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2012, Vol., No.46

  • 1.

    Education during the Times Difficult to Teach

    Duk-yul Shin | 2012, (46) | pp.1~21 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to look for the reason and cause that incapacitated our nation's ability to educate, and provide a solution to it. Due to a nationwide hypocrisy and prejudiced sense of value that is dominant, the writer decides that good education is not performed. Instead of following publicly avowed educational aim, curriculum, and method of education, our nation's schools and universities rather concentrate in college preparations and career fares. The wealth biased values can act as an obstruction to the good education. In order to solve such problem, we first have to educate as publicly avowed; however, if the problem cannot be acknowledged, we are ought to revise it and commit to it. Once we ignore this procedure, hypocrisy will rule upon us in the society and cause possible disorder. As it is well known, elementary to secondary high schools have purposes of liberal education, while universities concentrate on both liberal and professional educations. To perform this, both a necessary improvement to the system and an individual decision to authentic education are required.
  • 2.

    The Education in the Difficult to Teach Era-at the Perspectives of Oriental Education Thought

    Jung JaeGeol | 2012, (46) | pp.23~44 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to explain why teaching became difficult in this era and how to solve this problem at the perspectives of oriental education thought. The modern civilization built on three foundations. They were individual as atomic particles, reason as the most strong power every individual could exercise, and the work which gave to the worker their ego-identity. But the information revolution in this era result in breaking these three foundations. If we can see this changes at the optimistical view, we can make a new civilization which Buddha, Jesus, and Confucius wanted us to make. The most important thing to build the new civilization is to find a new self-identity according to diminishing the ego-identity which accompanied by his work. We can give a new self-identity to new generation by ego-diminishing education. Through ego-diminishing education we can give away the concept of individual as separate and independent particles. Instead we can get a cosmetic self-identity in which everything in this cosmos connected to each other as the Indra Net.
  • 3.

    A Study on Educational Difficulty in the History of Western Education

    Go Yohan | 2012, (46) | pp.45~70 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is researching on educational difficulty in the history of western education. In other words, the goal and significance of this paper lies in knowing the essential meaning of education based on the norms of difficulty. The major method for this study is hermeneutical-anthropological pedagogy. My fundamental claim is the following: the essential nature of teaching is difficulty at any instructional condition and situations. Such a discrete idea was clearly identified and confirmed in the process of pedagogical anthropology. That is, through the consciousness of educational difficulty and critical review for the history of western education, I can cleary define the concept of educational difficulty. Educational difficulty was various ways for understanding by all audiences. Namely, various formulars were developed for understanding it according to the age, cultures, nations, ideology, etc.. But there are continuous characters on the way for understanding on educational difficulty. The results on research are as followings. In the primitive age, fundamental difficulty of education lies in the initiation ceremony. At the classical ancient time, the purpose of education was 'Politai' with politike arete, in this educational conditions, instruction have a complex dimension politically as well as psychologically. At the medieval age, educational difficulty lies in the 'Askese' for instructional methods. In the modern and conventional age, educational difficulty is more and more complex and confused on goals, methods, evaluations, etc.. Most of all, the major or key concept of educational difficulty in this world is the conflict between the two instructional principles, that is, objectivism and constructivism in education. At now, the schoolworks for instruction over all educational situations and conditions have a difficulty of traditional as well conventional dilemma. In conclusion, educational difficulty have formal, natural, original attribute and it is general and universal phenomenon.
  • 4.

    Meanings of the ‘Difficulties in Teaching Students’ in Contemporary Korea and Some Suggestions for Overcoming the Difficulties

    HAN Gicheol | 2012, (46) | pp.71~98 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this essay is, based on the assumption that the difficulties in teaching in school classrooms of Korea have become much more severe than before, to define what it means to say that it has become much more difficult today than before to teach in school, to investigate why it is so, and to search for ways to solve the problem. Since the word ‘teching’, like ‘education’, is used very widely, it is necessary to define its meaning, especially in academic discussions. The author defines the meaning of ‘being difficult in teaching’ as that the school teachers are having difficulties in teaching their students. The most important reason of the problem is diagnosed as the collapse of the relationship between the teacher and the students in classroom, which could result in the collapse of the whole system of school communities. To alleviate the situation and further to improve it, the author suggests that philosophers of education go forward much more actively to communicate with ordinary people their ideas about the right ways to teach and educate children, and strengthen the solidarity with them in order to get over with the environment of the limitless competition that characterizes the contemporary educational system of Korea.
  • 5.

    The Education in the Unteachable Times- From the Viewpoint of European Philosophy of Education -

    Cho, Sang Sik | 2012, (46) | pp.99~121 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to explain the education in the unteachable times from the viewpoint of European philosophy of education. In order to describe the complicated problematic persuasively, this paper goes through the three following steps; firstly, to take an example of various symptoms that are exposed in the educational realities such as academic papers, journals and mass media. Secondly, to make clear why such a educational problem appeared. This will be discussed in the dimension of a little long-range process of western intellectual history. Hereby it is concluded that the unteachable problem is rooted in the victory of liberalistic philosophy of education. Thirdly, to suggest that the fundamental cause of the unteachable education may be found upon the nature of science of education in itself. Here the developing and specializing process of modern science of education(Erziehungswissenschaft) it is examined. We have to recognize that our educational theory and practice contain an unreasonable problem as two poles between educational force (compulsion) and freedom (nonintervention) as fatal aporia. We, as educators, are able to find an ideal point from range of two poles. Therefore it is to conclude that the educational activity is from the first a difficult task.
  • 6.

    Moral Responsibility and the Education for Authenticity

    Kim, Hee-Bong | 2012, (46) | pp.123~146 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to explore the means of cultivating pupil's moral responsibility. There are continuous debates between free will theory and determinism. Determinism is the view that all events, including everything that we do, are causal upshots of the distant past and the laws of nature. According to this account, we have not responsibilities for our actions. In contrast, free will theory is the view that we have free will that we can choose and decide our actions. Because of our free will, we should be morally responsible for our actions. Incompatiblists argue that free will is not compatible with determinism. In contrast, Compatiblists argue that free will is compatible with determinism. Latter implies many educational ideas. In this perspective, to be free means being the causal source of one's actions and being able to act on reason. There are various educational theories that argue for the importance of authenticity. Authenticity is variously construed as the capacity to make rational choices about what codes of conduct to adopt, the capacity to feel, will, think, and see in particular ways, the capacity to be the best juge of one's vital interests and needs, the capacity to exercise liberty rights, and the capacity for self-determination. Education for responsibility-relative authenticity is required. Free will is a necessary condition for moral responsibility and it should also be seen as compatible with determinism.
  • 7.

    A Study on Narrative Understanding of Philosophy Education for Children

    배수희 | KANG GI, SU | 2012, (46) | pp.147~168 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to provide a clue that solves the problem of the 'philosophy education for children'. The possibility of the 'philosophy education for children' has been discussed throughout history. It began in earnest in the late 20th century, especially 'Lipman' in the U.S. and IAPC. 'Philosophy education for children' took shape the ideas, of 'philosophy for children' and 'philosophy with children'. Since then, it has come into wide use all over the world. However, there are some problems that are insufficient of critical and reflective researches; theories disconnected from educational practice, the lack of support by educational authorities and the deficiency of talented teachers. Because of these factors, 'philosophy education for children' is having a 1hard time to sustain growth and practical activity. These are the limits of 'paradigmatic thought' which comes from Bruner's idea. The limits will be able to solve through interaction between theories and practices in the sense of hermeneutics, and process that works to practical reasoning. As the process for better practice of 'philosophy education for children', I want you to approach 'narrative thought' on it. There are already enough underlying narratives in 'philosophy education for children', this narrative stated does not only use the story from a textbook or the skill for teaching, but also includes the narrative form in 'philosophy education for children'. The overall direction of research about 'philosophy education for children' should be changed from analysis to interpretation. Addedly stories have to use the thing as a means of transforming thought and action for practical reasoning and practice of 'philosophy education for children'. I wish, then, to place the philosophical discourse about 'philosophy education for children' in a more narrative form so that practices are brought out in greater detail.
  • 8.

    A Review on the Educational Theory of Jean Jacques Rousseau's Emotional Intelligence

    Eugene Song | 2012, (46) | pp.169~193 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims at searching for the direction of Korean adolescent education, which is in the unprecedented crisis, and drawing its opportune implications through a review on J. J. Rousseau's educational theory of emotional intelligence. First of all, it is considered from Rousseau’s education in naturalism that the reestablishment of educational philosophy has to be made if we genuinely realize the need of an education system for the happier developing younger generation. Second, according to Rousseau’s theory based on education in naturalism, the principle of self-preservation and the principle of autonomy are heavily suggested. These two principles are significant and inevitable to create educational environment both in and out of school, in which adolescent students can recognize the importance and value of self-esteem. The principles also reveal the importance of fulfillment of what freedom and liberty is, which is needed for students to acquire the principle of autonomy. Third, as Rousseau insists, the practical tasks of his educational philosophy lie mainly in adolescents’ emotion education and knowledge education. It is repeatedly emphasized that the purpose of education should be the balanced development and training of body and sensibility in childhood and it should be the key to achieving the educational goals. Rousseau seems to think that the training of body and sensibility in childhood means more than simply raising physically healthy children or indicating the importance of direct experiences through senses. But it is rather a kind of remedy to relieve the state of mental unease and passions, which is generally experienced in the specific development process of building a man of rationality and morality. It is a particularly apt time to reconsider the contemporary implications of Rousseau’s educational philosophy on emotional intelligence and adopt its essential meaning to the present crisis of education environment realistically and flexibly.
  • 9.

    Parent's Desire from a Socio-biological Point of View

    LEE SEONGMI | 2012, (46) | pp.195~223 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Many modern parent-theories tacitly premise norms that parent-child relationship should be full of love, understanding, encouraging, and comforting. Even though they regard the conflicts between parent and child as their subject of the study, it is very difficult to find their basic questions such as why and from where the conflicts begins. Besides, even though they present how to be good parents, they do not show radical skepticism about ‘what is the real parent-child relationship’. In fact, parental love for child, on which parental authority and responsibility are based, has been accepted as indemonstrable theme so far. But we need to ascertain the realities or facts before discussing about parental sacrifice, love, authority, and responsibility. This article focuses on the parent's desires among many facts which explain parent-child relationship. Because parent's desires based on his/her power cannot avoid the conflict with child's independent freedom, it becomes the key reason that causes complications between parent and child. As the first step of philosophical thinking about parent-child relationship, with priority given to parent's desires, I tried to infer parent's biological desires from some sociobiological researches which analyze the cause of altruistic instinct. The most of relationships that we can find purely altruistic instinct are the ones between parent and child. Sociobiology finds the reason from gene, which has the nature of self-reproduction as the only survival principle. Through the child who inherits his/her gene, parent feels the life which survives transcending the limits of generations. On the other hand, parent has the desire to recreate him/herself through his/her child because of the self-centered and out-intentional consciousness. But child is not an extension of parent him/herself but an extension of the immortal life in parent. Child is another independent existence and the fate of parent is to help child become wholly independent from parent.
  • 10.

    Modern Educational Meaning of Choljae, Lew, Won Ji Educational Methodology

    Nakchan Jung | 2012, (46) | pp.225~258 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Choljae, Lew, Won Ji suggests that including both, unified views of the world and human, through dichotomy relative structure. He also shows a unique educational thougts to reach having mature personality as these unified views of the world and human. His view of learning places Chinese classics(經學) on the principal, and the others like system, history and literature on the bottom. Especially, for the learning of principal, it gets count on the deepening process of knowledge through careful reading and deep thinking, and the extending process of enlightenment through recognition and appreciation of the meaning. So, he sets much by reading among meaning, practice and reading of three requisites for learning. Therefore he emphasize on the reading method to find the deep meaning from the inside and to get by experience more than fast reading or wide reading. And he lays weight on the learning method according to the frame and character of kyunghak. Choljae is looking for the methodology of moral culture from inside human spirit. From this, the true form of spirit is originally faithful, but sometimes unconsciousness, and action of spirit is fundamentally virtuous, but easily falls into devil, so that he suggests kungri(窮理) and kyung(敬) for the means to overcome reality. So he attaches importance to josin(操身) and introspection as specific means for mental culture. And he emphasize the importance of the way of moral culture turned from its' inside toward outside. Modern educational meanings were the education of harmony and human, life education, the association of the justice, the attention concentration, peak experience.
  • 11.

    Neuroscientific Explanations of Empathy: Implications for Education

    Han,Ill-Jo | 2012, (46) | pp.259~289 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to examine the explanations of empathy in neuroscientific studies, and draw out some implications for social and moral education. Especially, the study tried to focus on the origins and mechanisms of empathy. The result is as following. The main explanation of empathy in neuroscience is consist of the theory of evolutionary origin of human brain and some hypothetical theories concerning the phenomena of affective sharing and perspective taking. The relationship of empathy with prosocial or helping behaviors is still to be verified. The findings suggest the need for a more heightened interest in indirect experiences, more use of being-imitated, emotional contagion of positive feelings, and somewhat methodically detached caring of parents and teachers.