pattern of golden color in the Gwaebu representing the crowned bodhisattva style in the 17th century. The First, a splendid crown put on the head of main Buddha is very characteristic which metallic witdth-bands stretch on the crown symmetricall such as the Gwaebu of Muryang-temple(1627) and Sinwon-temple(1664). This kind of form had been developed from traditional crown form of bodhisattva in the late of Goryeo dynasty and the early of Joseon Daynasty. The other is rarely that the crown is consist of 1~2 stage up and down such as the Gwaebul of Magok-temple(1687) and Janggok-temple(1673). It is supposed that the point of this crown is from Yüan and Ming.
The second, some posh gold leaves were partially utilized on a halo and patterns of clothes, also, instead of gold or gold leaf, the yellow pigment conjectured a gamboge and similar gold color was used in there actively. especially, the chrysanthemum-group-pattern of the gold leaf was a trend of design technique in the 17th century. After that, it proliferated to the 18th century.
The Third, there is a dark navy blue pigment of cobalt blue line which the glint is strong on painting clothes and all sorts of accessories. To use the dark navy blue is verified in the Gwaebul of Muryang-temple(1627), the Gwaebul of Gap-temple(1650), the Gwaebul of Sinwon-temple(1664), the Gwaebul of Magok-temple(1687), and so forth. Moreover, this pigment was used in common and intensively in the Gwaebul of Chungcheong province in the 17th century. There is a good chance that the pigment is the dark blue pigment checked by Jungcheong(重靑) including silver. At any rate, it is related to the regional characteristics of the Gyeonggi and Chungcheong province in the 17th century.