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2011, Vol.36, No.

  • 1.

    The Function and System of Deixis in Korean

    박철우 | 2011, 36() | pp.1~37 | number of Cited : 15
    This paper aims to clarify the definition of deixis by considering the history of the notional development, and to delimit the function and system of deictics in Korean. Intrinsically deixis is based on pointing something with reference to the speaker’s self-identificational center. Cross-linguistically, the center has several dimensions and deictics(deictic expressions) have been developed following the distinguishable positions in each dimension. I tried here to list up Korean deictics systematically in those dimensions as person, place, time(this far traditional ones) and discourse, social, subjectivity-related(extended ones). One the one hand, this is a kind of descriptive study and I anticipate this can be a useful source for more exhaustive ones in the future. One the other hand, this can have some theoretical implications. I hope this also can offer a perspectival shifting point in the research of Korean semantics to the direction of onomasiological way.
  • 2.

    Discourse deixis and Social deixis

    임동훈 | 2011, 36() | pp.39~63 | number of Cited : 27
    This paper deals with the nature of discourse deixis and social deixis, the latter is concerned with the coding of social identities of participants or the relationship between them, and the former is concerned with the use of expressions within some utterance to refer to some portion of the discourse. Discourse deixis has a close relation with mention or token reflexivity. There are some cases which don’t make a clear distinction between deixis and anaphora. So the reference on the basis of mutual knowledge or experience between speaker and hearer is considered as the third recognitional use. Discourse deixis has some middle properties between anaphora and deixis. In Korean, discourse deictic elements are evolved into quotation markers and discourse markers. Social deixis is coded into morphological systems or pronouns, vocatives, titles of address. The former mode is called honorifics. Korean honorifics is divided into referent honorifics and addressee honorifics. Referent honorifics is realized through a prefinal ending ‘-si-’. And in the commercial context, ‘-si-’ has gradually acquired addressee honorific use with the help of the implicature of being non-lower rank.
  • 3.

    The Modal Meaning of Korean Auxiliary Verbs, notha and duda

    Kim Jung Nam | 2011, 36() | pp.65~89 | number of Cited : 3
    Modern Korean auxiliary verbs notha and duda have been generally regarded as synonyms. In this paper, I propose to divide the Korean auxiliary verb notha into three different verbs: notha^1, notha^2, notha^3, where the last notion is rarely observed by Korean linguists. This paper will be a frontier work that discovers and discusses the 3rd notion of notha^3 in detail. The three kinds of notha are different not only in their meanings but also their connection constraints and conjugation forms, among which only notha^1 can be compared with duda. Unlike notha, Korean has just one form of duda. In prior studies, duda has been described to contain the meaning of continuation and preparations for something, as we see its definition in the Korean dictionary. It has been recently claimed that duda has the meaning of “the acts of giving Benefit to the subjects.” However, this paper argues against such claims in that duda is used in more restrictive ways when compared to notha^1 because duda does not occur with preceding verbs that have negative senses, i.e. the meaning feature of [-desirability]. I futher claim in this paper that notha^3 has the meaning of irresponsibility, and therefore we use the clause including ‘-eo notko’ in order to represent such meaning.
  • 4.

    Utterance factors and utterance type

    Soo-Jin Kim , 차재은 , 오재혁 | 2011, 36() | pp.91~118 | number of Cited : 27
    Abstract PDF
    This study intends to develop and apply the frame for analysis of utterance. Previous studies which could be identified ’utterance factors’ and ’utterance type’ were reviewed. Factors for utterance judgment were ’turn taking’, ’utterance final intonation’, and ’pause’. The system of the utterance judgement based on these factors was suggested. And construction factors of utterance were ’completion for grammar’, ’sentence final ending’, and ’pause’. The utterance type was divided based on these construction factors. In addition the kinds of utterance type were classified into specific group: ’normal’, ’reversing’, ’duplicating’, and ’connecting’. After developing the frame for analysis of utterance, we applied the frame to the real data(utterances). More comprehensive empirical frame for utterance was suggested, the utterance factors were operationally defined, and this frame was verified to be applied.
  • 5.

    On the Characteristics of Discourse and Pragmatics in the prose of Dong-yeop Shin - Focused on the phenomena related to grammar -

    김흥수 | 2011, 36() | pp.119~148 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper aims to examine the aspects: how some phenomena of discourse and pragmatics, markedly used, in the prose of Dong-yeop Shin embody the expressive/stylistic functions. Thus, the nominal expressions and TAM (tense, aspect, modality) as syntactic and semantic phenomena in the level of sentence grammar, and the deictic expressions and speech acts as pragmatic phenomena are discussed in this paper. The main argument is as follows: The nominal expressions, usually in the forms of nominalization or noun phrase, are used to strengthen, magnify, concentrate and sum up the main contents of the prose. The TAM expressions as ‘­었었­’,‘­었더­’,‘­은가’,‘­을까’,‘것이다’, etc, shift of TAM carry out the functions of subjectivization in recognition and expression, mental distance, positive or negative implication, introduction of problems and idea development through questioning, emphasis through affirmation, and transition of the speaker’s attitude. The deictic expressions, mainly including‘이, 그’ perform the emphatic functions in terms of anaphora, cognition and expression―especially definite reference and emphasis on connotation. Meanwhile, the selection of ‘이’and ‘그’reflects the speaker’s cognitive and emotional attitude or distance. In the speech act expressions, the indirect speech acts are preferred being based on self-questioning, rhetorical question and the deontic expression‘­어야 하다’. In contrast, the direct speech acts of question, command and hortation are used chiefly in strong persuasion and demand because they are markedly shown in the discourse.
  • 6.

    Study on the meaning in use about ‘어느’ and ‘어떤’

    박기선 | 2011, 36() | pp.149~180 | number of Cited : 7
    This paper aims to study on the aspect of use of interrogative ‘어느’ and ‘어떤’ as Alternative interrogatives and define the meaning of both ones in use. For this purpose 45 ordinary people will be chosen to survey the frequency and the preference of both interrogatives in use. The writer will analyze the tendency of the oration in use of both interrogatives and review the understanding(preference) of usage of ‘어느’ and ‘어떤’ as interrogatives and indefinitives through this survey. Also the following nouns which are connected with both interrogatives in the context where ‘어느’ and ‘어떤’ is most widely used, will not only be studied but the narrowed realm of the meaning of ‘어느’ and the widened realm of the meaning of ‘어떤’ will also be done. Through this study writer will try to clarify the aspect of ‘어느’ and ‘어떤’ in use and their function of meaning.
  • 7.

    Thematic Analysis and Text Type

    신지연 | 2011, 36() | pp.182~202 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    At many times topic and main idea are extensively called ‘juje주제’ Topic, which is the subject questioned by the text producer, starts the text narration and it can be presented in a noun phrase. The main idea identifies what the producer thinks of the topic and wants to say. Since thoughts are not objectified and are expressed actively, they are not presented as a noun phrase but expressed as propositions. This main idea, which includes the narrator’s intention is like that of van Dijk’s macrostructure and is similar to demonstrative text’s these. Topic is the subject of question but the main idea can be regarded more as a solution. We happen to encompass both as ‘juje’. These two different ‘juje’ can be emphasized differently according to the type of the text. Informative texts like descriptive text have structure with several specific items listed and although these texts are the new information forming new contents, since it is hard to intensively express in one thesis, when the whole text is embraced, it seems like the attentions go to the topic itself, which is the starting point of the argument. Extensive rheme are not noticed well as the ‘juje’ because ‘juje’ have characteristics as ‘best summary.’ While the rheme of descriptive or explanatory texts usually expand, the rheme of demonstrative texts often converge into a single argument through other basis or supporting materials. Intensive rhemes itself can be identified as a ‘juje’. Therefore, although the rheme is read the most important in a text, in case of descriptive text or informative text, themes have to be the subject because of the epitomical characteristic.
  • 8.

    Lexical Information of {naimsai냄새 [(a) smell/ (an) odor/ (a) scent]} for Korean Language Learners

    Hyon-Sook Shin | 2011, 36() | pp.203~227 | number of Cited : 4
    This study aims to explicitly detail the lexical information of {naimsai} 냄새 for Korean language learners. The lexical item {naimsai} not only is pervasively used in the daily life of a typical Korean person but also used in a diversity of contexts. The definitions provided by the <Standard Korean Language Dictionary>, the <Yahoo! Korean-English Dictionary>, or other dictionaries, are not comprehensive enough for a Korean language learner to fully grasp the use and meaning of {naimsai}. This study, therefore, sets out to provide the full scope of the word’s use and meaning through concrete and explicit explanations and examples so Korean language learners can easily understand {naimsai}. This is done by providing the lexical information for Korean language learners, while the uncovered syntactic details and semantic information necessary for structuring lexical information can be of aid to dictionary authors and developers of artificial intelligence. This study also proposes a method for structuring lexical information, along with a lexicon analysis template, for Korean language researchers and analysts. The results of this study are based on the analyses of the various types of syntactic and semantic structures that {naimsai} is applied in real-life situations. The analysis template-{{X}+{naimsai}+{Y}} proposed by Shin Hyon-Sook (2010) is also applied here to discuss the syntactic and semantic traits based on actual cases. Such explicit analytical illustrations help to organize the diverse forms of information carried by {naimsai} for Korean language learners and Korean-language information developers.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Non-sinorized Elements in Newtestament in Mixed Scripts

    Yu Kyung-Min | 2011, 36() | pp.229~263 | number of Cited : 5
    The aim this paper is to clarify the grammatical and semantic characteristics of non-sinorized elements in Newtestament in mixed scripts 『新約全書 국한문(1906)』, which is the first Korean Bible in mixed-script. The author can get the conclusions as follows. The non-sinorized elements in it can be devided in two groups. One is the lexical group, the members of it are to be sinorized basically, but there are some words which are not with some semantic reasons or incidentally. The other is the group, of which the members are not sinorized in any case. Words which have grammatical funtions or word elements of a word chunk are belong to the latter. We could make the conclusion that the sinorization of Newtestament in mixed scripts were processed on the very clear and strict principles, which reflects the cognition on the grammatical structure of Korean.
  • 10.

    The Corpus Based Study of Meaning Changes - The Case of Korean Verb ‘not(놓)-’

    Lee MinWoo | 2011, 36() | pp.265~283 | number of Cited : 12
    This study examines and compares the frequency of using the meaning of a verb ‘not(놓)-‘ through the corpus data of modern Korean during the 19th and 20th century in order to figure out the meaning of the vocabulary shown in context and describe the aspects of the meaning changes using the statistic analysis of corpus. Vocabulary acquires its concrete meaning with the relationship of integrative combination according to the features of the vocabulary itself, and various meanings get to be born through this process. Thus, it is possible to understand the meaning of vocabulary quantitatively not simply with the independent use frequency of the proper vocabulary but with the relative categorization through the aspects of combination in the actual use of the vocabulary. This study examines the changing aspects of the meaning use quantitatively with that method, and it is significant in that it compares the areas of the actual meaning use by periods with corpus data. According to the result of this research, there was great difference in the range of individual meaning use regarding the meaning used in the two periods. The fact that the changes in the range of meaning use in the two periods are similar to the process of general meaning transition that meaning changes from concrete to abstract meaning can be also found. This research has proved the possibility of describing the aspects and changes of large-scale meaning use based on the aspects of relative combination, and follow-up research on the aspects of general meaning changes is expected.
  • 11.

    A Study on the ‘Discussion Frame’ based on Cognitive Linguistics

    Sukeui Lee | 2011, 36() | pp.285~311 | number of Cited : 6
    The purpose of this paper is illustrating the frame of ‘discussion’. In this paper, the core members of ‘Discussion frame’ are chairman, arguers and topic which are related on the object categories. ‘Discussion frame’ comprises sub-event categories which are ‘cause(e1)’, ‘beginning(e2), ‘conflicting(e3)’ and ‘ending(e4). Each sub-event categories are activated by salient attribute. ‘Topic’ is highlighting function for the first stage(e1) of discussion frame and ‘chairman’ is highlighting in the second stage(e2) and the last stage(e4). The conflicting frame(e3) can function as a core sub-event of the discussion frame, so in this frame, ‘the arguer’ which is the core member of discussion frame and ‘conflicting’ feature is salient. The last of this paper proposed the Korean discussion frame by using same way of FrameNet methodology. A study on the frame is for knowledge of the world and human experience, it is specified depending on culture and society, so data from this kinds of studies could be helpful for the comparative studies between different languages and culture.
  • 12.

    The Semantic description of interjections in Korean based on a NSM

    Lee, Jeong-Ae | 2011, 36() | pp.313~333 | number of Cited : 7
    This Study is aimed for a semantic description of interjections in Korean based on a NSM theory. Because NSM explains its meaning as the most universal primitives and canon sentences, this paper considers NSM appropriate frames for a language-specific word projected cultural characters like interjections. An interjection can be defined as a linguistic sign which refers to the speaker‘s current mental state or mental act and classified on the basis of the nature of that state or act as follow: (1) volitive interjections(those which include the component ‘I want something’ in their meaning), (2) emotive ones(those which include the component ‘I feel something’ in their meaning). This study elaborated the meanings of ‘ase, cici, eybi, aha, oho, ara and so on’. Especially, the semantic description of ‘aigo’is offered as one of the emotive interjections, in which a Korean native speaker’s unique feeling is expressed, and at the same time, the speaker’s emotion toward an extra event is expressed ultimately as a lamentation. The results of this study will arouse a lot of controversies. But, if semantic primitives signal the universal concepts and if clarity and simplicity of the sematic components made of these is proven, it can be said that this study has grasped the very specific meanings of Korean interjections.
  • 13.

    The semantic research on adverb ‘geoui’

    李红梅 | 2011, 36() | pp.335~361 | number of Cited : 2
    The adverb 'geoui' has the implication of proximity, usually bound to a noun, a predicate and a modifier, to express the meaning of proximity in time, space, number, degree and state. The proximity is usually from the speaker's pespective, so it is subjective to a large extent. Besides, based on different contexts, 'geoui'can indicate multiple meanings when combined with some polysemants.
  • 14.

    Applying Accompanied Experience Network Model in Translation of Body Words of Biblical Hebrew

    정병철 | 2011, 36() | pp.363~389 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Biblical Hebrew is well known for her using abundant images and body words. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect and role of body words in the process of translating Bible from Hebrew to Korean. This study is based on Accompanied Experience Network Model, which has proven to be valid in explaining the usage of any linguistic units. This paper probes the usages of representative body words such as head, hand, led, eye, nose, mouth of Hebrew Bible, and suggests that their usages are caused by three mechanisms, that is as traditionally called metonymy, metaphor, and word combination. From the perspective of neuro-science, metonymy is caused by association of synapses, and by Long Term Potentiation the extended meaning is registered as distinctive one in network. On the other hand, metaphor is realized by reconstructing the connections already established through repeated experiences, thus the metaphor expands the domain of usage, not the meaning itself. Most of the usages of body words made by metonymy can be translated word for word, because the human body is a common place where the similar active zones are provided. In the same vein, some of metaphor can be transferred literally, but some of them cause a crude word for word translation, for the difference of environment and culture leads to different structure of established connections. As a result, the body words of high frequency in hebrew bible turns out to be a embodied rosetta stone assisting us in understanding the meaning of the ancient language and to translate it more exactly.
  • 15.

    Grammaticalization and meaning change of Panmal style ending -ge

    조은영 , Lee HanMin | 2011, 36() | pp.391~417 | number of Cited : 11
    This paper investigates the usage of Korean ending -ge as a final ending. According to our view, the phenomenon of which connective endings functioning as final endings is due to the grammaticalization. In Korean, especially in spoken language, some connective endings such as -ge are used as final endings at the end of the sentences. Final ending -ge which is grammaticalized from connective ending -ge shows diverse meanings and usage. Thus we contemplate grammaticalization phenonmenon―from connenctive ending -ge to final ending -ge―and examine the meaning change and syntactic change that occur in the process of the grammaticalization. The significance of this paper is that we do not merely list the various meaning of final ending -ge, but rather give attention to the ’process of the meaning change’ and ’relationship between the different meanings’. The subject of this paper is restricted to the Final ending -ge which is grammaticalized from connective ending -ge. Therefore Hage style ’-ge’ is excludes and the final ending -ge orginated from adverbial ending -ge is also excluded. Our research materials are mostly based on the spoken language corpus data of 21 Century Sejong project and TV drama scripts. For supplementation and objectivity, we also refer to example sentences in the dictionaries.
  • 16.

    Interpretation of TV Commercials from Synthetic Point of View

    Chae Wan | 2011, 36() | pp.419~448 | number of Cited : 4
    This paper aims to analyze copies of commercial messages from linguistic and non-linguistic points of view. TV commercials examined in this paper were selected out of commercials which have been broadcasted from January to July 2010. Often, the words are not interpreted as basic meaning in commercial messages. Ordinary meaning and newly interpreted meaning of words become homonym or polysemy in the context, so it makes the messages ambiguous and implicative. In that way, short phrases of advertising copies can deliver complicated meaning and intention of the advertiser. In advertising copies, the maxim of conversation seems to be different from that of ordinary language. Sometimes consumers are misled by glowing promises of commercials. From pragmatic point of view, advertising copies include implicature and presupposition, and they conceal contradiction and fallacy. But TV audiences, in other words consumers, tolerate and even enjoy commercials. Because TV commercials are not only composed of advertising copies but also composed of many attractive components such as fantastic images, background music, and celebrities. TV commercials deliver advertising messages by synesthetic way. Image takes the place of language, onomatopoeia represents lexical meaning, and so on. Therefore, the TV audiences must search hidden meanings of non-linguistic factors such as images and background music to catch the intention of the advertiser. Sometimes, consumers may be affected by the atmosphere of the advertisement rather than the message itself.
  • 17.

    Semantic and Pragmatic Characteristics of Korean Honorific Pronouns

    CHOE, Jae-Woong | 2011, 36() | pp.449~480 | number of Cited : 1
    According to a representative dictionary of modern Korean, ’The Standard Dictionary of Korean’, there are 472 pronouns in the Korean language, and among them 267 turn out to be marked for honorific function in their definition. Starting from this rather unusually large number of honorification related pronouns in Korean, this paper provides a detailed analysis of the whole data from the semantic and pragmatic point of view. Section 2 discusses some specific methods and criteria for the extraction of the list of honorification related pronouns from the dictionary. In Section 3, an analysis framework is proposed which combines three dimensions of meaning, that is, Referential dimension, Expressive dimension, and Genre dimension. It is claimed that the three-dimensional approach to the meaning of the Korean (anti-)honorific pronouns provides an optimal framework in which most of the semantic and pragmatic aspects of the data can be described appropriately.
  • 18.

    A Study on Meaning of Korean Utterance

    CHOE Ho Chol | 2011, 36() | pp.481~529 | number of Cited : 23
    The purpose of this article is to examine a different use of terminology in studies regarding larger units than a sentence, to explore meanings that need considering when interpreting a meaning of utterance, and to formulate a manner that a meaning acts in the meaning of utterance and a process of interpretation on the meaning of utterance. First, a classification of 'locutionary' and 'utterance' has been made in this article by defining a 'locutionary' as linguistic expressions without a context, and an 'utterance' as linguistic expressions within a context. The units which belong to the former are described as locutionary word, locutionary phrase, locutionary sentence, locutionary paragraph, and locutionary text. The units which belong to the latter are described as word utterance, phrase utterance, sentence utterance, paragraph utterance, text utterance. Second, the cotext meaning is described as a binding meaning; since cotext meaning is to be added to meanings of words or sentences themselves in a locutionary meaning. And the context meaning is described as a speech act meaning; since context meaning is to be added to meanings of words, sentences or text themselves in an utterance meaning. Finally, in this article, a formulation has been made about an analysis process of utterance meaning; locutionary meaning, i.e., literal and binding meaning, attitudes of speakers and listeners, i.e., background and intention, relations of speakers between listeners, i.e., position, age and intimacy, a setting of utterance, i.e., time, space and event, deixis of utterance.
  • 19.

    The Meanings of the Korean Resultatives

    황주원 | 2011, 36() | pp.531~556 | number of Cited : 4
    This paper addresses the meanings of the Resultatives in Korean based on the relationships of the second predicates and their thematic subjects. There are three meanings of the Korean Resultatives: modification, transformation, and duration. Unlike the English Resultatives, the constraints of the Korean Resultatives rely heavily on the meanings between the first- and second predicates. So this paper concentrates on the meanings of the two predicates. The aspects of the first predicates are significant factors that decide whether the constructions are regarded as the Resultatives as well. All the first predicates of the Korean resultatives should have [+resultative] or [+perfect]. The second predicates have to indicate the resultative states caused by the first predicates. This paper shows the whole examples of the Korean Resultative constructions and the possible lexical items of the first predicates.