Exchanges between Korea and Northeast China in Terms of Harness
The starting point of harness culture in the southern region of Korea is the northeastern region of China. Nevertheless, however, there's too lack of information about harness discovered in the Chinese region despite the relics of horse equipment found in northeast China explain culturally and considerable the harness culture of this country.
To overcome these limitations, this study also discussed some pieces of harness that were left over by the Huns who went beyond the northeastern region of China and advanced further to the Mongolian region around before and after Christ. The study found that the shape of the bit string, the shape of the connection ring to which that string is connected and the way of fixing the bridle were closely linked between the two regions.
First of all, bridles discovered in the northern region of Asia, which was dominated by the Huns in the ancient times, usually had 2 holes, each 0.5～1.0㎝ in diameter, but were diverse in dimension. While, bridles found in Korea were made in the Proto-Three Kingdoms Period and in most cases had holes each 0.4～0.8㎝ in diameter. Bridles of the northern Asia and this country are very similar to each other in that they were used as the bit string itself or passed through the 2 holes of the bit string in which the width and thickness of the bridle was regulated depending on the size of the hole.
Next, the shape of the bit string, the shape of the connection ring to which that string is connected and the way of fixing the bridle became various as the Three Kingdoms Period began. The bit strip of that period largely two main shapes, that is, rod shape(metal, organic bridle bit) and flat shape. Similarly, the connection ring also had two main shapes, rod and flat. Like the bit string, the connection ring first had the rod shape and then the flat one. While, bit strings of rod shape found in Korea were in most cases about 3㎝, below 4㎝ in miximum bridle width when the bridle sticked to the bit string, the connection ring metal of leather-tied rod style which was compatible with the organic bridle bit, the flat connection ring of double-hole style and the connection ring metal of iron-nailed flat style were examined and compared in terms of shape and dimension. The connection ring of flat shape allowed a space for the bridle narrower than the connection ring of rod shape, making presumable that the former ring was less in size tolerance.
Meanwhile, bit strings of flat shape were discovered from Ancient Tomb No. 154 at the Anyang Hoymindun remains and the Crown Prince Win's Tomb in the Joyang remains, both of which were formed in the northeastern region of China in the 4th century. Those strings were 1.6～1.8㎝ in connection ring size. Bit strings of flat shape found in Korea were all below 2㎝ in connection ring size, except those from Ancient Tomb No. G-6 at the Imdang remains in Gyeongsan. Other bit strings of oval and round shapes that were discovered in the country were also below 2㎝ in connection ring size. This indicates that in the country, the shape and dimension of the bridle was standardized or generalized. This change presumedly began since Wolseongro Ancient Tomb No. 6 was formed in Gyeongju in the Shilla Period and Daeseongdong Ancient Tomb No. 41 in Kimhae as the herb of Geumgwan Gaya.