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pISSN : 1226-7198 / eISSN : 2734-0171

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2012, Vol.39, No.

  • 1.

    Quantifiers and Meaning.

    Park, Chulwoo | 2012, 39() | pp.1~23 | number of Cited : 15
    Park Chulwoo. 2012. Quantifiers and Meaning. Korean Semantics, 39. It has been taken for granted that quantifiers are determiners in Korean as in English syntax and semantics. But, we should not disregard that derterminers are not obligatory in forming an NP in Korean. Actually determining function is marked by referential adnominals only and Korean quantitative adnominals act more likely as qualitative adnominals in some ways. So we take only referential adnominals as a determiner which helps forming NP as a specifier of it. On the other hand, in Korean bare nouns can be interpreted as referential in itself like nouns following a determiner in English, depending on their context of use. They can be interpreted as a kind or a group of any number, or an object depending on the situation it occurs. Sometimes the plural marker '-deul' works as an individualizer of a group or a kind. Thus, in those cases, we can assume there exists an unseen determiner which can form an NP with the rest contentful word(s). On the basis of the assumed syntactic structure of Korean NP, we explain four types of so-called numeral-quantitative constructions in Korean. The point is that the two NPs in apposition is mediated by an unseen pronominal which is of a partitive case. So-called scope phenomena of quantifiers, and distributive construction should be approached from the different perspective from the quantitative adnominals or numerals. Quantitative adnominals are divided into three types in meaning. One is cardinal, another proportional and the other situation-dependent(subjective).
  • 2.

    The Forms and Meanings of Plurals in Korean.

    Donghoon Lim | 2012, 39() | pp.25~49 | number of Cited : 19
    This paper deals with the forms and meanings of plurals with respect to the way how the concept of number is realized in Korean. The summary of this paper is as follows. First, the default forms of Korean nouns express general number which is irrelevant to number. And special plural marker 'deul' is needed to express the plurality of nouns. Therefore there is a formal contrast between general/singular vs. plural in Korean. Second, the default forms' likelyhood of singular reading is proportional to the scale of animacy. Third, the actual examples don't agree with the theory that 'deul' plurals are considered to be i-sums and default forms are considered to be groups. And there are no connections between 'deul' marker in nouns and distributivity in predicates. Fourth, there are two kind of 'deul's in Korean where the one is an affix expressing individual plurals and the other is a particle expressing event plurals. The former is combined with nouns and the latter is combined with verbal projections. Fifth, 'deul' of event plural is devoted into expressing distributivity, so distributivity makers in Korean are bifurcated into nominal distributive marker 'mada' and verbal distributive marker 'deul'. Sixth, there are no connections between 'deul' of event plural and the plurality of subject in a sentence.
  • 3.

    Genericity and Quantification

    Jun, Youngchul | 2012, 39() | pp.51~76 | number of Cited : 10
    We treat genericity as a sort of quantification which has a tripartite structure as its proper semantic representation. Semantic characteristics of Korean generic expressions are accounted for through tripartite structures. First of all, we discuss why the two kinds of genericity, i.e. generic sentences and generic noun phrases are separated from each other. Then we discuss the similarity and the difference between them in terms of their tripartite structures. On the other hand, it will be argued that individual-level as well as stage-level predicates have a situation variable, and that genericity is much influenced by pragmatic factors.
  • 4.

    Semantic Interpretation of the Sentences with Aspectual Meaning in Korean - Type Coercion and Cognitive Inference

    Yoon-shin Kim | 2012, 39() | pp.77~99 | number of Cited : 7
    This paper aims to examine the semantic interpretation of the sentences with aspectual meaning in Korean. The Korean sentences with aspectual meaning include the following types of sentence: the aspectual verb construction with an event argument, the aspectual one with an individual argument, the action verb construction with an event argument, and the action one with an individual argument. As for the aspectual meaning, the aspectual verb with an event argument has a very transparent interpretation, but the other cases need special processes of interpretation. We can suggest that these special processes are ‘the type coercion’ and ‘the cognitive inference’ like metaphor and metonymy and that some processes can happen as the mixed form such as metaphor following the type coercion. Also, I can conclude that these generative and cognitive processes depend on the lexical-semantic structure of a word, and that this phenomenon reflects the compositionality of the semantic interpretation.
  • 5.

    A Study on the terminologies of Korean semantics

    Kim, Jinung | 2012, 39() | pp.101~124 | number of Cited : 30
    The purpose of this study is to review some issues on Korean evidentiality and to clarify the criteria to build up the Korean evidential system. J. Kim (2012) proposed that there are three types of evidentials in Korean based on the cross-linguistic study by Aikhenvald (2004: p.105). Specifically, Korean evidential system consists of Direct, Inferential, and Reportative. However, J. Kim (2012) does not fully review extensive candidates of Korean evidentials because the focus of the study centered on explaining theoretical issues. Accordingly, only tentative list of Korean evidentials were suggested. To detect the Korean evidentials, I collected the candidates of Korean evidentials and then considered Anderson's(1986) proposals and applied some tests such as negation, assent/dissent and distributional diagnostics. As a result, I argue that there are three evidential types in Korean: Direct -te -, -ney, Reportative -tay, -lay, -cay, -nyay, and Inference -ci.
  • 6.

    Possessive relations and possessive constructions

    Cheonhak Kim | 2012, 39() | pp.125~148 | number of Cited : 10
    The aim of this paper is to research into some traits of the possessive construction. The linguistic possessive expression is restricted when they have possessive relations. Two elements in this relation should be a possessor and a possessed. The possessive expression consists of a NP-internal possessive construction and a predicative possessive construction. The former is composed when two noun phrases has possessive relations, meanwhile the latter is composed when a predicate in the sentence plays a role to mediate possessive relations. The possessor is mainly ahead of the possessed generally in the linguistic possessive expression; however it is possible to the reverse. So a possessed precedency construction is possible, when the structure of 'determiner#possessed+uy#possessor' has the inalienable possessive relation to the NP-internal construction in Korean. Meanwhile, in the predicative possessive construction, the ‘belong to’ construction can express the possessed precedency construction in English; however, the ‘copula’ construction can express this one in Korean.
  • 7.

    Semantic Annotations of Culinary Terms for Korean Culinary Manuscripts of Joseon Period

    Nam, Kilim , Song Hyun Ju , Choi Jun and 1 other persons | 2012, 39() | pp.149~174 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study presents a follow up study of the previously reported research project Compiling and Developing a Corpus of 17-19th Century Korean Culinary Manuscripts and a Customized Browser. The previous project, which was based on the morpheme based annotation, was not sufficient for extracting culinary terms since many terms are in the form of so-called ‘extended lexical units(ELUs).’ The main purpose of this study is to prove that the semantic unit of specific terms should be treated on phrase level. By extracting ELUs and morpheme units of culinary terms, firstly, richer information on the expressions could be obtained. Secondly, more accurate annotation of culinary terms has been achieved according as the context of each terms was taken into consideration. Lastly, the products attained from this study can be applied to compile domain-specific dictionaries and contribute to extend lemma status to multi-word items.
  • 8.

    Study on the Aspect of using Indirect Quotation forms of Korean

    Park KiSeon | 2012, 39() | pp.175~203 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper aims to study the aspect of using indirect quotation forms, focusing on the integrated aspect, through analyzing corpus data. First, as a result of analyzing of the proceeding elements that combine with indirect quotation forms, it shows that unlike joint information in normative grammar, the use of “-냐고(nyago)” has been expanded in Indirect Quotation forms. Because of the expansion of using “-냐고(nyago)”, using “-느냐고(neunyago)” and “-으냐고(eunyago)” have been showed a reducing trend. Secondly, as a result of analyzing the accompanying elements that combine with Indirect Quotation forms, the frequency of Indirect Quotation forms as a connection is remarkably markedly higher than as a conclusion. Furthermore, as an accompanying predicate, using “묻다(mutta)” types that show a typical quotation form of an interrogative sentence appear to be considerably higher than speech functions, such as complaints and confirmations.
  • 9.

    Semantic Classification of Quotative verbs in Korean.

    Park Jaeyon | 2012, 39() | pp.205~229 | number of Cited : 13
    This study aims to examine the conceptual domains of quotative verbs in Korean and to suggest classification of them on the semantic basis. Especially I insist that the semantic domains of modality and evidentiality can be conferred in classification of quotative verbs. Quotative verbs can be divided into speech verbs, thought verbs, and decoding verbs. Speech verbs can be divided into speech manner verbs and speech act verbs according to what respect of speech is specificated. Thought verbs also have sub-categories of generic thought verbs and modal verbs. Decoding verbs like 'deut-, baeu-' have their own category independent from speech verbs or thought verbs. Their semantic features are related to evidentiality that expresses specification of type of evidence.
  • 10.

    Characteristics of derived words meaning the place of business by analyzing the semantic features of ‘店(shop), 館(hall), 房(room)’

    범기혜 , Wonyoung Doh | 2012, 39() | pp.231~252 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper aims to analyze the semantic features of Chinese character suffixes such as '店(shop), 館(hall), 房(room)' and to study the characteristics of derived words meaning the place of business. First of all, we extracted suffixes of place and derived words from Korea University Korean Dictionary, The Standard Korean Dictionary etc. Also we analyzed the basic meaning and the semantic features of ‘店, 館, 房’. Then we examined the lexicological characteristics of the derived words from the sides including the origin of a word, word-formation and the register. This article also introduced many new words compounding with the Chinese character suffixes, from what we can know more about present using of them. We are looking forward to making such similar research on other Chinese character suffixes related to the place of business.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Productivity and the Meaning of the suffixes of Korean Neologism[+Human].

    Son | 2012, 39() | pp.253~289 | number of Cited : 28
    This research illuminates the productivity and the meaning of the suffixes of Korean [+human] neologism on the basis of the data in 1994, 1995, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2012. The suffixes include '-jok, -dan, -pa, -tim' of [+human] [+plural] [±gender], '-nyeo, -geol' of [+human] [+plural] [-male], '-nam, -man' of [+human] [+plural] [+male], and '-ggun' of [+human] [+plural] [±male]. The suffixes, '-jok, -dan, -pa, -nyeo, -nam', are originated from Chinese characters, and the rest of the suffixes have its origins in English. The existing Korean dictionaries didn't include these suffixes, but this research does. The suffixes, '-jok, -dan, -pa, -tim' have the similar meaning, but it's not absolutely the same. They are rather semantically overlapped, and so are the suffixes, '-nyeo, -geol', and '-nam, -man'. The suffix, '-ggun', is overlapped with the other suffixes in the semantic qualification [+plural] [±gender]. The productivity of each [+human] suffixes is different. The more varied the type of roots, the higher the productivity. Out of the suffixes of [+plural], '-jok' is the highest in production, and '-dan, -pa' are the lowest. However, the productivity of the suffix, '-tim' is on the rising recently. Out of the suffixes of [-plural], the suffix, '-nyeo' of [-male] has the highest productivity, and '-nam' of [+male] is quite good in productivity, too. The productivity of the suffix, '-geol' suddenly went up in 2012, and '-man' slowly moved up. The new words which were formed by the [+human] neologism suffixes have the meaning of [an individual or a group who represents the characteristic phenomenon in our society]. Each suffixes show additional characteristics like [+abasement], [a group of people who have the same intent and purpose], and [a group of people who behave same and are professional]. This study will contribute to the understanding of the productivity and semantic characteristics of the suffixes, which play the most important role in formation of new words.
  • 12.

    About the meaning of space word 'wi' and 'arae'

    Son Pyeong-hyo | 2012, 39() | pp.291~317 | number of Cited : 8
    This article aims to look for space word 'wi' and 'arae'. What is the meaning of 'wi' and 'arae' means let's look at how the expansion is going. Changing in various directions through space only to represent the meaning of space as well as to expand the meaning of freezing goes. In modern languages ​​with the meaning 'wi' and 'arae' over all ten. Analysis of the meaning of these can be divided into three. First, it is the case with the spatial meaning. Second, it is time meaning it may have. Third, you may have abstract meaning. Look at the meaning of the general process of change, and time semantics and abstract meaning can be thought of as derived in the sense of space. In that sense, there are aspects similar to the process of grammaticalization. Similar space word 'ap' and 'dwi' the grammatical elements to change, and you can see that. However, 'wi', 'arae' the meaning of grammatical elements to not go forward until the extended stay in step. In conclusion, from the perspective of grammaticalization, 'wi' and 'arae' are thought to be in the process of grammaticalization.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Modal Expression on the Diary Text of 1st grade students of Elementary School

    An Jeong-a , Nam, Kyoung-woan | 2012, 39() | pp.319~344 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    An Jeong A, Nam Kyoung Woan. 2012. A Study on the Modal Expression on the Diary Text of 1st grade students of Elementary School. Korean Semantics, 39. The purpose of this study is to investigate the using aspect of modal expression on the elementary school students' diary text. In chapter2, we investigate the pattern of modal expressions in their diary text that is divided into lexical type and grammatical type, and also into simple construction type and complex construction type. In chapter3, we classified the diary text into six semantic types according to the base meaning of modal expression, i.e. emotion, intention, supposition, possibility, assertion, obligation. Naturally the modal expressions in elementary students' diary text is less diverse than general adults' text, but we can find their some special features. Firstly, in the initial time of 1st elementary school, the modal expression that shows the speaker's thoughts or emotions is hardly appeared, their text is constructed by just statements about events of that day or by just simple sentence commenting the whole events. After that, they can organize the complex structure of <Events+Comments> by each events separatively. Secondly, the most frequent misuses in the modal expressions are caused by mismatching the other grammatical unit like tense, aspect morphemes.
  • 14.

    The study of Double-Meaning on the interpretation processes in the Communication

    Yi Yu-mi | 2012, 39() | pp.345~367 | number of Cited : 1
    This study is aimed to understand the characteristics of Double-Meaning and then to set up categories of it. Generally, Double-Meaning has been studied in the ambiguity category. But there are some differences between Double-meaning and the ambiguity because the ambiguity is able to have many meaning, while Double-Meaning is able to have just two or three clear meanings. Therefore, we have to reconsider them how to set up their categories. The features of Double-Meaning are as follows; First of all, Double-meaning speech has just two or three clear meanings. Second of all, Double-Meaning is not able to get a simultaneous reaction from listeners but to get a sequential reaction from them. Last but not least, even if one meaning is chosen by listeners, the other meanings could influence on listeners’ interpretation processes. I would like to prove the phenomenon of Double-Meaning and to explain the Double-Speak and the Double-Bind theory among the phenomenon of languages caused by the Double-meaning using the frame theory and the gestalt theory.
  • 15.

    A study on the topic level discourse markers in academic oral presentation by Chinese learners of Korean

    이환환 , Youngjoo Kim | 2012, 39() | pp.369~395 | number of Cited : 11
    Li Huanhuan, Kim Youngjoo. 2012. A study on the topic level discourse markers in academic oral presentation by Chinese learners of Korean. Korean Semantics, 39. This study aimed to examine the use of topic level discourse markers in academic oral presentation by Korean native speakers and Chinese intermediate and advanced Korean learners in real classroom, and to compare the differences between two groups. In order to analyze the use of topic level discourse markers pattern, the pattern was categorized into 4 types: introducing topics, specifying the following contents of topics, deepening topics, turning topics. The characteristics between two groups in the use of topic level discourse markers are summarized as following. First, Korean native speakers used more often topic level discourse markers than Chinese learners. Second, Korean native speakers focused on using topic level discourse markers to make their presentation more comprehensible to audience. Third, Korean native speakers used more various discourse markers. Consequently, Chinese learners were poor at using topic level discourse markers. Therefore, this study claimed that topic level discourse markers are needed to be instructed for better academic oral presentation skills of Chinese learners.