The purpose of this study was to develop a Resilience Scale for North Korean Youth in South Korea. A preliminary resilience scale of 34 items were constructed based on the literature review of resilience theories and interviews with North Korean Youth and 4 practitioners working with NK youth. A pilot survey was conducted with 107 NK youth in Hanawon, and factorial analysis of the data from the pilot survey reduced the 34 item scale to 18 items. The main survey was administered to 196 North Korean Youth who were made up of 39 youth at Hanawon and 157 youth residing in the community. The factor structure of the resilience instrument was tested with the Principal Component Analysis(PCA). A PCA yielded a model with 13 items with three 3 factors: ‘hardiness’, ‘ability to form intimacy’, ‘specificity of goals’. The internal consistency of the instrument indicates a high degree of homegeniety among items. The internal consistency of the instrument was .88 and the odd-even reliability was r = .86. The result of the confirmatory factor analysis showed the same construct as that of the exploratory factor analysis. The construct validity was tested by conducting Pearson's correlations between the resilience scale scores and Reynolds(1983)'s social desirability, Rosenberg(1965)'s self-esteem, HSCL-37, Kim et al(2009)'s cultural adaptation stress scores. A significant negative correlations with HSCL-anxiety(r = -.26, p ＜ .05), HSCL-depression(r = -.33, p ＜ .05), HSCL-crisis(r = -.17, p ＜ .05), cultural adaptation stress(r = -.18, p ＜ .05), and a positive correlation with Self-esteem(r = .57, p < .05) supported the validity of the instrument. As another way of verifying the construct validity, the data was divided into three groups according to the level of resilience scores(high resilient group, middle resilient group, low resilient group) and differences between groups in the levels of cultural adaptation stress and HSCL scores were verified by performing MANOVA. There were significant differences between the groups, which support the construct validity of the resilience scale. In conclusion, this instrument demonstrates good reliability and validity, and proves that it is an appropriate tool to measure resilience in North Korean youth. Implications for future research are discussed.