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2011, Vol.34, No.

  • 1.

    Textlinguistics and Pragmatics, for Their Point of Contact

    Youn Soeg Min | 2011, 34() | pp.1~24 | number of Cited : 16
    This paper aims to make a comparison between textlinguistics and pragmatics, which are all important ways of approaches to discourse. These two approaches are common in giving to more attention to language use(communication function) than language structure, but there are some differences in detail. In this paper I will make such differences be clear by proving that their differences come from difference of their academic start points, core conceptions and study attitude. Through this work I expect more researches be concerned in language function, especially communication function.
  • 2.

    Communication and Pragmatics - A Comparative Study of Categories of Communication and Pragmatics

    Yi Yu-mi | 2011, 34() | pp.25~46 | number of Cited : 8
    The purpose of this study is to make a comparison with categories between Communication and Pragmatics in order to understand an academic position of pragmatics. Pragmatics and Communication have developed as a study to understand human language. Pragmatics is defined as a study of language, which is an important method of communication and Communication is defined as a study of circumstance and effectiveness of a spoken word. Definitely, Pragmatics is a study which is carry out a study of language not itself but beyond language, Communication is a study focusing on phenomena of language. All things considered, two studies are closely related with each other. However, there is lack of research on verbal strategy and effectiveness of a spoken word in communication process because Pragmatics has no consideration for the listener. In this study, we tried to reconsider an academic position of Pragmatics by making a comparative study with categories between Pragmatics and Communication.
  • 3.

    Analysis on the Characteristics of Phrases of Print and TV Public Advertisements

    김미형 | 2011, 34() | pp.47~75 | number of Cited : 13
    In this paper, the difference between the printable version and the TV version of public advertisements with the same subject and contents is discussed. The phrases in printable public advertisement are mostly literary style, which can be similar to writing style in speech as well as soliloquy type of statement. The TV version of public advertisements is expressed through dialogue, narration, and subtitles. Among them, dialogue is not an extempore colloquial style, however, can be seen as a colloquial style, since a copywriter created it in order to express such. Narration is absolutely not a colloquial style. How ever, it is also different from a literary style. Since a narration is written for there citation, it can be looked as a medium between a colloquial and a literary style. Subtitles have similar characteristics with entries in printable public advertisements, and can be seen as literary phrases. The printable advertisements with visual writing on a paper and the TV advertisements with pictures and sound are different in several sentence structural characteristics. The length of sentence, the types of sentence (declarative sentence, imperative sentence, interrogative sentence, exhortative sentence, exclamatory sentence, conclusion, obligation, intention, supposition), the omission of subject, the kind of honorific expression, the use of modifying clause, and conjunction are also analyzed.
  • 4.

    The Word Field of Korean Cuisine Verb

    Kim Jung Nam | 2011, 34() | pp.77~107 | number of Cited : 15
    In this paper, Korean cuisine verbs are classified into several groups that have common semantic features, and they are subdivided according to the distinct semantic constituent features. 99 verbs were largely divided into five types. The first is materials preparing verbs, the second is storing process verbs, the third is materials mixing and seasoning process verbs, the forth is heating process verbs. There are other cuisine verbs that do not belong here. Grooming or trimming verbs, cleansing and rinsing verbs, moistening verbs, cutting verbs, kneading verbs, and shaping verbs belong to the first group. The representative verb included in storing verbs group is ‘damgeuda’, and ‘seokda’, ‘yangnyemhada’ are typical of the third group. The heating verbs are divided into those that use water and those do not use water.
  • 5.

    Sense-Characterization of “-mankeum” and “-cheorum” and Comparative and Figurative Expression

    Na Eun Mi | 2011, 34() | pp.109~130 | number of Cited : 15
    This research investigates the relationship between a sense-characterization of ‘-mankeum’ and ‘-cheorum’ and comparative and figurative expression. First, as a preceding element, ‘-mankeum’ has a limitation from an expression that reveals a detailed aspect of existence, and ‘-cheorum’ is restrained from combining with words of measurement. Second, ‘-mankeum’ has a restriction of combination with vocabulary without a grade within the words, however, ‘-cheorum’ does not have the restriction of combination to the predicate. Third, a sentence with ‘-mankeum’ is interpreted that a matching context is equal to a matching object, and a sentence with ‘-cheorum’ is interpreted in two ways―‘expression of determining the fact’ about the predicate’s context and ‘expression of the aspect of existence.’ Fourth, comparative expression is expressing a matching result about a matching context, and figurative expression is expressing matching subject’s aspect of existence. Fifth, on the comparative expression, the matching object and the matching subject are homogeneous, and the matching context should not be a distinguished characteristic of matching object. On the other hand, on the figurative expression, the matching subject and the matching object are heterogeneous, and the matching context must be a distinguished characteristic of the matching object or a typical characteristic that is generally well known.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Cognition Aspects of Noun {sori}

    Park, Keon-Sook | 2011, 34() | pp.131~157 | number of Cited : 3
    Korean noun {소리 sori [(a) sound/ a voice/ a ballad] belongs to the basic lexical items in the Korean language. The goal of this paper is to analyze the meaning and the cognition aspects of {sori}. For this purpose, we categorized the type and cognitive objects of {sori} in real data. First, we categorized {sori} three types: physical sound, lexical meaning and contextual meaning. Physical sound is perceived as sounding destination, for example [HUMAN], [ANIMAL], [NATURE], [INAMINATE]. Also it is perceived as sound of [SPEECH], [ACTION], [WORK] and [ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES]. Sound of lexical meaning is recognized as [LITERAL MEANING] and [TITLE]. Sound of contextual meaning is recognized as [SENSE], [EMOTION], [VALUE] or {sori} on a figurative sense. According to the analysis of {sori}, Korean language users cognitive sound of contextual meaning as negative meaning. The results show that the different {sori} with the meaning [WORD] and {mal}. As well as, the results of this study can be showed that when korean language users perceive the sound {sori}, cognitive aspects of auditory of Korean language users.
  • 7.

    A Corpus-based Approach to Antonymous Relations of Korean degree adverb the(‘more’) and thel(‘less’)

    Mikyung Bong | 2011, 34() | pp.159~183 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This paper investigates antonymous relations of Korean adverb the(‘more’) and thel(‘less’) based on Korean corpus. In order to clarify antonymous relations of two adverbs, this paper will examine dictionary definitions, semantic property, semantic distribution, and collocational information. This paper analyzes 4979 sentences with keyword the and 497 sentences with keyword thel extracted from corpus. This study used the 10 million-word Sejong Modern Korean Corpus, which was managed by the National Institute of the Korean Language. The and thel have two types of meaning: comparative meaning and numeral meaning. The most frequent case is comparative meaning, which is the most typical usage of the and thel and occurs with comparative expressions such as noun + pota(‘than’). Comparative expressions do not occur when they can be figured out from the context and situation meaning. Numeral meaning is found when the and thel occur with numeral expression such as numerals or numerals + unit nouns. Additionally, only thel has a meaning of uncompleted meaning, which occurs with verbs of having accomplishment points of events in aspectual meaning. The study of antonym based on using corpus would contribute to the lexical analysis of Korean antonym and Korean corpus-based studies. At the same time, it would provide materials for Korean vocabulary teaching and lexicography for degree adverbs.
  • 8.

    Semantic Functions of -uni, -teni and -essteni: Focused on their Connective Meanings

    Jaemog Song | 2011, 34() | pp.185~212 | number of Cited : 18
    This paper investigates semantic functions of suffixes -uni, -teni and -essteni in Korean. It has been claimed in previous studies that -teni and -essteni indicate connective meanings different from those of -uni and that -teni and -essteni denote the same connective meanings. This paper, however, argues that connective meanings of -teni and -essteni originate from -uni which forms part of the two suffixes. It also argues that -teni and -essteni do not show the same connective meanings. Through corpus data analysis, this paper proposes connective meanings of causal, discovering, reactive, sequential, supplementary, contrasting or concessive for -uni. Suffixes -teni and -essteni indicate some of the meanings expressed by -uni. While -teni indicates causal, sequential, supplementary or contrasting relation, -essteni expresses causal, discovering, reactive, sequential, supplementary or contrasting relation. It is also revealed in this paper that -uni mainly indicates causal relation, while -teni and -essteni primarily denote sequential and reactive relation respectively.
  • 9.

    Study on {-go} type Particle in Contemporary Korean Language

    Ahn, Joo-hoh | 2011, 34() | pp.213~234 | number of Cited : 13
    There are approximately 100 propositional particles in modern Korean, including this type, though the exact number may be different depending on the scholar’s view. Among these, there are particles made by combination of {-go} and a verb, such as {-dugo,-hago}, and some are made by combination of {-eu} with a stem, such as {-majeu, -jocha, -nama}. In modern Korean, there are certain propositions that are in the course of developing from a verb, such as {-dugo,-hago}, though the development is not completed yet.{-bogo, -malgo, -gatgo, -chigo} may be an example as well. In this study, it will be examined whether these should be considered as a auxiliary particle of conjugated form of verbs, based on the structure and frequency. If these should be considered as conjugated form of verbs, there should be no restriction when actually applying it. However, since there are certain restrictions under grammar structure, it is developing to be particle (Sooncheonhyang University)
  • 10.

    A Study on Semantic Relations between the Components of ‘Noun + Noun’ Compounds

    Lee MinWoo | 2011, 34() | pp.235~258 | number of Cited : 18
    This study divides semantic relations between the components of ‘noun + noun’ compounds and categorize them to explain the formation of their meaning. Because in compounds, two or more units are combined with close relationship, the ultimate task is to figure out their relationship. To attain the goal, this paper clarifies semantic relations between the components of compounds that have been discussed complexly and categorizes the types of compounds based on that. Semantic relations apply lexical relations, and in internal explanation, this study tries to describe semantic aspects that the components of the compounds contribute to within the whole. In the semantic relations between the components of ‘noun + noun’ compounds, there exist categorically internal relations, the relations between the factors belonging to the same category, and external relations between different categories. The former consists of paradigmatic relations like synonymy, antonymy, or the part and the whole which are mainly dealt with in lexical semantics, and the latter is composed of indirect relations related with a certain situation. Compounds consisting of synonymy exhibit the effect of dual meaning or segmented conception whereas compounds composed of antonymy show integrated recognition and conception encompassing the category. Compounds consisting of the part and the whole mostly show outlined parts or particular attributes internalized and form concrete and specific meanings. Categorically external relations, too, form meanings in a similar way to categorically internal relations. At this time, the components of the compounds do not form categorical relations systematized as superordinates and subordinates because the compounding itself is used for categorization. The hyponymy segmentation of a certain category is one of the chief features of compound creation.
  • 11.

    A Study of the Network and the Use of Nouns Related to Social Values

    이영제 , Heung-Kyu Kim , Kang, Beom-mo | 2011, 34() | pp.259~294 | number of Cited : 29
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to analyze the network and use of Korean nouns related to social values while making use of co-occurring words of statistical significance. Based on network analysis, we can observe changes of the use of value nouns in recent years. We assume the complex system theory which is reflected in linguistic usage. The corpus used in this paper is Trends 21 Corpus, a large-scale Korean newspaper corpus compiled at Korea University. Cases of the usage change of words include the following. The use of ‘myeongpum’(masterpiece) has been changed. It had not been long before that this word was used to mean “the higher” or “the highest”. The use of ‘jungsancheung’(the middle class) had been related to the use of ‘buyucheung’(the highest class) in the early 2000s. Most recently we can find that the use of ‘joongsancheung’ is more related to the use of ‘bingoncheung’(the poor class).
  • 12.

    A Study on Meaning Shift in the Formation of Derived Intransitive Verbs

    Lee Young Jun | 2011, 34() | pp.295~318 | number of Cited : 2
    This article aims at showing how the intention of speaker is communicated through the grammatical construction of unaccusativity and unergativity. In these properties could be included such attributes as animacy, agency, intention, and causativity. Even though there are many methods to project the speaker’s intention to sentence, there is universal commonness related with the shift between transitivity and intransitivity. The change of transitivity does not only create additional meanings but also provokes the stress of meaning up or down. In Russian the suffix -sja removes the object in the sentence, so it crucially influences in expressing unaccusativity and unergativity. In Korean there exist some problems such as passive construction with the object. But in this case the object could be classified as the marker strengthening the intention of speaker. By analyzing the intransitive constructions of Korean and Russian languages, I could verify semantic aspects of the unaccusativity and unergativity.
  • 13.

    Types of Classification in Expressives: a Communication-Based Characteristics

    Haeyong Lee | 2011, 34() | pp.319~347 | number of Cited : 17
    The purpose of this study was to systematically suggest Expressives category, which is seen complexly by classifying a type of Expressives. Thus, the aim was to grasp the position that the individually speech types possess within the whole system of Expressives, and commonality and difference between each other. This study starts with a discussion about concept of Expressives in Chapter Ⅱ. It pointed out what is uncertain in Searle(1969)’s definition of Expressives, which is being generally popular, and defined Expressives specifically. Especially unlike what a speaker-oriented research was performed in the traditional Speech act theory, this study applied the basic position as saying that speech type needs to be classified by considering a hearer to the classification of category in speech type and to the definition of Expressives. Chapter Ⅲ modified and supplemented problems that were indicated in a prior research, and then proposed the standard for classification of Expressives, which considered the communication-based characteristics. As for the standard for the primary classification of Expressives, it suggested ‘position within move sequence’, which had not been considered conventionally. According to this standard, the Expressives was classified into ‘initiative Expressives’ and ‘reactive Expressives’. And, as the standard for secondary classification, ‘communication purpose’ was suggested. Communication purpose implies what is expected from a hearer by which a speaker utters. According to this standard, Expressives was divided into [+sympathy] and [-sympathy]. And then, [+sympathy] was divided into ‘both-party empathy formation’ and ‘hearer’s sympathy.’ [-Sympathy] was divided into ‘hearer’s hostility.’ And, according again to speaker’s recognition on situation, it was divided into ‘positive emotion on situation’ and ‘negative emotion on situation’. In addition, it classified Expressives in totally 25 pieces by giving semantically․situationally specific conditions to every individual speech type according to the standard for ‘speaker’s emotion on situation’, ‘role of participants in situation’, and ‘content and tense in situation’. Chapter Ⅳ completed and suggested Expressives in Korean language.
  • 14.

    Synonymy and Sentence Meaning Formation

    Chae-hun Yim | 2011, 34() | pp.349~373 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to inspect the function of lexical semantic relation at the level of sentence meaning. That is, the lexical semantic relations not only represent the semantic relations between words in lexicon, but also act as mechanism of sentence meaning formation. This paper focuses on synonymy of lexical semantic relations. That is, I defines the semantic functions of synonymy as as mechanism of sentence meaning formation. Consequently, it is turned out that antonymy have the following functions. 1) the rhetoric avoiding 2) the substitute 3) the emphasis 4) the semantic specification 5) the paraphrase and expatiation etc.
  • 15.

    Implications of Cognitive Linguistics for Curriculum Development of Grammar

    정병철 | 2011, 34() | pp.375~408 | number of Cited : 9
    Cognitive Linguistics focuses on the centrality of meaning in linguistic structure and suggests that grammar is motivated by embodiment and conceptualization. For, language is, above all, meaning, and Communication is a process whereby meaning is defined and shared between living organisms, we can find several implications of Cognitive Linguistics that can be applied in developing the curriculum of grammar. Functional Linguistics has always made a strong claim for its relevance to language education programs, and a great deal has now been written over the years of ways to design educational programs, many of them to do with the teaching of language as a mother tongue. In the same vein, Cognitive approaches to grammar are converging towards a usage based/network model of language, which contrasts with the decontextualized view of language exposed by generative grammarians. Similarly, language teaching in general and the teaching of grammar in particular have moved from decontextualized drilling activities to more meaningful, context-based methods, a usage-based model of language teaching. In this article, it is argued that the perspective of Cognitive Linguistics can complement the role of Functional Linguistics from various angles. It provides us with more explanatory and effective way of grammar description, and theoretical ground for curriculum integration and restructuring.
  • 16.

    Communication strategies in Korean textbooks and TOPIK

    조수현 , 김영주 | 2011, 34() | pp.409~430 | number of Cited : 17
    This study aims to explore the aspects of communication strategies(CSs) in Korean language text books and the listening part of the TOPIK based on the fact that CSs are available to be learned. First, this study defines CS classified the types of CSs. Next, CSs shown in the dialogue sentences were analyzed based on the taxonomy of achievement strategies (ASs) by Nakatani (2005). As a result, maintenance strategies were found in the highest rate, taking up 83 percent of four selected Korean text books but only 65 percent of the TOPIK. Time-gaining strategies and modified interaction strategies followed them. CSs took a very small portion in beginning level but increased after it. Since learners are expected to improve their communicative competence by imitating the dialogue in the text books, especially for beginners relying on it more, this study insists that CSs should be shown in the text books and evaluated adequately through the officially certified test.
  • 17.

    Polysemy of Deverbal Nouns in ‘-i’(이)

    Joon-Kyung Cha | 2011, 34() | pp.431~450 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper considers the polysemy of Korean deverbal nouns in ‘-i’(이) within lexeme-based morphology framework. Deverbal nouns can have a range of interpretations, and often have more than one meaning. Whereas the internal structure of Korean deverbal nouns has been discussed, the semantics of derivatives in the word-formation process has not yet been considered. I find that the patterns of polysemy in simplex event-type Korean nouns are similar to the patterns of polysemy in deverbal nouns. For example, simplex nouns such as ‘감독’ have multiple meanings, referring either to agents or actions. Deverbal nouns such as ‘고기잡이’ can likewise denote agents or actions, In addition, some deverbal nouns can be interpreted as action, agent, object, instrument, location or time. Any of these nouns denotes an entity that is a participant in a verbal-based event structure. This verbal-based event structure can involve a number of entities. Therefore, the deverbal noun performs the function of demarcating one of the entities in an event structure.
  • 18.

    A Corpus-Based Approach to Discourse Markers ‘-Nun’/‘-Ga’ and Speaker’s Point of View

    HONGJungha | 2011, 34() | pp.451~477 | number of Cited : 8
    Various linguistic notions subsumed by or closely related to point of view have been discussed under different terms in different frameworks (e.g. deictic center, empathy, subjectivity). These show that grammatical forms in the sentence depend in some way on the speaker’s point of view. This paper aims to propose that Korean discourse markers ‘-nun’ and ‘-ga’ can represent the speaker’s point of view toward the sentence as a system, i.e. a deictic center, subjectivity, human animacy or activity marker ‘-nun’ and a speaker-distal, objectivity, thing animacy or passivity marker ‘-ga’. This also implies that various properties related to the speaker’s point of view can be subsumed under just two categories. In this paper, quantitative patterns of these markers based on verbs sensitive to point of view, as found in the 21 Century Sejong Treebank, are estimated by statistical method Correspondence Analysis.