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2006, Vol.20, No.

  • 1.

    Reviewing the Theories of Metaphors and Seeking Research Methodologies on Metaphors

    박 영 순 | 2006, 20() | pp.1~28 | number of Cited : 24
    Park Youngsoon. 2006. Reviewing the Theories of Metaphors and Seeking Research Methodologies on Metaphors. Korean Semantics, 20. This paper reviews of the studies done with metaphors and discusses about the methodologies of doing research on metaphors in interdisciplinary perspective. For the theories of metaphor, Substitute Theory, Comparison Theory, and Interaction Theory are reviewed very briefly in the methodological point of view. Then, Classical Theory, Structural Theory, Romanticism, Cognitive Theory, and Pragmatic Theories are discussed shortly in the philosophical point of view. For the methodologies of metaphor studies, Pure linguistic approach,, Sociolinguistic approach, Cognitive approach and Pragmatic approach are suggested. Since metaphors show creative ability of human mind in nature and they are used in various ways in various contexts, they should be analyzed interdisciplinary perspectives. For examples, the structures and meanings of metaphors could be captured in terms of pure linguistics, the mental process of production and interpretation of metaphors could be investigated by cognitive linguistics approach, and social variables of using metaphors would be found with sociolinguistic analysis etc.
  • 2.

    On Conceptual Metaphor

    임 지 룡 | 2006, 20() | pp.29~60 | number of Cited : 158
    Lim Ji-ryong. 2006 On Conceptual Metaphor. Korean semantics 20. The purpose of this paper is to explore the basic concept, types, and working principles of conceptual metaphor on the basis of conceptual metaphor theories. The conclusions are as follows. First, our thoughts and ideas are essentially metaphoric according to conceptual theories. Conceptual metaphor is a cognitive strategy that structures and conceptualizes a new and abstract target domain by using a familiar and concrete source domain. Metaphoric expressions are linguistic expressions of conceptual metaphor. Second, conceptual metaphor is classified as structural, ontological, and orientational, according to the fidelity of the conceptual structure to the target domain. This fidelity is ‘structural metaphor>ontological metaphor> orientational metaphor.’ Third, the working principle behind conceptual metaphors can be explained as a mapping relationship between a source domain and a target domain, and the cognitive ability of this mapping structure to activate a new and abstract domain. In this case, the mapping is characterized by the maintenance of a unilateral, partial, and basic skeleton between conceptual domains. Lower level mappings inherit higher level ones. Fourth, conceptual metaphor theory provides higher explanatory adequacy for the motivation of metaphor use, the tool of inference and meaning extension, and empirical correlation, whereas it has problems with over-concentration on conceptual metaphor, and with its conceptual and methodological foundations. Conceptual metaphor theory also has limits and problems that cannot be explained by the mapping between conceptual domains.
  • 3.

    A Metaphorical Extension of the Meaning of Duplicative Korean Auxiliary Verb

    김 문 기 | 2006, 20() | pp.61~90 | number of Cited : 3
    Kim Mun-Gi. 2006. A Metaphorical Extension of the Meaning of Duplicative Korean Auxiliary Verb. Korean Semantics, 20. This paper deals with characteristics of Duplicative Korean Auxiliary Verbs (DKAVs) by Methodology of Cognitive Semantics. Especially DKAVs are realized to be serial verb constructions which are duplicative forms in Korean. These verbs are ‘gada(go)’, ‘boda(see)’, ‘beorida(throw away)’, ‘nota(put)’, ‘ssata(pile up)’. In this paper, I investigate that these verbs’ extended semantic meanings represent metaphorical shift of the meaning from the main verbs’ meaning to the duplicative auxiliary verbs’ meaning. For this target, I suppose that conceptual space as a main verb’s meaning, and target space as a duplicative auxiliary verb’s meaning, as well as middle space as a metaphorically extended meaning. This paper is useful for arrangement of words’ meanings cognitively in Korean dictionary and the compilation of Korean dictionary for foreigners who study Korean.
  • 4.

    The Metaphorical Conceptualization of the Two Korean Emotion Concepts ceng and han

    나 익 주 | 2006, 20() | pp.91~120 | number of Cited : 32
    Na Ik-Joo. 2006. The Metaphorical Conceptualization of the Two Korean Emotion Concepts ceng and han. Korean Semantics, 20. The two emotions ceng and han are said to be characteristic of Korean people. However, little has been known about what those emotions look like. This paper aims to clarify what the emotional concepts specifically refer to within the cognitive linguistic theory of conceptual metaphors. According to the theory, abstract concepts such as ceng or han cannot be understood without appeal to metaphor as a cognitive process, in which one conceptual domain (called ‘target domain’) is grasped in terms of another conceptual domain (called ‘source domain’). Ceng is understood in terms of such metaphors as CENG IS A THING, CENG IS A GLUTINOUS OBJECT, CENG IS A FLUID IN A CONTAINER, CENG IS A NUTRIENT, CENG IS A POSSESSION, and CENG IS WARMTH, while han is grasped through HAN IS A THING, HAN IS A SOLIDIFIED LIQUID IN A CONTAINER, and HAN IS COLDNESS. In the conceptualization process, some aspects of each concept are highlighted and other aspects are hided.
  • 5.

    Metaphors of Anger and Happiness in English and Korean

    송부선 | 2006, 20() | pp.121~137 | number of Cited : 14
    Song Buseon. 2006. Metaphors of Anger and Happiness in English and Korean. Korean Semantics, 20. This paper presents a comparative study of conceptual metaphors of anger and happiness in English and Korean. It shows systematically recurring patterns of English and Korean metaphorical expressions of anger and happiness. Both English and Korean share many metaphors in their conceptualizations of anger and happiness, but there are some conceptual and descriptive differences observed throughout the study. This study provides support for the claim by Lakoff(1993) and Kvecses(2000) that the conceptualization of emotions has universality that comes from universal aspect of bodily functioning in emotional states. At the same time. there are variations across cultures and languages, since bodily experience always interacts with specific physical, social, and cultural environments.
  • 6.

    Metaphor: A way of persuasion

    신 선 경 | 2006, 20() | pp.139~159 | number of Cited : 25
    Shin Sun-kyung. 2006. Metaphor: A way of persuasion. Korean Semantics 20. The purpose of this paper is to examine how Metaphors are produced, accepted and reproduced in the situations of persuasion. In most cases, previous researches concentrated on the relation between objects and expression or original concepts and related concepts in metaphor. However, metaphor is not limited to literary expression but extended to communication and thinking in everyday life. This paper concerns the pragmatic aspects of metaphors and stipulates the function of metaphors in everyday communications. This paper consists of three parts. At frist, we represent the various cases of metaphors using as a mean of persuasion. Second, we analyse the process of producing metaphor not only in the veiw point of the participants of communication but also in the common field of experience and topos shared by communication participants. third, we examine the process of accepting, denying and, reproducing metaphors.
  • 7.

    A Cognitive Analysis of Metaphors for Eyesight in Korean

    吉 本 一 | 2006, 20() | pp.161~186 | number of Cited : 2
    Yoshimoto Hajime. 2006. A Cognitive Analysis of Metaphors for Eyesight in Korean. Korean Semantics, 20. This thesis analyzes metaphors on eyesight in Korean. As a result, the followings are revealed: Firstly, an eyesight is a line that connects a viewpoint with an object viewed. Secondly, an eyesight is thought of as having the properties of power, temperature, solidity, sharpness, and so on. These properties reflect either the feeling of an agent who gives out an eyesight or the cognition of an agent who receives and observes an eyesight. Thirdly, an eyesight is an object that moves from a viewpoint to an object viewed. In this case, an eyesight is regarded as a motion of other parts than eyes, a object that is attracted by a certain existence, a object that is taken away or thrown away, a sharp object which we stab or stick to, and a object such as liquid, vapor or light. Fourthly, an eyesight is an object that moves from an object to another object. Interesting is the case in which an eyesight is thought of as a motion of other body-parts than eyes including tongue motion, hand motion, and leg motion. Fifthly, various actions of plural eyesights are observed. Included are the case in which two eyesights are faced, the case in which two eyesights miss each other or an eyesight avoids another eyesight, the case in which a person accepts one’s eyesight, the case in which a person pushes out or bounds another eyesight, or the case in which a person looks at the same place as another person’s eyesight.
  • 8.

    The Genius of Source Domain in Korean Metaphor

    Yi Yu-mi | 2006, 20() | pp.187~203 | number of Cited : 17
    Yi Yu Mi. 2006. The Genius of Source Domain in Korean Metaphor. Korean Semantics, 20. This Research is aimed to study on the genius of “fire”, “water” and “temperature” which is used in Korean Conceptual metaphor. We researched on 500 newspaper articles for this study. Firstly we classified according to the time to study an inflection of metaphor and analyzed the clause of the inflection of metaphor. Secondly we make a collection of metaphor, having a source-domain among “fire”, “water” and “temperature” and study on the genius of them.
  • 9.

    Aspects of Conceptualization on ‘Mind(maeum)’ through Embodied Experience in Korean

    이 종 열 | 2006, 20() | pp.205~230 | number of Cited : 23
    Lee Jong-yeol. 2006. Aspects of Conceptualization on ‘Mind(maeum)’ through Embodied Experience in Korean. Korean Semantics, 20. The concepts of ‘Mind(maeum)’ in west and east may seem to be the results of observation of mind reality by each other viewpoint, but are really products of metaphors and metonymys. The aim of this paper is to examine the aspects of concept extension on ‘Mind(maeum)’ through Embodied Experience. This study describes the concepts of abstract ‘Mind(maeum)’ is conceptualized through our embodied experience and physical responses. The results are as follow: First, ‘Mind (maeum)’ builded up three types of image schema; ‘BODY Schema’, ‘CONTAINER Schema’, ‘IN-OUT Schema’, through the embodied structure of experience and physical experience. Second, this image schema of ‘Mind(maeum)’ contribute to conceptual metaphor on basic level; [MIND IS BODY][MIND IS THING][MIND IS SPACE]. Third, the conceptual metaphor [BODY IS CONTAINER][MIND IS CONTAINER] [[MIND IS FOOD] are structuralization in action of metonymic operation, which is Container ICM, Possession ICM. And that which are systematized based on the structural relations. In hence, the concept of ‘Mind(maeum)’ represents the conceptual structure and the cognitive interaction of metaphor and metonymy, in view of cognitive operations as the conceptual integration process.
  • 10.

    Metaphor of Baduk Terms

    채 완 | 2006, 20() | pp.231~255 | number of Cited : 4
    Chae Wan. 2006. Metaphor of Baduk Terms. Korean Semantics, 20. This paper focuses on metaphorical aspects of baduk (go game) terms. There is a variety of technical terms used in the field of baduk. Baduk terms are composed of metaphoric expressions representing various techniques, style of play, shape of territory, skills of cutting, killing, and blocking, life and death, etcetera. Many of the terms originate from metaphorical expansion of ordinary words. Baduk is conceptualized by metaphor as war, animal, plant, food, house, and so forth. On the other hand, many of the baduk terms have assumed their extended meanings and are used in everyday life. We examined the baduk terms which are used as everyday words with their metaphorically extended meanings. Those usage is common in newspapers, internet media and cartoons. As examined in this paper, the baduk terminology enjoys the status of everyday words beyond that of technical terms. A study on these words can also proceed with a pragmatic approach, not only with a semantic approach. A further in-depth study could be conducted on the baduk terminology from various perspectives.
  • 11.

    The Extraction of Metaphorical Expressions from the Newspaper Corpus

    최 운 호 , 강 범 모 , 차 재 은 | 2006, 20() | pp.257~279 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    Choi WoonhoCha Je-EunKang Beom-mo. 2006. The Extraction of Metaphorical Expressions from the Newspaper Corpus. Korean Semantics, 20. This paper aims at developing methods of extracting figurative expressions from a domain-specific corpus and extending the multi-lingual lexical database entries for those expressions to be included. The nominal entries which can be used figuratively are selected from the annotated corpus, using the hierarchical semantic class of Sejong Electronic Dictionary. And from the raw corpus, the partially-parsed corpus are constructed automatically. To extract candidates for figurative expression, we fixed some syntactic patterns in advance, for example [NP+sbj-marker NP+obj-marker V], and extract those patterns from partially-parsed corpus. After investigating the extracted expressions and classifying them whether figurative or literal, we concluded that some nominal entries are used more figuratively in specific syntactic patterns.
  • 12.

    The Discussion of Semantic Function of Word Order Variations

    강 소 영 | 2006, 20() | pp.281~303 | number of Cited : 8
    Kang soyeong. 2006. The Discussion of Semantic Function of Word Order Variations. Korean Semantics, 20. This paper aims to investigate principles inherent to word order variations sentences or clauses in which certain constituents move rightward from their original positions reflecting the speaker’s intention. As a result of the investigation of frequency with conversation data, we can find out that subject (47 times) and subordinate clause (37 times) dislocation occur most frequently. To put it more concretely, in the case of the subject, (1stperson) pronouns and lexical NPs appear dislocated most frequently, and in the case of the subordinate clause, the ‘-nuntey’ clause does. As for the right dislocation of the 1st person singular pronoun ‘na,’ cases with the particle, ‘-nun’ attached to the pronoun overwhelm others, which has the meaning of [contrasts, exclusion]. ‘-Nun’has the effect of reducing other discourse participants by acknowledging differences in thoughts from others. Also, the lexical NPs are followed by the particle ‘ka,’ which reflects the speakers’ intention to precisely transmit his/her messages by clarifying the nucleus of the described content. Lastly, in the case of the subordinate clause, the ‘-nuntey’ clause overwhelmingly occupy the majority, which mainly has the meaning of [constrast]. The reason why the dislocation of the ‘nuntey’ clause appear frequently is which has the semantic function of interaction between the speaker and the hearer.
  • 13.

  • 14.

    A Study on the Existing Word Network Manners and Word-formation in the Lexicon: The Viewpoint of Connectionism

    나 은 미 | 2006, 20() | pp.325~345 | number of Cited : 8
    Na Eun-Mi. 2006. A Study on the Existing Word Network Manners and Word-formation in the Lexicon: The Viewpoint of Connectionism. Korean Semantics, 20. This study is to discuss the correlations between word storage manners and word-formation from the viewpoint of connectionism. Connectionismassumes that words in the lexicon are connected one another. This study shows various phenomena of the lexicon in lexical strength and lexical connection that Bybee(1985, 1988) proposed. Particularly, in this paper, these concepts explain the various internal structures of compound words. And this study is to discuss the correlation between lexical patterns and new word-formation.
  • 15.

    A Study on Linguistic Analysis of Han Yong Woon’s Poetry

    신 희 삼 | 2006, 20() | pp.347~370 | number of Cited : 5
    Shin Hee-Sam. 2006. A Study on Linguistic Analysis of Han Yong Woon’s Poetry. Korean Semantics, 20. There are many methods to analyze a poem. Recently, linguistic analysis like the measuring linguistics is making a new field of the poem analysis. Because there are oppositions from literary critics about subjective and impressionistic criticism, linguistic analysis is become the center of interest. People keeping linguistic attitude in poem analyzing are having a trust that the scientific and objective criterion will make a new field of the poem analysis. same as all theories have merits and demerits, linguistic analysis has merits and demerits too. Linguistic analysis will be a support about granting a warrant to the existing analysis’ and correcting errorless analysis’. In this aspect, significances of linguistic analysis is numerous. This paper analyzed poems of Han Yong Woon in the basis of linguistic point of view. Section 2 is about dialects, Section 3 is about honorifics, section 4 is about the meaning ambiguity and section 5 is about connections of words, repetitions of the same word, contraction, insertion, faint words in morphologic point of view and so on.
  • 16.

    Syntactic Characteristics of ‘sipta’ Phrase and Its Semantic Development in Modern Korean

    안 주 호 | 2006, 20() | pp.371~391 | number of Cited : 20
    Ahn Joohoh. 2006. Syntactic Characteristics of ‘sipta’ Phrase and Its Semantic Development in Modern Korean. Korean Semantics, 20. This paper is concerned with investigating the syntactic characteristics of ‘sipta’ phrase used in modern Korean language and its semantic development process. The ‘sipta’ phrase, when composed of ‘-ko sipta’, represents ‘hope’, while it expresses ‘guess’ when composed of ‘-nka/-lka/-ta sipta’. Syntactic characteristics shown in each of these compositions are discussed in terms of ‘restrictions on subject, restrictions on preceding verb, and scope of negation.’ Also is discussed the semantic development in each case of the compositions. The ‘-ko sipta’, which is the ‘sipta’ phrase of ‘hope’, originated from ‘-kojeo sikputa’ type, while the ‘-n/lka sipta’ of ‘guess’ expression, which was connected with the interrogative ending of ‘-n/lka sipta’ only in medieval Korean language of the 15th century, adopted a variety of preceding endings in modern Korean language. The ‘sipta’ phrase representing ‘hope’ and ‘guess’ depends not on the meaning of ‘sipta’ but on the preceding endings. This can be further confirmed in other verbs such as ‘hyeota, nekita, sAlanghAta, uisimhAta’ which, depending on the preceding endings, can represent ‘hope’ or ‘guess’. Consequently, the ‘sipta’ phrase is quite similar to the monologue quotation verb.
  • 17.

    Semantic Combination of ‘Self+N’

    이 동 혁 | 2006, 20() | pp.393~413 | number of Cited : 1
    Lee Dong-hyeok. 2006. Semantic Combination of ‘Self+N’. Korean Semantics, 20. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the semantic combination of ‘self+N’ in Korean. It is assumed that the basic meaning of ‘self’ is reflexive. The reflexivity is defined as follows; ⅰ) a property that a relation between Agent(X) and Theme / Experiencer / Recipient(X) is coreferent. ⅱ) a property that action of X turns back to oneself. ① ‘self’ is filled as a REF in the argument slot of Theme/Experiencer/Recipient on Descriptive Tier. ② Agent and REF are coreferent on Referential Tier. Through ① and ②, the semantic combination of ‘self+N’ is explicated satisfactorily. It is possible to divide ‘self+N’ into four groups, such as ‘self suyu’, ‘self secha’, ‘self coffee’, ‘self camera’. Every ‘self+N’ construction is related to a commercial event except ‘self suyu’ and ‘self camera’. I explain the semantic combination of ‘self secha’/‘self coffee’ with importing meaning of service. And I explain the semantic combination of ‘self camera’ with extracting event structure from agentive and telic of qualia structure of ‘camera’.