A Study on Panchuk Mud Wall of Coastal Regions in Gyeongsang Province in the late Silla and early Koryo
As the recent excavation cases of the panchuk mud wall distributed in the coastal regions in Gyeongsang Province are increasing, it is considered that understanding of its general character is important. This study has the purpose to understand and generalize the functions and characteristics of the panchuk mud walls of the coastal regions in Gyeongsang Province based on locations, scales and construction methods for the analysis of 8 medieval panchuk mud walls distributed in the coastal regions in Gyeongsang Province in which academic investigation has been made so far and examine one side of the castle's character during the late Silla and early Goryeo Dynasty.
As a result of analysis of the panchuk mud walls' characteristics in the coastal regions in Gyeongsang Province in the late Silla and early Koryo, they are located in strategic points of the coast and in addition, most of them were confirmed to have the plane type of a square. The composition of the base has high frequency to utilize quadrangle stones and the tendency to have a high frequency to add reinforcing walls to the mud walls appears. In addition, the panchuk mud walls of the coastal regions in Gyeongsang Province are possible to be regularly classified through the wood frame space and castle wall width and this is confirmed to have close relationship with the functions of each castle.
The panchuk mud walls of the coastal regions in Gyeongsang Province in the functional aspect can be largely divided into fort and castle. Based on the plane circumference, they can be divided into A type with over 2,000m (Kimhae Goeupseong), B type with 1,000～2,000m (Masan Hoewon Hyunseongzi, Sacheon Seonjinriseong, Dongrae Goeupseong, Danggam Dongseongzi) and C type with less than 1,000m (Ulju Hwansan-ri Seongji, Ulsan Bangu-dong Mud Wall, Busan Gurang Dongseongji) and furthermore, it was confirmed that they have differences by characteristics in wood frame space or castle wall besides plane circumference. It is considered that by location, the castles located in inland regions had the administrative central function in the regions and the forts located near to the coastal regions focused the military function for coastal precaution, guard and check.
Moreover, according to the judgment from the differences shown in the plane circumference, altitude and wood frame space, it is thought that periodic changing aspects appear. Furthermore, characteristics aspects such as high frequency to add a reinforcing wall to a mud wall and appearance of the stair type inside wall are shown.
The construction purposes of these castles are considered to internally complete a ruling system and externally keep up with forces invading from the coast such as Japanese pirates and Eastern Jurchen.