This study examined whether middle school boys and girls display different achievement goal orientation profiles and whether the levels of academic and psychological adjustment differ by the profile type. Six-hundred eighty students in Gr. 7 to Gr. 9 completed self-report questionnaires assessing achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, performance avoidance), academic adjustment (i.e., academic efficacy, engagement during learning activities, academic stress), and psychological adjustment (i.e., self-esteem, depressive-anxious symptoms). First, cluster analyses yielded five achievement goal orientation clusters in each gender: among boys, mastery avoidance oriented (29.5%), success oriented (20.6%), performance avoidance oriented (20.6%), mastery approach oriented (16.6%), and disengaged (12.6%); among girls, avoidance oriented (35.7%), success oriented (23.6%), indifferent (21.2%), mastery approach oriented (14.5%), and disengaged (5.1%). Second, analyses of variance indicated differences in the levels of academic and psychological adjustment among achievement goal orientation profile types in each gender. These findings signify that some of middle school students’ achievement goal orientation profiles are common to both genders but others are gender-specific and that the levels of academic and psychological adjustment vary by the profile type. Practical implications for developing instructional and psychological interventions, limitations of this study, and suggestions for future research were discussed.