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2009, Vol., No.39

  • 1.

    The Senses of the Middle Way and its Educational Significance

    KIM JEONG-NAE | 2009, (39) | pp.1~29 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The paper has tried to demonstrate the educational significance of the Middle Way. For this, the conceptual analysis has been made so that some misunderstandings of it can be found in such as expressions of mediocrity, median state, median state quo and so forth. Also ambiguities found in the concept can lead us to confront with its complexity, sometimes mistery in the mythological stories. Nevertheless, the analysis enables us to catch up with the conceptions as follows: going beyond the extremes, attaining the mean, and transcending antagonism. The main arguments have been focused on the transcendence, almost all of which rely on the Buddhist and the Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu philosophies. Not only going beyond good and evil and beyond two antagonistic oppositions as well as two extremes, the concept of the Middle Way also lies in embracing the normal state to sustain the moral state. Even though the concept cannot be sufficiently understood beyond the tension between good and evil, this does not comprise the moral anarchy. By the same token, the Middle Way stands for some desirable state of mind and also excellence of well-doing, including the Aristotelian mean, which throws light on the Oriental sense of attainment. It is impossible to take an account of the Middle Way if one has the excessive adhesion, which is the most significant point of view, the attitude to eschew originated from the its literal meaning. From these, there have found the educational implications that the Middle Way should not apply to the nihilistic and moral anarchic senses but accelerate us to devote to the normal schooling including studying the traditional subjects, which virtually lead us to reckon the genuine sense of the Middle Way.
  • 2.

    The Debate on the Similarity and Difference between Human and Things's Nature : An Educational Interpretation

    Roh | 2009, (39) | pp.31~62 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to interpret 'the debate on the similarity and difference between Human and Thing's Nature'(人性物性同異論辯) from the Educational viewpoint, and to reveal an implication of the debate in relation to Bukhak-Thought(北學思想). First of all, Yi Gan(李柬, h. 巍巖) insisted that the nature of human beings and that of thing is the same when Original Nature(本然之性) and Physical Nature(氣質之性) is regarded as two distinct entities. According to Han Won-Jin(韓元震, h. 南塘), the two nature should be regarded as one entity, so he argued that things have the Five Constant Virtues(五常) as much as human beings in relation to Physical Nature. Yi and Han's views reveal that the core of this debate is the problem of nature of mind and the world. According to this study, the above Yi's view of the similarity and Han's view of the difference bring forth the twofold structure of mind and the world, namely, metaphysical and empirical, which are necessary to explain educational activities. In the light of common interpretation, Bukhak-Thought as the socio-political philosophy arouse in the later part of Chosun is based on the theory of the similarity, whereas the theory of Hwa-Iee(華夷論) the theory of the difference. But the theories of the similarity and difference in Bukhak-Thought and those in the original debate is not the same thing. According to Bukhak-Thought, our mind and the world is only regarded as the empirical, so it tries to exclude the metaphysical aspect of mind and the world. Therefore Bukhak-Thought is not based on the theory of the similarity, but based on the negation of the traditional confucianism of Chosun. In conclusion, it can be said that Bukhak-Thought tends to attenuate the metaphysical aspect of education which is regarded as educational criterion in traditional confucianism, whereas regards individual interests and motives as the criterion of education.
  • 3.

    Reconstruction of Public Education Discourse Based On Reconceptualization of Enlightenment

    박병락 | 2009, (39) | pp.63~83 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Public education was based on metanarratives of enlightenment that was to develop rationality in all by overcoming ignorance and superstition with the guidance of reason. Based on enlightenment discourse, aim of education was supposed to produce a rational human. The contemporary crisis of public education is, however, attributed mainly to the decline of metanarratives, instrumental use of reason, and overly dependence on logic of capital. In "postmodern era" we need to generate a public education discourse counted on contextual rationality by transgressing the 'self-evident' logics based on scientific method and knowledge, Also, we should make a distinction between a theory of enlightenment as an outline of a transcendental project and a critical enlightenment attitude. The concept that sees enlightenment as a attitude enables us to reconceptualize enlightenment and encourages us to include a variety of discourses into a school curriculum. This "permanent reactivation" project contributes to reconstruct public education discourse in terms of not a universal consensus but a historic research. In addition, we need normative criteria such as justice and freedom to give the oppressed voices a various opportunity to present their experiences and stories in the educational context. In conclusion, public education in postmodern era, I hope, is one that welcomes various discourses and knowledges at school, considering enlightenment not a mode or an era but a critical attitude.
  • 4.

    The Body Phenomenological Analysis of Merlau-Ponty for Other Selves and the Ethic Education of the relationship between teacher and student

    서상문 | 2009, (39) | pp.85~129 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study which is based on the body phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty and is applied in the educational phenomenon has a turning point. Because, finding out the phenomenological implications of the other's body in the educational events is a kind of new horizon of the educational research which has hidden until now. It also has a deep relation with a new trial that the postmodern idea of 'difference' is characterized and configured concretely in the educational fields. In the viewpoint of modern education, the learner and teacher as not a subject but 'the other' are suppressed by the ontological distortion, though they are the same beings whether a subject or 'the other'. Merleau-Ponty insists that the other is not a part or a portion of the scientific world which is objectified by the subject but the prospect of the world which is before me and the two faces of the existential phenomenon which is constructed with my body. The trace of existential anonymity that is included in my body and the other's body integrates them through the ontological association of body. Here, the idea of intersubjectivity in Merleau-Ponty is an alternative that can dissolve the ontological conflict and fundamental problem in education. According to the phenomenon analysis of body in Merleau-Ponty, the body is a very unique locus of phenomenological world. There is the crucial distortion phenomenon between subject and object in the teaching-learning process. However, more serious problem is the relationship between subject and the other. The subjectivity of the other is exposed to me through his/her physical intention, that is the body, for the first time, and his/her possibility for existence also begin from this. What I and the other make a phenomenological correspondence and harmony like this is the intersubjective meaning, and it is not different from the teaching-learning process in the true sense. Finally, the ethic education of solitude and communication which is proposed by the body phenomenology transferred the original possibility of contact with the other from the pure philosophical study to the discussion of moral education. The existential endeavor of constructing a educational relationship with the other and approaching to him/her continuously makes a good model in itself. This basis of phenomenology is a spout of the ethical practice and norm. The ethic education of solitude and communication is a practical calling that requires to be not a subject which going to govern each other, but 'the other' which going to understand and embrace each other.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Direction of Liberal Arts Education as the Future Value of University Advancement

    송유진 | 2009, (39) | pp.131~158 | number of Cited : 26
    Abstract PDF
    This study is based on the view that the reestablishment and reinforcement of liberal arts education at university is what the society and the university should aim at for their advancement in terms of the future value. The results are following. First, the liberal arts education has been sustained in two main streams of the liberal education and the general education since it originated in the Ancient Greek Age and experienced some changes in the genuine meaning of the education. The spirit of liberal education is involved with the conception of leisure and freedom and occupied only by the privileged class, which therefore is considered opposite to that of vocational education. But liberal education was served as an opportunity for everyone to receive liberal arts education. The purpose of liberal arts education, which was concentrated on the liberal education and the theoretical aspect of education, sought for the intellectual excellence of human beings through training and development of their reason. Second, there were two attitudes which theoretically confirmed the definition of liberal arts education: one is a reason focused attitude which was concentrated on cultivation of human reason and mind on the basis of liberal education view; the other is a utilitarianism attitude purposed on practical sides of education in terms of general education view. Regardless of the differences between the two angles, it is needless to say that the ultimate purpose of liberal arts education should involve both the liberal education for training of human mind and the general education for realizing what they learned in practice because the essential purpose of today's education must be to nurture a whole person. Third, one of the educationalists who dedicated themselves to improvement of liberal arts education's contents and methods is a rationalistic educationalist, M. J. Adler, who thoroughly recognized the necessity and importance of liberal arts education in the early 20th century and put forth his whole energy on cultivation of genuinely liberal arts educated persons. His education programs contain a kind of modernity, what we are faced with in the present, and suggest some practical implications that we should attempt in order to achieve more desirable effects from the present education system. So it seems needed to review the past to find a guide into tomorrow. Finally, whether the liberal arts education may succeed or not may depend on so called “the inter-liberal arts subjects project” through an independent institute which covers all the works with liberal arts education within university. In short, it means that liberal arts education desperately needs specialization. When this is achieved, the liberal arts education surely serves as the major driving force to lead the growth of education quality and the improvement of university competitiveness to be speeded up effectively as well as individuals and society to be more matured and qualified.
  • 6.

    A study of korean 'village schools' in Russia

    Llee kyung sook | 2009, (39) | pp.159~190 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to understand korean schools in Russia in 1860s-1920s as a point of view of 'village school'. The data for this study are the articles in 1900s, testimonies of 9 Kopeйский, and etc. There were many korean schools in Russia-korean settlements in 1860s-1920s. This schools were understanded as a kind of the nationalism education movements in previous researches. But this study takes a point of view of 'village shool' on the korean schools in Russia in 1860s-1920s. This study to demonstrate 'village school' is to investigate the foundations and managements of the schools. The way of foundations and managements were donations of many residents in village. And the effects of the schools were networking the village residents and social activists, the older generation and the younger generation, and the concern of korea and the concern of russia.
  • 7.

    A Study on Educational Implications of the Consciousness Theory of John Dewey

    Lee, Byung-Seung | 2009, (39) | pp.191~221 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to analyse of elements and structure of consciousness theory in the 1887 Psychology written by John Dewey, and to research its educational implications. Conclusions are as follows: Firstly, consciousness theory articulated in first edition of Dewey's Psychology was influenced by neo-Hegelian G. S. Hall, and then characteristics of its theory was metaphysical and idealistic. But after of researching the work of William James, his approach to consciousness changed surprisingly from idealistic to experimental. His experimental approach and scientific attitude to it influenced the formation and development of advanced theories in his epistemology, axiology and pedagogy. Secondly, the structure of consciousness expressed by Dewey has three forms such as knowledge, feeling and will(or volition). This forms are too dynamic and unitary. Dewey considered cognition, feeling, will to be integral functions of each self. The tripartite functions of self, moreover, are unified in will. In other word, will combines subjective feeling and objective knowledge as one self. Will regulates impulse because it powers some stimulus into activity of self. In this view point, his theory of consciousness differs from traditional theories about consciousness for emphasizing dynamic relations and functions. Thirdly, Dewey's theory of consciousness will give some important implications to educational field. It is necessary to fundamental arguments about conscious conditions of learners as a human. For it is impossible to establish some aim of learning, to organize meaningful contents of learning, and also to create some effective methods of learning without consideration of this conditions. And it is important to construct and organize the contents and methods of learning for widening and deepening of educational experiences. Then consciousness and experiences of learners interact each other, so then they will produce some meaningful results of learning in this process.
  • 8.

    Study on the Educational Significance of Norbert Elias' Theory of the Human Sciences

    Yi Byung Jun | 2009, (39) | pp.223~241 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Norbert Elias became more famous after his death, whose books provoked philosophical, sociological and historical controversies. While Elias took notice of the civilizing process of humans, he tried to grasp the humanistic and social matters in a relational context beyond individual levels such as philosophical, psychological and sociological approaches. He paid attention to the correlation between an individual and a society which were not separated and couldn't be separated, and then developed penetrative thinking over the individuals and the social phenomena. Elias did not unfold educational discussion, but his books enriched the educational significance by dealing with learning matters that had been formed and obtained in the process of civilization by humans and societies. Especially the theory of Elias had a thread of connection with that of J. Dewey in terms of handling the suppression of democracy that had been developed in the civilizing process. Also, his theory had a thread of connection with that of M. Foucault in terms of handling the power struggles that had been developed in the process of cultural formation. Therefore, the work to create the theoretical framework that could identify the educational matters on the basis of Norbert Elias's theory of human science was important for the educational discussion, since it showed interests in the theoretical model that could observe the education and the learning phenomena. This study is to review the basic designs of the Elias's theory of human science, to discuss the formation theory, which is the core of the civilization theory, to describe the Elias's knowledge theory, and finally to draw educational significance of the Elias's theory.
  • 9.

    A Study on Dewey's Nature of Student and Education

    이준수 | 2009, (39) | pp.243~265 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In this article, I have considered Dewey's educational theory that founded on his understanding of student's nature and self. Dewey's educational theory stems from his philosophical understanding of human. Rather than pursue the full scope of Dewey's thought about the student, I have limited to his opinions of the student's nature and self. Although Dewey is frequently considered a child-centered educator, this description is somewhat inaccurate. He was better described as community-centered because he thought learning was a social activity, not a individual one. Dewey thought that the major responsibility for education fell initially upon adults, teachers, and others. He considered adults responsible for creating learning conditions to promote educative experiences for children. This is not to say that Dewey did not place emphasis on the learner's initiative and involvement. If the energy for learning dose not come from the student, the teacher's guiding, directing, and navigating were impossible. Students need guidance in their desire for freedom to learn, and help to navigate society's contradictory education current. Without such help, they will likely suffer damaging, permanent outcome. Therefore, Dewey believed the centre of education needed to shift from the curriculum and teacher to the child and his impulses as a member of a social group. If Dewey's thought is sound, it is the student's nature and destiny to experience the joy and pains of inquiring, reflecting, and learning. But the pain should come from educative learning experience, not from walls that school and society create to stymie the learning and development of the student.
  • 10.

    An Ecological Interpretation on the Concept of Parents

    조순영 , Sim, Mi Yeon | 2009, (39) | pp.267~298 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This paper, based on the ecological world view, reexamines the concept of parents in order to find out solutions to the problems and limitations that today’s parents have. The ecological world view starts from a recent ecological crisis of earth and has attempted to change the way of life and a world view basically. It can be a point of view that examines the status and the role of today’s parents with a critical eye. First, parents is not only biological parents, but also nature and universe. From an ecological point of view, the role of parents including pregnancy, childbirth, nurture and teaching is not only for biological parents, but also for nature. Nature and parents have to do that role together because human is born by the principle of universe and can survive only with nature. Second, one of import parents’ role is connecting their children with the outer world. The outer world means nature and society. In the modern society children can’t come in touch with nature in their daily life. So parents have to make an environment intentionally where their children can commune with nature. The reason why parents have to have their children commune with nature is not because nature is beautiful. It is because they can meet a transcendental being above human being from nature. And parents are person who help children to make human relations, including family, relative, friend, neighbor and community, which supports their growth. As a nuclear family and parentless family is growing, making a social network is very important part for maintaining family healthy and for flexible children’s growth. Third, from an ecological point of view, the virtue that parents have to have is self-examination. Not only children, but also parents have to make an effort at a personal growth through self-examination. Eventually it is because parents and children grow up together by helping each other. So parents’ efforts for self-examination and self-education are the important process for their children’s education. In these days of educational problems caused by weak parents’ role, including the lack of home education, overprotection, family egotism. Above issues make us review what is needed for a right role of parents.
  • 11.

    Teachers' intelligence and higher order thinking education

    Choi Seok Min | 2009, (39) | pp.299~324 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Usually, on higher order thinking education, teachers have been accused of his/her insufficient knowledge and expertness. But I pointed out two structural problems in Korean school: the mechanical application of ready-made teaching materials and teacher-proof approach in thinking education. Both of them stemmed from traditional culture of teaching in Korean schools that teacher should teach what he/she already knew about thoroughly. But the intelligence of teachers couldn't be grown up in this atmosphere in that intelligence had come with the genuine problem as Dewey had argued in Democracy and Education. Without the proper uses of intelligence of teachers, higher thinking education couldn't be succeed because teacher himself should decide the concept of creativity or criticalness of thinking, the main approach of teaching it. This is because teaching of higher order thinking is not to be confined to a specific period or area of teaching. It may instead have to be diffused over all the subject areas of teaching. So to speak, It would have to fall under the rubric of the good learning. It would also have to be emphasized as one, only one, -- not the one -- element of good learning. It would have to be under the umbrella of holistic learning, for the overall educational interest as well as its specific effect. In conclusion, the infusion model of education with teachers' intelligence, not programmed approach, might be successfully adopted as one of the dominant approaches in teaching of higher order thinking. Dewey's concept of the creativity and Peters' analysis of the good education support this common sense.