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2008, Vol., No.34

  • 1.

    Reinterpretation of Rousseau's Émile

    Kang, Seonghun | 2008, (34) | pp.5~30 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    In reading Rousseau's thought, it is much influential that locates Émile between Du Contrat Social and Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes(OI). In other words, it means that regarding educational method of Émile as rearing method of citizen makes the social contract. However this interpretation of Émile and Rousseau's thought makes an error. Because Rousseau regards religion as method of the social contract. In Rousseau's thought, religion is the method for that resolves the discrepancy between the principle of "unconscious motive of human behaviour" and the principle which is "political legitimacy by collective rational behaviour (social contract)". It is differed education intending collective rational behaviour based on reason. In Rousseau's system of thought, Du Contrat Social and Émile presents separately the exclusive solution. The former constitution of a new government through the social contract, the later, when it is impossible, independent life. The educational method of Émile is capable of it. In this view, It is possible to read correctly of another Rousseau's educational works and his thought.
  • 2.

    A study on aesthetics inferred from 'liberal ironist' as an Rorty's educational ideal

    고영호 | 2008, (34) | pp.31~59 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study is intended to research aesthetics inferred from Rorty's liberal ironist as an educational ideal. The result is as follows. Rorty argued that postmodern bourgeois liberal is the best notion of society which we can actually choose. In that postmodern bourgeois liberal society, liberal ironist is a hero. Because he is free from metaphysical system, and he incessantly pursuits a new vocabulary and conversation for the better practice. And he is characterized as a man of freedom, creation and aesthetic. Therefore I concluded that liberal ironist is an artist who has an aesthetic sensitivity which means confirmation to contingency, desire for self-expression, and understanding of metaphor.
  • 3.

    Educational Implications of the Doctrine of King-Master-Father Trinity

    Kim Byung Hee | 2008, (34) | pp.61~83 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The doctrine of king-master-father trinity was accepted as a major educational norm in traditional education. It is ordinarily mentioned as an meaningful phrase also in contemporary educational context. The reason seems that its educational significance passes through both traditional and contemporary education. The aim of this study is to clarify the meaning of this doctrine and to derive its educational implications in contemporary educational context. The general meaning of this doctrine is that as a king, a master and a father's benefit are the same, they must be served equally. In this study, its meaning is attempted to be interpreted in two ways, the view of identity and of singularity, with relevance to education. The view of identity corresponds to the general meaning of the doctrine. It means that a king, a master, and a father are in the same status respectively and stresses 'the respect and gratitude for a master'. Meanwhile, the view of singularity broadens the domain of its general meaning. It means that they are in one body and emphasizes their diversity and integrity in education.
  • 4.

    Educational Principles in Hyegang’s Theory of Unhwagi

    Taeoh Kim | 2008, (34) | pp.85~114 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the educational principles expressed in the analysis of the transformative power of gi(unhwagi) by Hyegang Choe Hangi(1803-1877). As a social and political philosopher of the 19th century, Hyegang’s vast body of work contains ruminations on various fields of science. This study analyzes the characteristics of the three major works of Hyegang, namely the Gicheuk cheeui(Gihak, and Injeong). It is shown that for Hyegang the study of gi excludes the study of sagehood(Seonghak) but aims to providea foundation for the critique of a wide range of existing scholarship, and is also a form of practical learning(Sirhak) that studies the transforming power of gi in a wide variety of fields. Gi is not only the fundamental reality of all things, it is also the subject of cognition and experience. Furthermore, as the object of cognition it obeys the transforming power of gi transforming of a single body → transforming of exchange and contact → transforming of the ruling of people → transforming of the heavenly gi, and as such opens the way for self-discipline and the governing of people. Conjecture(inferring and weighing), as the cognitive function of spiritual gi, is a method of understanding the transformation of heaven, earth and the myriad things. There are five areas of inferring and weighing: inferring gi and weighing i, inferring feelings and weighing nature, inferring movement and weighing quiescence, inferring the self and weighing others, inferring things and weighing affairs. Furthermore there are three stages in the mastery of gi, which is the fruition of cognition: mastery of the boundaries, mastery of gradual progress, mastery of verification. Hyegang’s educational principles take the heavenly way as the standard to pursue the human way. His discerning approach regarding the usefulness of Eastern and Western methods ensures that openmindedness and creativity take the lead in scholarship and education. As for his five methods of observation(reverse perspective, non-self, deliberation of principle, verification, and unreavealed mind), they remain valuable for their cognitive critique in the interest of objectivity.
  • 5.

    Study as Cultivation of a Whole Knowledge: The Nature of Study in Light of Dewey's Concept of Transaction

    Park, Chul Hong | 2008, (34) | pp.115~141 | number of Cited : 22
    Abstract PDF
    This inquiry aims to bring out the nature and meaning of study by analyzing and expanding Dewey's metaphysical thought which is involved in his concept of transaction. It will propose and establish an alternative to the concept of study implied in the customary and widespread way of study. According to this way of study, study is identified with preparation for examination and even learning by rote to get a good record in examination; also, educational content is composed of separate propositions, which are taken for the ultimate and right answers to the questions in examination papers. Therefore to study is to learn and memorize the knowledge in textbook as it is. However, this misconception of study, a kind of myth of study, is intimately connected with the dualistic view of the traditional philosophy. The main task which Dewey tried to solve in his whole career is the traditional dualism by changing the focus of philosophical inquiry from reason to experience. For Dewey, experience is not the counterpart to reason, but is a primary and ultimate way of existence of human being as living creature. Experience is described as transacting human beings with their environment. According to the concept of 'transaction', above all, study is not to learn given textbooks in a certain way, but to investigate and inquire the learner's transaction itself, which means not to learn and receive the knowledge set up in textbooks and find the fact hidden in nature, but to inquire and seek the nature and meaning of transaction. Secondly, study is not to learn separate and independent items of proposition, which is another important assumption implied in the myth of study. In light of transaction, the existences exist as transacting relations. Any event which occurs in nature does not occur independently and separately, but relationally, interdependently, and intertwinedly. In the same taken, facts and propositions in mind form a holistic construct or a whole knowledge. Study is involved in this whole knowledge, and interested in constructing the whole. Thirdly, study which is concerned with inquiry and the learner's whole knowledge in mind is thought for the whole knowledge to develop and enlarge itself. It means that study is not to receive the given knowledge in a one-way manner, but to construct the whole knowledge which is more reasonable, stable, and coherent than that prior to inquiry. In conclusion, study is a form of living, a primary and fundamental phenomenon of living of human beings who live in the world which is made up of a complex of transaction. To live in a human being means to inquire the transacting world in order to understand it and obtain a whole knowledge more stable and coherent.
  • 6.

    Educational Considerations to Dewey's Conception of Experience

    서상문 | 2008, (34) | pp.143~168 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    Recently, the implications and values of the 'experience' are revaluated in the pluralism and the postmodernism. A purpose of this study is to define newly the educational implication of Dewey's 'experience' concept by analyze the relationship between the concept of experience and some important subjects in Dewey's texts. For the relationship-analysis of the concept 'experience', I gave attention to four conception-learning, thought, human being, and nature- in Dewey's texts. And this study supposes that the relationship-analysis between the concept 'experience' and the four educational subjects will expand the practical implications and the postmodern horizons of the education. First, the relationship-analysis between the learning and experience, the experience is the essential condition for the embodiment of the learning. An experience has two aspects of the active and passive. And an experience has two elements of the meaning and the change. The learning is defined as the active and passive process of human experience which grants meanings to the changes such as the growth/the development. Second, the relationship-analysis between the thought and experience, the thought is a kind of explanation for the harmony of active and passive aspects of experience, that is the activity and the result of the experience. The thought is defined as a reflective experience, or a evolutive experience. Third, the relationship-analysis between the human being and experience, the experience is a kind of mechanism for unity of the mind and body. The construction of meaning in the mind is involved in the experience of the body. Forth, the relationship-analysis between the nature and experience, the experience is the solution for the distortion of dualism. The experience is the recovery and the cure to the separation of human being and nature. In conclusion, an experience restores the natural form of life from the articulated educational subjects, and gives a clue of understanding for a unity of education.
  • 7.

    Plato's Theory of Political Education

    성기산 | 2008, (34) | pp.169~190 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    According to Plato, political education is an activity of ensuring the safety and continuity of the state, and harmony of people. His theory of political education consists of two aspects : educating citizens and education for future rulers. The ideal polis is premised on an educational system that properly trains citizen's appetites and drives for honor. In other words, the system trained the two lower parts of the soul, the spirited part and the appetitive desires. Plato's most important political innovation was his provision that philosophers must rule. Without this provision, he argues that justice in the polis can never be established. Political education for Plato was the means by which the philosophical rulers could shape human nature in order to produce the harmonious state. He held that virtue was knowledge and that knowledge could be taught. According to him only those capable of practicing justice will be able to recognize the injustices in the state, and act to eliminate them, refound the state if necessary. If a state does it neglects political education, it can never be improved. In short, Plato considers that politics as a form of aristocratic governance that is based on knowledge and seeks the welfare of the governed.
  • 8.

    Educational Interpretation of the First Chapter of Jung-yong(中庸, Doctrine of Mean) -Anthropological Aspect of Human Nature(性) and the Way(道) and Education(敎) -

    신창호 | 2008, (34) | pp.191~211 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to investigate three passages of the first chapter of Jung-yong in the educational aspect. The first chapter of Jung-yong is learning for life, which embodies core set of values of Neo-Confucianism. This classic book shows how human nature, path of life, culture, and the world are created or built up in an organic fashion. Specifically, the basis of human existence, as well as the path of life and the method of imparting culture to posterity, which will finally be led to education(敎) from the Way of human in order for creation of culture in the path of life, having passed through such developmental process as from Nature(or biddings of Heaven(天命), pronounced Cheonmyeong in Korean) to human nature(性), and from such human nature to the Way(道) of human, are essential points of Confucian education. From the perspective of the bidding of heaven, human nature itself (性) is a norm that should not go against at all, and the Way(道, pronounced Do in Korean) is a method or process to follow our nature, and the Education(敎, Gyo in Korean) is substantial activities to teach people in order to follow such an human nature. Understanding of human and educational aspect expounded in the first chapter of Jung-yong, which is based on the aforementioned significances, may provide for the following implications in the dimension of the principle of modern education.
  • 9.

    Educations of Royal Family Women in Joseon

    Yuk Su-hwa | 2008, (34) | pp.213~243 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Gantaek (designation) procedure was essential for noble women to become Royal family women. It was King Taejong period at which Gantaek system was introduced officially. From King Sejong period, seniors of Royal family, including King, had designated candidates in person regularly. Gantaek had three steps: First Gantaek, Second Gantaek and Third Gantaek. After a candidate was designated finally at Third Gantaek, she immediately had to learn and practise the courtesy of Royal family at royal villa until the day of auspicious ceremony. As the weddings of Royal family had related to political issues inevitably, Gantaek also was not free from political issues based on party opinions and party colors. Representative moral training books for Royal family women in the early Joseon are 「Yeolyeoeojeon (列女傳)」 that was imported from China and 「Neahun (內訓)」 edited by Queen Sohye (昭惠王后). 「Yeolyeoeojeon (列女傳)」 was read widely also by noble men as a educational book. 「Neahun (內訓)」 contributed greatly to the spread of Confucian ideas among women. After Japanese invasion and Chinese invasion, the late Joseon society faced new situations. It was very urgent to restore the broken social order, so government reinforced the order based on Sung Confucianism. It gave rise to the dogmatism of Sung Confucianism. In such situation, there came out many moral training books for women focused on the ideal type of women in Confucianism society. Such books were written mainly by noble families. In Royal family, also, systemic education for Royal family women had continued. In particular, King Yeongjo made various policies to reinforce Royal family education and added Royal family women education into the policies. As like noble women who had to memorize the genealogical table of husband's family, Royal family women also had to make oneself familiar with the genealogical table of Royal family as well as the achievements of family members. Royal family had inseparable relations with the shift of political power. So, the lives of Royal family women were also changed by the parties and power maps surrounding them. Viewed in terms of daily lives, Royal family women should be extremely polite to seniors while they had to be mild and dignified to juniors. In addition, Royal family women should be honest in mind and body and not negligent, and make frugality of their virtues.
  • 10.

    The dominance of objective examinations and the state intervention in Korea

    Llee kyung sook | 2008, (34) | pp.245~275 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to describe the introduction and dominance of objective tests in Korea. The course of the introduction and dominance of objective tests in Korea has something to do with the national interventions. The data of this study are newspapers, collections of last examinations, and interviews. In the American Military Administration, the ministry of education lets middle schools take the objective examinations for entrance and Dr. Kwang-Sup, Yum develop objective tests. In the period of the Korean War, the ministry of education takes the national entrance examination for middle schools which is filled with objective questions. In the period of the military coup, the military regime takes multiple-choice examinations for national examinations. In the cause of order and objectivity·fairness, the nation introduces objective tests to the educational world and gives absolute power to objective tests. So, objective tests have occupied exclusive position in the national examinations in Korea.
  • 11.

    A Study on Mao Zedong's Educational Philosophy in Contemporary China

    SANG OK LEE | 2008, (34) | pp.277~300 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The paper purposes to illuminate Mao Zedong`s educational philosophy(MZEP, henceforth) in contemporary communist China. The categories of MZEP would be defined by epistemology, ontology and axiology. The brief backgrounds of these categories added in front of the explainings the elements that would compose MZEP. The level of epistemology represents that traditional Confucian educational philosophy had influenced MZEP. Traditional elements of MZEP centered on subjectivity and objectivity. The positions and relations of the two characteristics. The efforts and the concentration on the contents would be stressed in this context of level. The level of ontology shows the Marxian educational philosophy. MZEP had been established by the Marxist Educational philosophical tradition. The Chinese style of Marxist educational philosophy had been institutionalized and structured. The education of cultured labors would be the purpose of this level. The level of axiology explains the functions of educational philosophy in the MZEP. The two concepts are presented these contexts: instrument and the harmony beween theories and practices. The every each stage of Chinese revolutions influenced the MZEP for lasting and stability of the communist regime. In conclusion, I suggest the MZEP would be the core ideas and operations of education in the contemporary China.
  • 12.

    The Educational Implications on Martin Buber’s ‘Encounter’ Philosophy

    SangHyun Lee | 2008, (34) | pp.301~324 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    Buber's focus on dialogue and community would alone mark him out as an important thinker for educators. But when this is added to his fundamental concern with encounter and how we are with each other his contribution is unique and yet often unrecognized. I and Thou, Buber's best known work, presents us with two fundamental orientations - relation and irrelation. We can either take our place, as Pamela Vermes puts it, alongside whatever confronts us and address it as ‘you’; or ‘we’ can hold ourselves apart from it and view it as an object, an ‘it’. So it is we engage in I-You and I-It relationships. This basic distinction becomes complex - as we can see from the following extract. For Buber encounter has a significance beyond co-presence and individual growth. He looked for ways in which people could engage with each other fully – to meet with themselves. The basic fact of human existence was not the individual or the collective as such, but ‘Man with Man’. As Aubrey Hodes puts it: Encounter is an event or situation in which relation occurs. We can only grow and develop, according to Buber, once we have learned to live in relation to others, to recognize the possibilities of the space between us. The fundamental means is dialogue. Encounter is what happens when two I's come into relation at the same time. This brings us back to Buber’s distinction between relation and irrelation. ‘All real living is meeting’ is sometimes translated as ‘All real life is encounter’. This, as Pamela Vermes has commented, could be taken as the perfect summary of Buber's teaching on encounter and relation. Today, when the word ‘dialogue’ is spoken in educational circles, it is often linked to Paulo Freire. The same is true of ‘subject’ and ‘object’. Yet, in the twentieth century, it is really in the work of Martin Buber that the pedagogical worth of dialogue was realized - and the significance of relation revealed. He wrote - ‘All real living is meeting’ and looked to how, in relation, we can fully open ourselves to the world, to others, and to God.
  • 13.

    The Moral Educational Analysis on Co-relation in Incorporation between Knowledge and Behavior Mediated by Li(ritual,禮) and Mind(心) in Chang Heng-Qu' Thought

    Lee Jong Heun | 2008, (34) | pp.325~350 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The thesis is to research the moral educational meaning on co-relation in incorporation between knowledge and behavior mediated by Li(ritual,禮) and mind(心) in Chang Heng-Qu' thought. The first is to investigate the remarkable characteristics which are revealed when we compare the transcendental void heart as an absolute ought to a cognitive heart from educational objective and method perspective in a successful performances of moral education in Chang Heng-Qu' thought. The second is to examine co-relationships which exist between the moral mind and the gradual incorporation and what kinds of the educational implication have in moral education. The third is to research the functions of ritual(禮) as the mediation which can induce the incorporations between knowledge and behavior.
  • 14.

    Rediscovery of Bachelard and Durand's Imagination and its Educational Implications

    Lee Joo Ha | 2008, (34) | pp.351~390 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract PDF
    The Purpose of this thesis is to study the sense of Bachelard and Durand's imagination and its educational Implications The fact that the Platonic tradition has stood for so long in Western culture indicates that image and imagination serve less function in objectivism and rationalism. Bachelard and Durand present a new ontological position of imagination based on Kant and Sartre's renewal theories. Imagination is not merely an aggregating faculty of image but also characteristically a shaping and deformative capacity. Typically imagination involves understanding in terms of the aggregating and modifying faculty of mental image. We are thus led to a theory of imagination that is dependent on understanding. Imagination is inborn and learned powers in the child that develop as his mental capacities are established through his interaction with the environment. The environment must itself be open, free, and based on freedom in order for the child to organize his image of it. He perceives the dominant characteristics of things, and thus succeeds in associating their images, and shaping them in the foreground of consciousness. In this imaging process, teachers must attend a cultural complex. Because the cultural complex prevented us from free imagination, teachers must serve as providers of not merely materials of packaged knowledge but cues that stimulate imagination.
  • 15.

    Educational Methodology of Seoae Yu Seong-ryong

    Nakchan Jung | 2008, (34) | pp.391~424 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The current study generalized Seoae's educational methodology under three categories of the view point of human and educational methodology can be summarized into the following three points. First of all, he has diversity in width embracing moral philosophies including the view point of human, theory of academy, the theory of cultivation, the theory of economy, etc. of Neo-confucianism. At the same time, he recognizes Yang-Ming Philosophy critically and interpreted it in own unique way. In particular, his educational thought focuses on the theory of economy most. From the above points, his unique academic trend is confirmed that is distinguished from other academic traditions within Toigye Academic Community which inclined toward theory of academy and the theory of cultivation of Neo-confucianism. Secondly, he contains creativity of strict positivity and sharp penetration. He emphasized 'loyalty(新意)' even for interpretation of the scriptures, so he is not restricted by the frame of Neo-confucianism. Therefore, the fact that he reviewed from positive interests not being addicted to ideological speculation of Neo-confucianism presents that his educational thoughts do not incline toward normative value consciousness of moral philosophy-Neo-confucianism. Thirdly, he has practical academic trend. He gave priority to human affairs(人事) over the principle of heaven(天理), and put emphasis on practicality for deciding issues brought out from human affairs. He is connected with the realist ideology at the beginning of the 17th century at this point, and his educational thoughts that presents his realist thoughts sprouted from moral science showed distinctive characteristics within academic development of Toigye Academic Community. This aspect can be considered as the clearest expression of his view on the time
  • 16.

    The Implication of MacIntyre's Moral Philosophy for Education of International Understanding

    Han,Ill-Jo | 2008, (34) | pp.425~444 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Alasdair MacIntyre is one of the best known spokesmen of communitarian ethics in our age. His moral ideas consist of theories of practice, unity of life, and tradition. And his ideas follow Aristotle's tradition of virtue theory. And he is one of the several advocates of ‘narrative self’. This study examines MacIntyre's ethical theory of virtues, and tries to give some suggestions for the education of international understanding. Although his ethico-political theory represents one of the leading communitarian ethics, this study only focused on the application aspects of his theory, putting aside the theoretical argumentations of his seminal moral or political claims. His theory provides following suggestions for the education of international education: the quest for emphasizing global mind, the more frequent use of phronesis, and the make and use of story-telling materials in the education for international understanding.