A Consideration on the Ansang pattern of Stone Pagoda in Unified Silla Period
This thesis grasped the aspect of development and classification of type of Ansang pattern that appeared in stone pagoda at Unified Silla Period, and comprehensively examined causes, introduction and changes that Ansang pattern in stone pagoda appeared later than other works, and relationship between stone pagodas that carved Ansang pattern based on this. The stone pagoda in the early Unified Silla Period when Ansang was carved was the Mujangsaji stone pagoda created at late 8th century, and about 19 units of stone pagoda carved with Ansang pattern were identified. I could solve several questions regarding Ansang pattern stone pagoda through aspect of development and classification of type of Ansang pattern carved on these stones.
First of all, the late 8th century, the time of appearance that Ansang pattern appeared at stone pagoda might be regarded to be later than Ansang pattern that appeared in various kinds of artworks since the period of the Three States. Such late appearance is closely related to development of typical stone pagoda of Unified Silla Period. That is, stone pagoda of the typical form that newly appeared at Unified Silla Period was created at the time when the form was established following the stone pagoda of the early times. It is connected to stabilization of joint structure of traditional form of stone pagoda. After the 8th century when the foundation of traditional form of stone pagoda was stabilized and joint structure was established, appearance of reliefs on stone pagoda is outstanding. In addition, at the late or end of 8th century, change of lower foundation was explored out of stabilized foundation, soldier pile at the upper foundation decreased from 2 weeks → 1 week. Such decrease brought in appearance of new icons called Palbujungsang at the upper foundation. Ansang pattern appeared over the change of omitting 1 unit of soldier pile as well as 2 units of corner pillar. In addition, the reason why Ansang pattern appeared later than other patterns carved on stone pagoda was estimated to be, in part, soldier pile and corner pillar which were fixated in the form of stone while no actual functions.
Second, there is one remarkable part in terms of the aspect of development and classification of Ansang pattern carved on the stone pagoda. While early Ansang pattern appeared at the upper foundation of stone pagoda, this form is not normal type but Ansang form carved on the lower foundation was very popular in the stone pagoda of the 9th century. And the Ansang pattern that appeared at the upper foundation of Mujangsaji is the form of the Ansang pattern that could not be found in existing works. Form of Ansang pattern that appeared first at stone pagoda showed only similar aspect as the table legs(床脚) of King Seongdeok tomb so that Ansang pattern of stone pagoda at the initial phase was borrowed from the stone table of royal tomb. In addition, it can be inferred that the Ansang imitated the table legs(床脚). It is directly related to symbolism of Ansang pattern that appeared first at stone pagoda. It could be confirmed that Ansang pattern of all stone pagodas did not necessarily express the shape of the table legs(床脚) through Ansang at stone pagoda that implemented wood pagoda of the Joseon Dynasty and relief statue of Ansang.
At last, form of Ansang pattern that appeared at upper foundation, different from Ansang pattern at the lower foundation, showed aspects of change based on form of Ansang pattern of stone pagoda of Mujangsaji at the early phase, but intention not to lose initial form was clearly reflected in the form of peak and arc of Ansang. Through this, 7 units of stone pagoda carved with Ansang pattern at the upper foundation were found to have affected each other directly and indirectly when 7 units of stone pagodas were created. It can be also checked at the connection structure of the foundation. In particular, west stone pagoda of Suljeongri was found to have been created under direct and close relations and effects of stone pagoda of Mujangsaji, Gyeongju. Further Ansang pattern of stone pagoda's lower foundation in Unified Silla unlike them of stone pagoda's upper foundation borrowed from the Aansan pattern which were carved at the pedestal of statue of the Buddha and had a great vogue