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2007, Vol., No.32

  • 1.

    ‘A sound mind in a sound body’: A historical study of educational thoughts

    Suk-Wan Kim | 2007, (32) | pp.5~38 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The motto ‘A sound mind in a sound body’exercises its authority and influence in the history of Western education for more than two thousand years. This maxim is a sentence in which the essence of life is contained and expresses the educational ideal of human beings in a compact form. Also, its worth has not faded and is still on everybody’s lips even today. But the meaning of this motto has implicated various contents according to historical situations and social conditions. In the result of that it has had diverse education meanings. This expression has formally twice appeared on the documents in the Western history. The poet of the Roman empire, Juvenalis mentions in his Satire 10 what mankind should pray for is“ a sound mind in a sound body”as he examines the ambitions of mankind and shows that they all lead to disappointment or danger. John Locke begins his Some Thoughts Concerning Education with this sentence. Locke says, it is“ a short, but full description of a happy state in this world.” But if we go back to the origin of the thinking in this motto, we meet the ideal of life for which the ancient Greek searched. The perfect development and the harmonious combination of body and mind(kalokagathia) is none other than the core of the Greek culture and the educational ideal at the same time. They imposed the task of developing the body on gymnastike and of developing the mind on the mousike. That means gymnastike and mousik are a epitome of the Greek education. This study aims to show that this motto implicates various educational meanings in each period. More particularly, the main purposes of this study are to explain the meaning of‘ sound body’and‘ sound mind’, the desirable relationship between both.
  • 2.

    The Study for Leadership of Caring in Oriental Classics - centering on Lao-Tzu’s Taoteching

    Kim Soo-Dong | 2007, (32) | pp.39~68 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The primary aim of this study is to promote the maintenance and enhancement of caring in terms of the theory and practice of leadership to some degree. Caring is the practice of loving’activities founded on human relations of depth. To develope the ability of caring, practice of caring has to be accompanied. Caring as leadership is the calm, gentle power to change the world. The essence of caring as nature that is the state of the perfect beauty is the attitude and the activity to produce the happiness. Caring requires the responsibility on protection, happiness, and support about the cared-for. I researched Caring as paradigm, character, empowerment and inaction. Caring as leadership contains the principle of interdependence and intimate relations in the societies. That of love, gentleness, respect comes from valuing what is small and negative, and mild or gentle at least in Taoteching. Caring as paradigm mean the flexible, constructive, optimistic, positive point of views to understand the world. It is not connected with the classification of goodness and badness or the tests that is predictable winners and losers. Namely it is the mature viewpoint to understand the things and situations. Caring as paradigm is not to interpret things in black and white, not to see actions and events only as part of a larger context. It is to seize all aspects of structure totally in conformity with the principle of Tao. Caring as character contains factors of emptiness, tranquility, affection or benevolence, frugality, humility, forgiveness, deliberation, inspiration, emotion, passion, collaboration, reflection overall. Practical methods of caring as character are engrossment, inclusion, conformation, receptivity, devotion etc.. Modes of caring as empowerment are production without possession, action without self-assertion, growth without domination. Caring as quite and moderate empowerment is the capacity to help and support people with the intellectual and emotional abilities based on the sincerity. Prohibitions, stress, compulsion, and restriction is not instruments or methods to empower the audiences. Inaction that emerges from tranquility is more important than action with perfection. Caring as inaction is to instruct without words, and to work silently. Also it indicates the practice of gentleness, frugality, humility based on inspiration and passion. To develop leadership requires silence with action, dedication, prudence, and patience. In the short run, leadership of caring is to cure and to heal oneself. Primary methods to cultivate caring as leadership are to increase careful considerations, tranquility, meditation, contemplation, practices. I believe that caring as leadership is the very bedrock of all successful lives. Also I maintain that the practice of it can transform attitude and thought of people more or less.
  • 3.

    Chu-Sha's On Silsagusiseol[How to seek truth from facts] and its Educational Praxis

    Taeoh Kim | 2007, (32) | pp.69~98 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Chu-Sha’ s On Silsagusiseol[How to seek truthfrom facts] and its Educational Praxis Kim, Tae-OThe purpose of this study is to investigate the practical educa tionalprinciples of Chusa Kim Jeong-hui(1786~1856). Chusa was a schol ar of thepractical learning(Sirhak) school that flourished in the Late J oseon period.Early in his career he wrote the treatise Silsagusi seol [How t o seek truthfrom facts], which sets forth his educational philosophy.This article starts by investigating the unparallelled position of scholarshipChusa occupied within the Sirhak school, and the unique synthes is of art andscholarship that characterized his career. Next, it reveals how the Silsagusiseol is composed of four parts, viz. introduction, development, turn andconclusion. Also, it is shown in the author’ s research that the motto “Seek추사의「실사구시설」과 교육실천03 2007.10.26 6:22 PM ˘ ` 97 ˙ HP LaserJet 5100 Seriestruth from facts,”advocated by Chusa as the most importan metho d inlearning, can be said to embrace both the method and goal of hi s learning.
  • 4.

    An Integrative Approach to Resolve the Controversy Between ‘Content’ and ‘Form’ in Moral Education

    Dalwha Namkung | 박윤명 | 2007, (32) | pp.99~138 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    There is a controversy between‘ content approach should be centered in moral education’and‘ form approach should be centered in moral education’. This article analyzed‘ content’vs‘. form approach’to moral education: those theories analyzed as‘ content’are S. Freud’s, R. Coles’s, and social learning theory; and as‘ form’are R. M. Hare’s, L. Kohlberg’s, and J. Wilson’s. After the analysis, this article tried to explore how to integrate the two kinds of approaches on the base of R. S. Peters’theory. Peters sees the relation between‘ content’and‘ form’as the paradox of moral education: that is, the relation of the two can be appeared to be contradicted, but it implies a truth in it. The controversy will be continued, as far as we see only the contradiction between the two. However, if we see the truth in it, there will be no more controversy. Then, what is the truth between the two? It is the complementary nature between the two. We see the paradox of the moral education in Peters’saying that‘ We can and must enter the palace of Reason through the courtyard of Habit and Tradition.’The former works as form and the latter as content. We can also see it in the characteristics of the cognitive stages of moral development presented by Piaget and Kohlberg: that is, in the characteristics that stages form an invariant sequence. The conventional stage that habit(content) works overridingly is presupposed for the postconventional stage that reason(form) works overridingly. There are few people who think that the moral life in the levels of conventions is desirable and enough. The ultimate goal of moral education should be in the levels principles. However, there is no one who can develop the stage of postconventions without developing the levels of conventions; no one who can enter the Palace of Reason without through the courtyard of Habit and Tradition. This tells that the relation between habit(content) and reason(form) is complementary rather than contradictory. When we think the relation of the two like this, it will be meaningless that one claims moral education should be ‘content’approach, the other, no, moral education should be ‘form’ approach’. It is because the nature of morality is in itself consisted of the two. This means that moral education should be approached to be integrated of the two, in order to achieve the nature of morality and, at the same time, the ultimate goal of moral education. When we see the relation between ‘content’and ‘form’in moral education as complementary rather than contradictory, the controversy between the two will be resolved, which also means the two kinds of approaches will be integrated as a whole one.
  • 5.

    Interrelation between Philosophy of Teaching and Teacher’s Existence

    서명석 | 2007, (32) | pp.139~168 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    The philosophic attitudes is a resolute attempt to enlarge the understanding of the scope of application of every notion which enters into our current thought. ─ Alfred N. Whitehead Teacher makes important decisions about the content to teach their students. These decisions need to be made before deciding how to teach. It is also import to carefully think about philosophical context so that you teach content, content that is complete and inclusive, and content that is connected to fundamental rationale of subject-matters. Teachers are skilled at teaching subject-matters effectively. They know that the content itself directly influences how they should teach certain types of content lend themselves to particular models of instruction. But they are not concerned about these questions: why do you teach your contents? This question is philosophy of teaching that focuses on questioning, thinking and rethinking authentic meaning of teaching. Teacher takes crucial roles in educating via curriculum implementation. To speak of curriculum being “implemented”implies that is something a program to be carried out by teacher. Being the deliverer of the curriculum to students, the role of teacher is recognized as being critical to the success of curriculum. But whether imposing curriculum, teacher create the curriculum that is worthy of study. It is teacher’s interpretation of what is thinking and questioning that is the focus of meaningful teaching through curriculum study rather than curriculum implementation. We envision interpretational situations in which multiple means of criticising curriculum goals are acknowledged by curriculum agent who design a curriculum with the assumption that teacher should reshape in the light of his philosophical mind. In curriculum enactment, curriculum developers are not only curriculum experts who design a curriculum but also teachers by whom curriculum restructured in the classroom. In professionalizing teaching, the authentic questions depend upon whether teacher approaches ontological context of teaching beyond delivering contents by objectives. This question is important theme those who teach in the classroom. It is obvious that philosophical mind of teaching by teacher is to maintain an active novelty of fundamental ideas illuminating the teaching system.
  • 6.

    Public Education and The Life of Living "Public"

    이갑숙 | 2007, (32) | pp.169~192 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Usually we think public education is national education. Obviously public education has relation of national education. But, today we have to rethink what is “public”, because today crisis in public education has not been limited to the collapse of schooling, but extended to problems rooted in the public life. In help of Mathews, I can understand the relation of“ the public”and public education in history of America. And Dewey tell us the subject of education is not the nation but the society. The subject of public education is not an individual and the nation, but “we”. We are not an individual but the member of the community. The living of“ Public”is living in community. Citizens are people who act like citizens, that is, without asking permission. The life is priority over laws. So, we must seek to live“ public”, first of all. At this time, we ask us what is“ public”? The reviving of public education, I think, must be started by renewing of our life. To be community gives vividness to public education and our life.
  • 7.

    A Search on Educational Interpretation of the Theology of M. Luther

    이상현 | 2007, (32) | pp.193~216 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    A Search on Educational Interpretation of the Theology of M. Luther Lee, Sang-HyunMost of the schools in Germany when the Reformation began werecathedral and monastic schools. As the monasteries emptied and ties withthe Roman hierarchy were severed, primary and secondary educati onneeded new sponsorship, a broader clientele, and a new curricul um. The neweconomic activity spurred by entrepreneurship, the idea promote d by someradical reformers that the Holy Spirit was sufficient without i nstruction, andthe general disruption caused by the break with Rome led to sha rp declinesin the number of schools and in school attendance. Martin Luthe r and theReformers at Wittenburg were deeply disturbed by this developme nt andresolved to take the lead in reforming education in Germany. Others had advocated school reform earlier and had written much moreextensively about it, but it was Luther, the dynamic center of the sixteenthcentury shift in religious, ecclesiastical, and societal orient ation, who was theeffective catalyst for educational change. He put the taxing po wer of thestate behind the sponsorship of education. Pushing for universa l education,Luther urged parents to send their children to school and advoc atedcompulsory attendance. He liberalized the curriculum and kept h umanisticstudies in a dialectical relationship with the study of Scriptu re and doctrine.For these radical changes, Luther is properly called the founde r of universalpublic education.『교육철학』제32집07 ˙ 2007.10.26 6:21 PM ˘ ` 214 ˙ HP LaserJet 5100 SeriesThe recovery of the Gospel message that we are saved by grace r eceivedthrough faith was the basis of the break with the Church of Rom e. It alsobecame the primary source for the creative reordering of theolo gical doctrineand the subsequent reorganization in the societies that adopted Lutheranismas the state religion or that were significantly influenced by Reformation
  • 8.

    Educational Application of the Dongguiillche Unity Thought in Donghak

    장열이 | 2007, (32) | pp.217~244 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Educational Application of the Dongguiillche UnityThought in DonghakJang, yoel-LeeThe purpose of this article is to study the unity thought of동학‘동귀일체’통합사상의 교육적 함의08 2007.10.26 6:20 PM ˘ ` 241 ˙ HP LaserJet 5100 SeriesDongguiillche and inquire into its educational implications in the aspectof human education. The Dongguiillche unity thought containseducational implications such as awakening of self, formation o fpersonality, and practice of austerities in the aspect of humaneducation.The unity thought Dongguiillche emphasizes existing together, t heharmony and balance of materiality. The thought of human respec t is formedof the ideal of high education, a cooperative viability of natu re that shows theone life of nature and human. Education does not stay in the ma king level ofinstrumental knowledge for welfare of human life in nature. It isunderstanding a existence that get respect. Therefore, educatio n is thoughtrole of train cooperative viability with human. This educationa l thought iscomprehension of the attitude respecting for one life value wit h the heaven,the earth and a human as well as making the educational human i magecoexist with human. Accordingly, educational meaning included in the unity thought ofDongguiillche that includes world historical universality is co nvinced that thewhole world can united into one when God, nature and human beco meperfectly one as the human common called culture.This paper describes to apply the unity thought of Dongguiillch e toeducation. It discusses the ethical education of Three respects , life-esteem,existing together as well.In addition, the education based on the Dongguiillche thought i s verysuggestive in that human would be devoted to others, be respect ful to hiselders, and recognize respect for himself.
  • 9.

    Who am I? -in the case of the ‘30 Verses on the Manifestation of Consciousness’

    Jung JaeGeol | 2007, (32) | pp.245~274 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    In these days I concentrate my energy on two topics. One is how to teach death to the pupils. The other is how to find out who I am. The purpose of this paper is to get an answer of the latter topic from the‘ 30 Verses on the Manifestation of Consciousness’. The ‘30 Verses on the Manifestation of Consciousness’can make us to find a true I instead of phenomenological I. We regards ourselves as a body and mind. But the body changes at every moment. The mind is as well. But the unchanging things exist in my mind. That is the awakening mind. We can find out the composition of our mind by using the awakening mind. As we can find out the real characteristics of our mind we can arrive at the calm and peaceful true I.