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2009, Vol., No.38

  • 1.

    A Study of the Nature of Knowledge in Bruner's Curriculum Theory Focused on the Structure of Knowledge and Narrative

    Hyeonsuk Kang | 2009, (38) | pp.1~34 | number of Cited : 50
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to search the nature of knowledge in Bruner's curriculum theory on the basis of the relationship of the knowledge of structure and narrative. There are many critics about the nature and epistemological stance of structure of knowledge. Furthermore Bruner have changed his viewpoint of the theory since 1980. So we need to search the relevance of structure of knowledge and his changing idea, and to rebuild valid relation of knowledge education. We think of knowledge of structure as static and positivistic thing. This tendency overwhelmed our mode of thought about knowledge education over long time. In knowledge education the importance of knowledge has been emphasized for its function and role of designing a schooling at various levels. This study focuses on the reconsideration of the critics about the structure of knowledge and reconstruction of it in the light of narrative embedded in cultural constructivism. Narrative is interpreted a variety of way according to mechanism of knowledge construction, but it is composed by the main idea of cultural psychology, narrative thought, and hermeneutic of meaning-making etc. Thus the idea of structure of knowledge, discovery learning, and spiral curriculum are reconstructed by narrative epistemology. Bruner's curriculum theory provides a interpretive basis of the theory of the structure of knowledge. The nature of the structure of knowledge and cultural approach should be analysed and interpreted in the context of cultural expression as a structure for organizing human experience and knowledge. Now we can consider Bruner's theory of structure of knowledge as hermeneutic system of construction on the basis of narrative epistemology and hermeneutic construction. As a result of this analysis, the nature of structure of knowledge has not only to be discovered, but also to be generated. The inquiry and discovery learning should be expanded to socio-cultural context, reciprocal teaching, and inter-subjectivity and scaffolding. Finally spiral curriculum as organizing pattern also may be interpreted cyclic recursion. In the end knowledge education and conception of knowledge is restructured on the basis of narrative in parallel structure of knowledge.
  • 2.

    Eine paedagogische Reflexion ueber den “Brief ueber den Humanismus” von Martin Heidegger

    KimYoungRae | 2009, (38) | pp.35~63 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Der vorliegende Aufsatz zielt darauf, “Brief ueber den Humanismus” von Heidegger paedagogisch zu interpretieren und dessen Bedeutung fuer die Paedagogik nachzudenken. Fuer Heidegger gruendet der traditionelle Humanismus auf die traditionelle Metaphysik, die fuer Heidegger vor allem als “Lichtmetaphysik” charakterisiert werden koenne. Nach der Lichtmetaphysik ist das, was ist, vor allem das “Vorhandensein”, also das “Seiendes”. Aber nach Heidegger hat die traditionelle Metaphysik das “Sein” des Seienden uebersehen, d.h.: das Sein, das Seiendes als Seiendes zum Vorschein kommen laesst, aber sich nicht wie ein Seiendes zeigen koenne. Durch diese ‘Seinsvergessenheit’ ist die traditionelle Metaphysik bloss eine Metaphysik des Seienden vor sich gegangen. Der tratidionelle Humanismus, der auf diese tradationelle Metaphysik gegruendet ist, versteht den Menschen bloss als ein Seiendes, das unter allen Seienden vortrefflich sei. Nach diesem Menschenverstaendnis geht das Wesen des Menschen als “Selbst” vor sich, das als “Geist” und “Wille” verspitzt wird. Daher zielt die humanistisch orientierte Paedagogik auf die “Selbstsuche” und die Selbstbefestigung.Nach Heidegger muessen wir aus der Fehlinterpretation “Mensch als ein blosses Seienden” herauskommen, um die echte Menschlichkeit wiederzugewinnen. Dafuer muessen wir nach dem Sein des Seienden fragen. Sein entbirgt sich fuer Heidegger erst durch das Nichten des Seienden. Die Aufhebung des Charakters des Menschen als Seiendes bedeutet vor allem die Aufhebung des Selbstbewusstseins, zu dem Geist und Wille als Kernkomponente gehoeren. Der Mensch ist ein einziges Wesen, das sich nicht allein als ein Seiendes unter den Seienden versteht, sondern auch “Sein” als sein Wesen verstehen kann. In diesem Sinne nennt Heidegger den Menschen “Dasein”, das Hineingehaltenheit in das Nichts ausmacht, wodurch der Mensch auch “Eksistenz” heisst. Dass der Mensch sein Wesen als Eksistenz versteht, bedeutet Wiedergewinn des Vertrauens auf die fundamentale Seinsdimension. Dadurch kann das verspitzte Selbstbewusstsein allmaehlich aufgehoben werden. Denn der moderne Mensch hat sich von allen Seienden, also von der Welt entfernt, durch die Verspitzung des Selbstbewusstseins. Durch die staendige Rueckfrage auf die Ursprung des Seins koennen wir Vertrauen auf die Welt und die Seienden ueberhaupt wiedergewinen, was die Wiederkehr zur echten Menschlichkeit ausmacht.
  • 3.

    The Philosophical Meaning of Froebel's 1 GABE and Its Methods of Education

    Soontae Seo | 2009, (38) | pp.65~88 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The research is centered on the metaphysics thought and the leading course of the 1 GABE beyond making much account of academic recognition of most program for the early child education by it. The ball play by 1GABE is creative activity and it should be one of the strongest manner that an infant creates the microcosmos to itself. Infants are able to get grip of the relation of the actual basic world with a miniature world to be able to conjecture the universe system. The basic confrontation relationship and the basic harmonic relationship between macrocosm and microcosmos are close connection with it, the symbolic signification that get hold of operating and infant's hands with small balls has infant sense a meaning of the bigger world. A lot of an actual simulation of an individual concept, variety and uniformity spread out before an infant, while it comes in and out three kind of forms, is an important symbol connected to the universe. An infant perceive mystic order out of awareness with a premonition of its recognition ability and it's built up the inside order of the human nature that acquire “PLATON IDEA” form. A meaning of the research is as followings; Opening a new dimension of understanding regarding an inner order of education, Connecting an inner order of education practically.
  • 4.

    The Process of Development in John Dewey's Thoughts and Career

    송유진 | 2009, (38) | pp.89~114 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article approaches to study on the process of changing thoughts and the characteristics of development in the thoughts according to John Dewey's career, which is divided into three parts, the earlier (1859-1888), the middle (1889-1930), and the later (1931-1952) parts. First, the earlier part of developing process in his thoughts is considered as the stage of formation in thinking. This period is the results of many accumulated experiences during Dewey's childhood, infinite intellectual inducements motivated by well-known previous scholars, and his own academic cultivation and meeting with people of various social experience. So this first period of the development in his thoughts is regarded as a foundation stone to build his thinking. Second, John Dewey was interested in the matters of philosophy, democracy, education, and others during the middle period of his career. He also revealed far more advancement in his academic and practical fields than he did during the first period. He exerted a lot of achievement in education and training of various academic areas through practical activities on and off campus. So this period is considered as the stage of development in his thoughts. Third, for 22 years until he died at the age of 93 on June 1st, 1952 after his retirement from Columbia University, John Dewey had never stopped devoting himself to active participation in social innovation and educational renovation through academic activities, authorship, and special lectures. It is true that he has had a great influence on philosophy, aesthetics, education, laws, political theories, and social sciences of the U.S.A. during the 20th century. This fact makes the later period of his career the perfect completion of his idea and learning for society. Through the developing process of John Dewey's building philosophical ideas and educational thoughts, we can realize that a philosopher's formation of thinking is related to his own personal inclination, sincere academic attitude, some advice from previous or present thinkers, and active ability to put what he learned into action. It can be also said that John Dewey's life and development of philosophy shows an example of learning attitude and an opportunity of reflection on today's learning depth to the later generation.
  • 5.

    The Implications of Taste Education in Moral Politics : Focusing on J-J Rousseau's Political Philosophy

    오수웅 | 2009, (38) | pp.115~147 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study has two aims. One is to conceptualize the French words, goût (taste)and moeurs (morals or mores), and to discover the relationship between them in Rousseau`s political philosophy. The other is to highlight the implications of taste education on moral politics by tracing out the logical path that taste judgment makes an effect on political judgment. If taste was considered as an object of culture, the results can be thought of an insight on the relationship between culture and politics. In Rousseau's political philosophy, taste and morals have the same origin, so to speak, relative ideas and sentiments which can be considered as the essence of them, and they go through the same revolution. Morals include the diverse forms that the relative ideas and sentiments are realized by means of language and behaviour in the relationships of the individuals in society. They can be branched into manners, habits, practices, and customs, and finally be transformed into the laws. This path can be taken as the moral network which has morals and moral relations. Taste judgment forms or changes the moral judgment because it carries the ideas of not only the beautiful but also the right and the good through this moral networks in society. There are two kinds of taste in Rousseau's political philosophy. One is physical or personal, the other is moral or social. For Rousseau, the latter is taken as a very important one because it can narrow the gap between private interests and public interest, namely common good. The realizations of taste judgment should be accompanied with the wills of the judges toward common good. Therefore, taste education should be seriously considered as one of objects in the field of pedagogy, because political judgments and the characteristics of the culture in the society depend on how to set up taste education.
  • 6.

    Educational Methodology of Daesan Lee, Sang Jung

    Nakchan Jung | 2009, (38) | pp.149~182 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Daesan suggests that including both, unified views of the world and human, through dichotomy relative structure. He also shows a unique educational Methodology to reach having mature personality as these unified views of the world and human. His view of learning places Kyunghak(經學) and Dohak(道學) on the principal, and the others like system, history and literature on the bottom. Especially, for the learning of principal, it gets count on the deepening process of knowledge through careful reading and deep thinking, and the extending process of enlightenment through recognition and appreciation of the meaning. So, he sets much by reading among meaning, cheoni(踐履) and reading of three requisites for learning. Therefore he emphasize on the reading method to find the deep meaning from the inside and to get by experience more than fast reading or wide reading. And he lays weight on the learning method according to the frame and character of Kyunghak. Deasan is looking for the methodology of moral culture from inside human spirit. From this, the true form of spirit is originally faithful, but sometimes unconsciousness, and action of spirit is fundamentally virtuous, but easily falls into devil, so that he suggests Kyung for the means to overcome reality. So he attaches importance to carefulness, shindok(愼獨), jonyang(存養) and introspection as specific means for mental culture. And he emphasize the importance of the way of moral culture turned from its' inside toward outside. It's not the fundamental way, but the way starting from bottom to essence, that can be experience and realistic practice method.
  • 7.

    The Reconceptualization of The knowledge theory of Dewey's base on The knowledge theory of Posmodern and Education

    Chung, Seok-Hwan | 2009, (38) | pp.183~217 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to compare knowledge of post modernism and that of Dewey and to reconceptualize useful educational meaning in modern education Research was conducted through following procedures to establish the purpose of this study. First, compared knowledge theory of Dewey and that of postmodernism. Second, reconceptualization of useful knowledge in modern education was conducted based on knowledge theory of Dewey and that of postmodernism. Knowledge theory of postmodernism and that of Dewey share very close concept in overcoming the dualistic logic of the traditional philosophy and being a modernism which explains the subject and the object of recognition in one theory. This study analyzed Dewey's knowledge theory based on that of postmodernism and the logical validity as well as the critical point in utilizing educational concept. Knowledge theory of Dewey and that of postmodernism denies pursuit of fixed purpose and the process is taken more importantly than the result are in common. However, Dewey's knowledge theory differs its context from that of postmodernism by assuming idealistic social aspect in development. The result of this study proved that it is needed to avoid utilizing Dewey's knowledge theory and that of postmodernism in the same context in detailed area of accessing the knowledge which could be applied to modern education.
  • 8.

    A Study on Death Education through the Meaning of Life and Death in Confucianism

    Jung Younghee | 2009, (38) | pp.219~249 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to give a picture of how to deal with life and death in Confucianism. Life and death are taken as important things in our life, but death has disregarded by modern education intentionally or unintentionally. So our traditional thoughts about a viewpoint of life and death are very meaningful to all of us. The very fundamental things about life and death are Heave and Heaven's decreed as fatality and ineluctability. Confucius and Mencius add the righteous morality which makes humanity. If there is no way but to accept death, we have to take a way to achieve benevolence and the right. This is Heaven's decreed. In Analects, Confucius did not talk about marvels, feats of strength, irregularities, and gods, but he had thought hard about spirits and gods. To look as if he had not interested in death, spirits, and gods is because he tried to know about life. He did not deny the fact that there is spirits and gods. These are correlative Yin-Yang beings. After death, man's body stopped all functions and had divided into a spirit and a god. These two are become the object of rituals. Here the attitude of Confucius is human affairs. All of rituals and ceremonies do for the sake of man and dead man both. The value of ceremony is in the harmony itself. Man and dead man maintain solidification of the mutual relations through funeral rites and ancestor-memorial ceremonies. The meaning of confucian life and death about death education gives us significance that we should not diverted from human affairs and have a correct understanding of correlative life and death. Through the sacrifices we are related to our ancestors already dead in our everyday life, death is not the object of fear and evasion.
  • 9.

    Discourse on Education for Life(生命敎育)

    hyunkyu cho | 2009, (38) | pp.251~280 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to consider the meaning and the principles of the Education for Life(生命敎育) throughout Chuang Tzu's thought. Life, the life means ‘Xing-Ming(性命)’, one's own natural share given by Tao(道) to Chuang Tzu. Each being has its own purpose in itself but also the power that makes the being grow and change by itself. It's like that a small dandelion seed can strike root and bloom if there is only a handful of soil and sunlight. Human being also has such natural power to realize his own Xing-Ming given by Tao. Therefore the final goal of the Education for the Life should be on the empowerment in order to recover one's original Xing-Ming. This does not mean that the education should control or preside over its objectives. The most serious problem of education is educator's limited knowledge and understanding arisen from his ego. The sense of self, which is caused from the dichotomy between Self(我) and Anything but Self(外物), arises all kinds of desires and emotions. The limited knowledge and understanding based on one's sense of self is called Ceng-Xin(成心) by Chuang Tzu. Because of this Ceng-Xin, educators judge students inferior or superior and intend to lead them to the way that he thinks right. Therefore the educator, such as parents or teachers, should remove the view based on himself. Chuang Tzu told us the methods to eliminate Ceng-Xin. They are Xin-Zhai(心齋) and Zhuo-Wang(坐忘). Only after that, educators can see children's Zhi-Ran(自然) in the view of Tao. We can unearth some principles of the Education for Life throughout Chuang Tzu's thought; educate c following their natural character and disposition, do not judge children in the view of educator himself and respect every children's individuality, wait until children are willing to take teachings, attach importance to the communication between educators and children but also between children and the nature where Tao dwells, convert from the education centering on instruction and learning to the education centering on cultivation of mind for self-reflective investigation and awakening and so on. Chuang Tzu's thought shows us the direction the Education for Life should move on. Education exists for life. Education ought to empower children's will to live their own life.