In this study, I sought humanity we must deserve from the concept of K. Jaspers’ independent character, and examined the meaning of liberal education that he considered to be excellent in developing such human beings.
In the chapter Ⅱ, I checked the meaning of liberal education that K. Jaspers said. I studied the concept of education from the point of intellectual excellence that gave the existence of independent character, and examined liberal education which was exceptional in shaping independent character in the western tradition of liberal arts education.
In the chapter Ⅲ, I developed specific discussions on liberal arts education around philosophical classics and debates. Among the books he regarded as the epitome of education, I read Oedipus Tyrannos and Hamlet to make philosophical interpretation, and I looked into the educational implications of the philosophical argument which is fiercely competing for truth.
In the chapter Ⅳ, I reviewed the modern meaning of liberal education he said in terms of lifelong learning. I looked at how education gained through liberal arts works as a force for self-education and as a creative life during its lifetime.
As a result of this study, it was able to identify the appropriateness of liberal arts education in fostering independent character that lives a creative life with the power of liberal arts education and is based on K. Jaspers’ character education theory.
The purpose of this study is to examine a model of Zen Buddhism teachers(禪師) and their instructional methods, draw educational messages from this. For this, the study first examined the characteristics of instructional methods of Zen Buddhism teachers. First, the Zen Buddhism teachers did not lean on languages but tried to induce their students to attain buddhahood. Especially, they emphasized that asceticism which pushed them to limits of language can make them reach the level of escaping from it. Second, the Zen Buddhism teachers made a request for meeting the way they are not depending on anybody. Therefore, they emphasized that their students can reach enlightenment when focusing Hwadu(話頭) and not relying on anybody. Third, the Zen Buddhism teachers emphasized that students must keep determined attitudes to look at the way they are and have their own aspirations for truth. Zen Buddhism teachers thought that practitioners of Buddha-dharma who overcame these teachings all over the body can experience Hwadu as it is and realize the truth. Next, the study considered instructional messages of the model of Zen Buddhism teachers and their instructional methods. The practitioners of Buddha-dharma who first devoted themselves to realize the truth and make their efforts to deliver all of it to their students become an example of modern teachers. Especially, the message given to ethics teachers is very important. First, ethics teachers must help students know the value of the other side of phenomena. Second, ethics teachers must develop all kinds of instructional methods including methods utilizing languages in the teaching processes.
Various experiential activities can help youth to find their own values in a contemporary world of uncertainty and diversity. Among them this study focuses on volunteer activities learning, and explores its meaning for character education. Particularly, this study first examined the meaning of character development from the three perspectives of Dewey’s experiential learning, Noddings’ care theory and Blasi’s theory of moral identity, and with these, the study reconsiders the meaning of volunteer activities learning. In the process, the problem of human embodiment and practical knowledge were stand out, entwined with the problem of moral self development.
This article discusses the problem in three respects, first the place of John Dewey in philosophical history, second the assessment of his books, and third the future problems of his philosophy. Dewey was one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century. His theory of education and philosophy played a significant role. His ideas of ‘growth’ and ‘democracy’ is rigorous and open to serve in today’s inquiry. Two ideas among many ideas are key ideas of his philosophy. He argues that growth is the aim of education and of life. In Dewey’s view, democracy is more than a form of government. It is a form of life, “a mode of associated living, of conjoint communicated experience.” Education and democracy have an intimate connection, are mutual aims and means in Dewey’s philosophy. If the intrinsic aim of education is growth by reconstruction of experience, the best way to achieve this aim for Dewey is democracy as a participatory and communicative activity. For Dewey, Democracy was “is itself an educational principle.” Unfortunately his ideas have not penetrated far into the system beyond academic discussion. Dualistic mode of thinking which appears to be deeply rooted everywhere has proved to be an obstacle to the reception of Dewey. How influential are Dewey’s writings in the 21st century. The assessments of Dewey that are available is controversial. In order to live Dewey’s philosophy and philosophy of education needs renewal of Dewey. Conceptions of democracy and growth have to be born anew every generation. These are understood to be a critical and creative reconstruction of Dewey’s philosophy in the future.
There is nothing more important than the concept of education in theory and practice of education. This is because the concept of education is the starting point and the destination of all things related to education. In this paper, I did thinking about some of the problems in defining the concept of education. Especially I paid attention to the paradox of definition that appears in the relation of concept and fact. I have considered the definition of the concept of education that can overcome such a problem. In view of the relationship between facts and concepts, there is no concept or logic that can fully encompass the world of facts. But we can't give up defining the meaning of concept. Therefore although many scholars know that the method of defining does not adequately implement the concept of understanding the world of facts, they cannot give up the task of making the incomplete definition. This is the 'paradox of definition' that inevitably appears in the relationship between concepts and facts. Peters also knew about the paradox of definition. He therefore chose the term 'synthetic sketch' instead of 'definition' in the process of defining the concept of education. Despite the 'paradox of definition', it is necessary to define the concept of education at the level of reducing errors as much as possible. It is a way of defining the concept of education by aggregating the core of the definition of several scholars. In this way, we can define 'the concept of education as a process of socialization through growth and change of human consciousness and action'. I would like to call this definition of the concept of education the 'definition of crow model'. In conclusion, in defining the concept of education, we must not forget that 'definition can not capture all the reality of a concept, and a concept can not contain all facts'. In other words, whenever you want to define the concept of education, you have to start thinking from the 'paradox of definition'.
The purpose of this study is to explore the educational activities of Wolcheon, Jo Mok. He is the first disciple of Lee Hwang, and his life is quite similar to Lee. The educational activities in the Neo– Confucianism should be broadened to cover the life's activities in consideration of the educational purpose is spiritual enlightenment for dao(道). The educational activities appearing in the chronology of Jo Mok include the repair of the Wolcheon Seodang, the reconstruction of the Bonghwa Hyanggyo, the construction of the Yeokdong Seowon and the Dosan Seowon, and the lecture activities. As an example of his educational activities, he has the appearance of a scholar and his discipleship. As a scholar, he was highly regarded by Lee and became an example to other disciples. His manner of serving his teacher served as a model for posterity. His fundamentalist character appears throughout his educational activities. His achievements show that he is an educator.