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2011, Vol., No.45

  • 1.

    The Philosophical Examinations of the Free School Meal Policy in the Light of Rights-Theories

    KIM JEONG-NAE | 2011, (45) | pp.1~30 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Recently there have been some critical examinations against the free school meal provision policy which eventually brings to us the detrimental consequences in the various aspects. Despite that, this policy has been popularly supported inside and outside of the school. Moreover, continuing debates by the Pros and the Cons on the topic have not still dissolved the crucial defects involved in the policy. Unlike the case of free compulsory schooling, the policy of free provisions of school meal leads us a state of monopolizing the main economic means such as one in the communist regimes and the state intervention, as well as fortifying and enlarging the tangible and intangible regulations by the government. The danger of monopolization and over-regulation as such has already been examined and shown for the public from the point of views, namely, economics, public finance, and welfare policy. Unfortunately, however, the topic has never been examined in the light of the rights-theories and by means of the jurisprudential arguments. Without this kind argument, we are apt to fall into the rationalization for free school meal provisions, which is mistakenly regarded as and grounded on the universal rights, moral rights, natural rights and the like. But as the paper has closely examined, the policy cannot be easily justified in the light of the universal rights sorts assertion. Amongst several main rights-theories, the entitlement theory has affinity with policy, but the minute scrutinization enables us to show that we are entitled to be treated as equal not because of humans, as the pros asserts, but because of rational beings. The paper has also demonstrated that the claim for free school meal can be seen neither as a claim to be established itself, nor even as a universal right justified. Moreover, the policy violates the Constitution for it obviously overrides the private properties and deteriorates the spontaneous free market mechanism. As shown in the proverb that hard case makes bad law, its following legislations are virtually to be unconstitutional, which leads the state system to a totalitarian one. This also throws light on the crucial point not to be confused between the so-called universal welfare policy and the social safety-net policy, which is the one that the paper on the right-theories base eventually tries to contribute to.
  • 2.

    Educational Philosophy of Communication : Focused on Communication Theory of J. Habermas and Haegang

    Taeoh Kim | 2011, (45) | pp.31~63 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the constructive logics of communication in Habermas and Haegang to find its implications for educational communication. The results can be summarized as follows. :First, Habermas’s theory of communication includes theory of cognitive interests and theory of communicative action. On the theory of cognitive interests, the emancipatory cognitive interest guarantees communication by virtue of its self-reflective nature. And On the theory of communicative action, validity claims and ideal speech situation are condition of communication. Second, Haegang’s theory of communication includes theory of unhwagi and thought of great equality. On the theory of unhwagi, goal of knowledge is communication of gi between man and man, man and nature. And On the thought of great equality, communication is the unification of the natural way and human life. Thirdly, Habermas’s theory of educative communication includes two aspects. : One is communication of normative orientation and scientific certainty. The other is communication of teaching and learning. Critical educational paradigm overcomes weaknesses of other paradigms(scienticism and relativism). And in the communicative classroom, teacher is a student, student is a teacher(mutual education). Finally, Haegang’s theory of educative communication includes two aspects: One is communication of learning for self-perfection and learning for self-revealation. The other is communication of man and nature. Idealism and actualism in education is not problem of either or. And the greatest teacher is a teacher of gi, who teaches both texts and humanity.
  • 3.

    An Educational Study on Wonhyo's Muaemu

    Sangjoo Park | 2011, (45) | pp.65~94 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to investigate an educational meaning on Wonhyo's Muaemu(dance free from every attachment). This study puts focus on the dance's form, buddhist thoughts symbolized in the movements, and their educational meaning. The dance was originated by the famous buddhist monk, Wonhyo who lived in the periods of Three Kingdoms and Unified Silla. Wonhyo taught buddhist thoughts that were too difficult to understand for the illiterate by the method of the dance and song that everyone could do and enjoy. As a result, the Buddhism of Silla was known to everyone including beggars, the poor, and even innocent kids. It proved that the education through the dance was very effective. So the dance was played every place where people could meet. However in the periods of Koryo and Choseon Dynasty, the dance was performed in the court in the form of established pattern by the female entertainers. The movements of this dance were as follows: With the round gourd in hand he moves back and forth. He sways his two arms high in the air and lifts his legs three times with his belly vacant and his neck drooped. These movements symbolize collectively Wonhyo's buddhist thoughts that we should live free from every care and attachment, transcend the worlds of desires, and accept and respect everyone as respectable Buddha in the sea of one cosmic mind. To spread Wonhyo's dance of Muae, Korean traditional dances including Muaemu should be placed in the regular curriculum of preschool, primary school, and secondly school.
  • 4.

    The Vanquishment of Alienated Education Through The Unitary World view

    안신국 | 2011, (45) | pp.95~124 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to vanquish the alienation of education through the Unitary world view. The perspective on the society is an important for understanding the sociological reality. The view of society in modern world can be divided into an individual - oriented one and a whole - oriented one. These two views of society are different in that one emphasizes the individual and other the whole but they stand on the same premise in that both views think that they individual and society are basically separate categories. These don't solve the problems of modern society and the alienation of education. Thus the new world needs new world view. The Unitary world view can provide a new perspective of education. Actually, the modern education is based on the modern view of human being. The modern civilization has pursued the satisfaction of human beings desire and just tries to achieve it. It brought about many serious problems of human life in various fields of modern society as well as alienation of education. Modern education is devoted to make separated ego. It doesn't have human being achieve the 'self realization'. Because modern education has focus on increasing of productivity and objective knowledge and information. The unitary education that encourage s self- realization and self- study can replace the modern education that puts focus on knowledge - delivery and instruction. Education should develop the self- realization and help one to change oneself. Thus unitary education can make to one recover real-self. In Unitary world view, the first way to achieve education is to build ability to love oneself(suhang). The second way is to make education to build the ability to love another(Su-hang). The third way to achieve education is to enjoy loving(Nak-do). The self-realization as a Su-hang and Nak-do of education is the ideal of education. Unitary education is to overcome the alienation of modern education and an attempt to have the spirit of education distorted by the modern education.
  • 5.

    A Study on Rousseau's The Idea of Nature

    오창진 | Kim, Hoy-Yong | 2011, (45) | pp.125~160 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Lots of researchers have studied the meaning of nature by Rousseau. The idea of nature, however, is still one of the most controversial issues in studying Rousseau. This dissertation aims to examine the idea of nature on the historical context. The Ionions thought that nature itself circulates. Although they comprehended nature from the scientific point of view getting over the early myth, they thought nature from the view of hylozoism. The Pythagoreans claimed that whole the universe and nature is mystical and eternal. Nature has harmony in accordance with ratios of numbers. From their view human-being is microcosm while nature is macrocosm. Although Plato was affected by the Pythagoreans, he found the transcendence-theory instead of immanence-theory. He claimed that the material world as it seems to us is not the real world, but only an image or copy of the real world. Rousseau disagreed the modern idea of nature based on Enlightenment. He opposed rationality based on reason and rejected to regard nature as a huge machine. He borrowed ideas from the understanding of nature by ancient Greek. He was influenced by the Ionions, Pythagoreans, and Plato and he believed the power of nature organizing the order. Borrowing the macrocosm-microcosm model of ancient Greek, he claimed that human being has capacity to follow the order of nature. He insisted that human being has self love, compassion and perfectibility which are given from nature itself as a microcosm and thus he should be accorded to the order of nature as macrocosm.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Philosophy of Teacher Education of Richard S. Peters

    Lee, Byung-Seung | 2011, (45) | pp.161~190 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to introduce the philosophy of teacher education in the main educational works of Richard S. Peters and to find some meaningful implications in his claim about teacher education. Conclusions are as followings. Firstly, researcher described his claims about aims of teacher education based upon his concepts such as 'education', 'educated person' and 'authority'. Fundamentally, the aim of teacher education presupposed in his works is to cultivate educated teachers. To him, educated teachers must have some important qualities: commitment to worthwhile, cognitive perspective, morality of teaching, and actual authority. Secondly, researcher investigated his general view about contents and methods of teacher education. He stressed importance for basic disciplines such as philosophy, psychology, sociology, and history. Especially, he suggested philosophy and philosophy of education as foundational curriculum for teacher education. For he thought that theoretical subjects affects to educational practices such as teaching and counseling. Furthermore, he emphasized the priority of contents and skill for good teaching. And he suggested the corporation of educational specialists and curriculum specialists for enhancing quality of teacher education. Also, he emphasized that university must help university professors and school teachers to corporate each other. Thirdly, researcher found some problems or difficulties in his view of teacher education. For his view seems to me very austere, intellectualistic, and masculine-centered. But his view will be evaluated as some criterion of reflection about our teacher education and direction for changing the contents and methods of teacher education. And his view will throw to us some meaningful light for practices of teacher education in our future.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Correlation between Dewey's Concept of Inquiry and Life, Education

    이상원 | 2011, (45) | pp.191~230 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to understand the reason why ‘the concept of education’ of Dewey is defined based on its correlation with ‘the concept of life’, through ‘the concept of inquiry’ of Dewey. In the philosophy of Dewey that incessantly has set out the ‘totality of life’, his all concepts are formed based on human behaviors. That is, all concepts such as ‘experience’, ‘habit’, ‘value’, ‘growth’, ‘education’, and ‘inquiry’, and so on are established only when there are human actual ‘behaviors’, thus ‘the concept of life’ of Dewey can be defined as the ‘self-renewing process’, and accordingly the ‘life’ to him can proceed with in a ‘continued and accumulated form’. However, since ‘the concept of inquiry’ among all his concepts is interpreted into the same to the meaning of the ‘reflective thought’, it causes a question of what association ‘the concept of inquiry’ of Dewey has with ‘the concept of life’ of Dewey. Prior studies interpreted ‘the concept of inquiry’ only means ‘a reflective thought’, by connecting it to the educational method of school, which overlooks its correlation with ‘the concept of life’ of Dewey. Strictly speaking, Dewey criticized the ‘Dualistic World’ that classified the human life into many strata and understood them as ‘orientation’ and ‘sublation’, so if the ‘inquiry’ is defined as the same meaning to that of ‘the reflective thought’, it will be difficult to determine what correlation ‘the inquiry’ has with all other concepts such as ‘experience’, ‘habit’, ‘value’, ‘growth’, and ‘education’ in the ‘totality of life’. As a matter of fact, it is possible to define ‘the inquiry’ as ‘the reflective thought’ within the special setting called ‘school education’ to think of the inquiry as the effective ‘educational method’, but it causes a limit in understanding on what logical bases ‘the inquiry’ has the correlation with all concepts of Dewey. The author tried to redefine the meaning of ‘the concept of inquiry’ described in the Logic written by Dewey as ‘the existential maintenance method’ of organisms centering around humans to expand the previous meaning of ‘the concept of inquiry’ that had just meaned ‘the reflective thought’. Dewey also describes the matrix of inquiry as “THE EXISTENTIAL MATRIX OF INQUIRY: BIOLOGICAL”, and “THE EXISTENTIAL MATRIX OF INQUIRY: CULTURAL” respectively in Chapter Ⅰ, Section II to III, of the Logic, in order to emphasize the existential aspects of the inquiry. In addition, in Chapter Ⅰ, Section Ⅰ, “THE PROBLEM OF LOGICAL SUBJECT-MATTER”(Dewey, 1964: 3-4), Dewey describes the inquiry as ‘the primary inquiry’, in order to emphasize that ‘the inquiry’ is ‘the existential concept’ before it is considered as ‘the reflective thought’, in terms of the ‘fundamental aspect’ that the reflective though is well matched to the human organism because the human organism maintains its existence by ‘the reflective thought’, arguing that the reflective thought should not be defined as the one limited in ‘the problem solving’ which ‘the reflective thought’ that means ‘the inquiry into inquiry’. The inquiry to Dewey means ‘the existential maintenance method’ of organisms centering around humans, so if this concept is generalized, it means ‘all forms and patterns’ of life of organisms. When ‘inquiry’ is defined as ‘existential maintenance method’, it is possible to determine on which base ‘the concept of life’ of Dewey was formed. The concept of life of Dewey consists of two key factors such as ‘environment’ and ‘renewing’. Here, ‘environment’ does not mean what is given like nature, but means ‘the field of existential maintenance’ of an organism created through interaction between the organism and nature, while ‘renewing’ means the ‘self-maintaining process’, which enables the argument reasonable that an organism has the forms of ‘continued maintenance’, and ‘restoration’ that incessantly converts ‘imbalance’ to the ‘balanced status’ in order to adapt to the ‘environment’. Strictly speaking, these two factors cannot be reasonable if the ‘behavior’ of the organism is ‘sporadic or temporal’, and only can be reasonable when the behavior proceeds in ‘the form of continuation and accumulation’. What leads the ‘behavior’ of the organism to the ‘continued and accumulative form’ results from its ‘existential maintenance method’, which corresponds to ‘the concept of inquiry’ of Dewey. Thus, ‘the concept of life’ of Dewey can be found to have been formed by the ‘inquiry’ having its definition based on its fundamental concept. Like this, if ‘the concept of life’ of Dewey is to be understood through ‘inquiry’, it comes to be possible to determine why the ‘education’ is defined based on its correlation with ‘the concept of life’, for Dewey. That is, if we look at the prior studies regarding the correlation between the ‘education’ and ‘the concept of life’ of Dewey, it can be found they just understand the ‘life’, ‘education’, and ‘growth’ as synonyms by inferring from the following contents described in the Democracy and Education through the syllogism: “Life is development, and that developing, growing, is life. Translated into its educational equivalents, this means that the educational process has no end beyond itself; it is its own end; and that the educational process is one of continual reorganizing, reconstructing, transforming”(Dewey, 1916: 105), “Since in reality there is nothing to which growth is relative save more growth, there is nothing to which education is subordinate save more education”(Ibid. : 106) instead of finding out the ‘fundamental reason’, that is, on which logical base, the ‘education’ is defined to have the correlation with ‘the concepts of life and growth’ of Dewey. Accordingly, in their studies, ‘inquiry’ is only referred to as the ‘reflective thought’ in terms of the ‘educational method’ of school education while the ‘inquiry’ is rarely associated with those concepts such as ‘life’, ‘education’ and ‘growth’. As a result, if the ‘inquiry’ is defined as ‘the existential maintenance method’, it can be determined that for Dewey, ‘education’ necessarily has the correlation with ‘the concept of life’.