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pISSN : 1226-7198 / eISSN : 2734-0171

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2013, Vol.40, No.

  • 1.

    Compositionality in Conceptual Semantics.

    JEONG-SEOK Yang | 2013, 40() | pp.1~41 | number of Cited : 11
    In this paper I introduce the model-theoretic reconstruction of Jackendoff’s(1990) Conceptual Semantics by Zwarts & Verkuyl(1994), and show that, combining with some formal semantic devices like λ-expressions and functional application rule, it can be successfully implemented in the description of Korean locomotive verb constructions and manner-of-motion verb constructions. Three kinds of adjunct correspondence rules are formulated along with the argument linking principle, and it is elucidated how those rules and the principle are interconnected with syntactic procedures.
  • 2.

    A Study of the Emotional Meaning Acquistion in Korean Verbs

    Jo Kyungsun | 2013, 40() | pp.43~69 | number of Cited : 4
    This paper pays attention to words that the surrounding meaning of polysemy is the emotional state. This study searches the aspect that non-emotional verbs acquired lexical meaning of emotions by the process of transfer from the meannig of the basic sense. The metaphor is used when polysemy is expanded from the basic sense to the surrounding sense. Metaphor is to move from a source area of experience to an aim area of another experience systematically. Metaphor is the cognitive stratagem to conceptualize an unfamiliar aim area by a source area. This study searches that the emotions is used a metaphorical expression in any way by looking the process of obtaining the emotions as expanded senses, in Korean verbs. Emotion meanings is acquired by metaphorical diagram. There are case that any verbs to represent the state of the digestion, the taste and the sense of touch are used as emotion verbs. There are case that any verbs to represent the state of the arrangement of things are used as emotion verbs. There are case that any verbs to represent the state of the weather and the atmosphere are used as emotion verbs.
  • 3.

    A grammatical category of ‘-teo-’ in modern Korean - focusing on ‘-Teola’

    SONHYEOK | 2013, 40() | pp.71~110 | number of Cited : 8
    This paper argues that ‘-teo-’ in ‘-teola’ is both a tense marker and an evidential modality marker. ‘-teo-’ has a evidential modality meaning indicating that a preceding proposition to ‘-teo-' is a speaker's a cognition through a direct sensory experience. And ‘-teo-’ also indicates the past time point when the speaker acquired the information(the cognition, the proposition). Although the time ‘-teo-’ indicates is a cognition time, ‘-teo-’ can be considerd as tense. Because the time reference of ‘-teo-’ corresponds with the definition of tense, which is a grammaticalized expression of location in time, A view of including a location of cognition time in time line in tense can give us a good explanation about ‘-eoss’ that can scope over epistemic modality construction. Many previous literature considerd ‘-teo-’as either a tense marker or a modality marker, and they accounted the another categorical characteristics to the derived meaning or a function from the categorical characteristics which they considered. But if we classify ‘-teo-’ as only a modality marker, we can not explain the imperfective aspectual meaning of ‘-teo-’ and if we classify ‘-teo-’ as only a tense marker, we can not explain why the proposition is the cognition through the speaker's direct sensory. Therefore considering ‘-teo-’ as a morpheme combining information about evidential modality and tense gives us a good explanation of ‘-teo’. Across languages evidential modality markers often have the function to indicate the time the speaker get the information, which is related with the diachronic change. ‘-Teo’ is one of this kind of evidentail modality makers.
  • 4.

    A Study on the principle of selecting argument of head noun and productivity between ‘N1-Sanyang, N1-Nakssi’

    MinJeong Jo | 2013, 40() | pp.111~139 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study intends to investigate which factor makes the differences in selecting argument of head noun and productivity of ‘N1-sanyang, N1-nakssi’ compound words. Sanyang and nakssi are predicative nouns which make the compound word with its argument. However there are differences in selecting argument of predicative noun. N1 of sanyang is an instrumental argument, but N1 of nakssi are method, and place argument. What is more the productivity of two compound nouns are different. This study shows that the factor of selecting argument is under ‘foreground/background understanding’, ‘the avoid strategy of ambiguity’, and ‘the law of proximity’‘N1’ of ‘N1-sanyang’ is mainly a instrumental argument, but ‘N1’ of ‘N1-nakssi’ are method and places. The differences between those argument are originated that the speaker consider those are foreground factor. That's why those argument make the difference between two activities. The productivity of two compound nouns are explained by ‘the law of proximity’. If something is important in human life, new words which are around those thing are made productively. So there are differences between that two compound nouns.
  • 5.

    A consideration of academic meaning & function with substitutional expression /나/

    ZO HYOUNG IL | 2013, 40() | pp.141~158 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this research is academically looking out the substitutional expression /나/ which is regarded as nothing useful in academic essay these days in Korea. As I am a researchers, I propose that if we can and may use the /나/ in an academic essay, it makes the essay more than better. For this opinion is attained this thesis handled academic essays in Korean before 1970's and nowadays. And finally I demonstrated that using /나/ in academic essay makes next two supposition in this thesis. 1. Using /나/ in academic essay makes one's contention certainly. 2. Using /나/ in academic essay will offer citation sentence and researcher's opinion distinguished.
  • 6.

  • 7.

    The Use and Meaning of Symbolic Words: A Study Based on the Corpus of Newspaper Headlines

    조혜민 , Kang, Beom-mo | 2013, 40() | pp.191~218 | number of Cited : 4
    This paper analyses the meaning and use of Korean symbolic words in the headlines of newspapers. On the basis of statistics we explore semantic connections between symbolic words and their co-occurring words, i.e. collocation. We extend the existing lexical network methods in semantic research, visualizing and objectifying relations between words through their networks. The corpus which this study is based on is the Trends 21 Corpus, a corpus composed of Korean newspaper texts, comprising around 400 million morphologically analyzed words.
  • 8.

    A Study on Korean Paraphrasing Sentences

    Lee, Hong-mei | 2013, 40() | pp.219~248 | number of Cited : 6
    Paraphrasing sentences which have different forms of connection parts, but the same meanings about words or phrases, focus on the markers of paraphrasing connections. The markers of paraphrasing sentences divide a sentence into two parts. The later part plays a role to summarize, annotate and illustrate the former part in meaning and logically have deduction, induction, cause and effect relationship, etc. Paraphrasing sentences can make the contents more specific or emphasize some points, and paraphrasing sentences also help the readers understand the information easily. While paraphrasing sentences also have subjective intention of speakers.
  • 9.

    A study on the meaning of manner of speaking verbs in Korean

    Cheong, Yunam | 2013, 40() | pp.249~279 | number of Cited : 4
    This study investigates how Manner of Speaking Verbs(MSVs) in Korean appear several layers of meaning based on context. The meaning of MSVs is differentiated from its verbs of communication in terms of Voice Quality, Explicitness, Formality, and Politeness. They have several properties of the sentence structure and context information. The alternation of sentential complement and conjunctive structure is freely allowed and equally interpreted on the MSV construction. The structures of MSVs are closely related to aspect that caused by their semantic/pragmatics features, namely, <scene>. The MSVs include more information when the utterances are spoken. The MSVs have various meanings according to the speaker's attitude of messages, situation, and the speech level in the context.
  • 10.

    The Diachronic Development of the Lexical Honorific Verbs in Korean

    SeonYeong Lee | 2013, 40() | pp.281~306 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper aims to discuss the diachronic development of the Lexical Honorific Verbs in Modern Korean. Korean Honorifics can be divided into the Syntactic Honorifics and the Lexical Honorifics. The Syntactic Honorifics is realized by using special endings, while the Lexical Honorifics is realized by special words. In Modern Korean, for example, ‘Yeojjubda(여쭙다)’ and ‘Jumusida(주무시다)’ are used instead of ‘Mudda(묻다)’ and ‘Jada(자다)’ to express respect to a target person. The Diachronic Development of the Lexical honorific Verbs in Modern Korean can be classified into four types. The lexicalization of word forms including subject honorific ending ‘-si-(시-)’, the lexicalization of word forms including object honorific ending ‘-jab- (-ᄌᆞᆸ-)’, the lexicalization of causative forms, and the change of euphemism. First, the words like ‘Jumisida(주무시다), Jasida(자시다), Gyesida(계시다), Mosida(모시다)’ are lexicalized by the extinction of verb in front of pre-final ending ‘-si-’. Second, the words like ‘Yeojjubda(여쭙다), Jabsusda(잡숫다), Boebda(뵙다)’ are lexicalized by the extinction of pre-final ending ‘-jab-(-ᄌᆞᆸ-)’. Third, the words like ‘Deurida(드리다), Ollida(올리다)’ are derived from causative forms, in this process the change of focus occurs. Finally the words like ‘Dolagasida(돌아가시다), Pyeonchanheusida(편찮으시다)’ are derived from the euphemism.
  • 11.

    Lexical semantic relation and lexical cohesion

    Chae-hun Yim | 2013, 40() | pp.307~321 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This paper deals with how words that have semantic relations function as ‘cohesion’. That is, the lexical semantic relations not only simply represent the semantic relations between words in lexicon, but also act as the mechanism of formation of sentences or text. Unlike ‘demonstrative pronoun’, words that have semantic relations have characteristic, inherent functions in regard to anaphora. A hyperonym or a synonym opens up another possibility, that of introducing an implicative element into the meaning, which is absent in the case of the pronoun. Also, ‘demonstrative pronoun’ generally has the restrictions of distance between the antecedent and anaphora, whereas a hyperonym or a synonym has a very little the restrictions of it.
  • 12.

    Longitudinal Study of Children's Honorific Express Development - from 31 moth to 43 month Children -

    Lee Phil-Young , Kim Jungsun , Moon, Sun-hee | 2013, 40() | pp.323~356 | number of Cited : 2
    This study analyses vertically about honorific expression sides on 4 children who age group 31 months to 43 months. It has been specifying into grammar form and vocabulary form with listener-honorific, subject-honorific and object-honorific. Then we investigate it’s appearing time and situation which honorific context has been used. We have found ‘Hasipsio-che’ and ‘Haera-che’, which is formal style of listener-honorific expression and also ‘Haeyo-che' and 'Hae-che', which is in-formal style from all participant children. In Honorific language ‘Jeo’ of listener-honorific was founded. Children use honorific expression with two intentions; first one is for respecting the others in higher position and second one is for achieving his/her pragmatic purposes against oppenent. In subject-honorific expression, prefinal-ending ‘-Si-‘ was appeared in common usage of greeting and ‘Ggeseo’ was not used frequently. In vocabulary forms, ‘Geoisida’, ‘Desida’, ‘Jumusida’, and ‘Dolagasida’ were also founded however they are not been used much. The object-honorific expression founded less than listener-honorific and subject-honorific and we assume that it’s development is also slower than others. In grammar forms of the object-honorific, proposition, ‘Gge’ and vocabulary form, ‘Derida’ was founded.
  • 13.

    A Study on the pragmatical competence of North Korean Refugee Adolescents: Focusing on refusal, request, and apology act

    고윤석 , Youngjoo Kim | 2013, 40() | pp.357~384 | number of Cited : 6
    This study aimed at examining North Korean Refugee Adolescents(NKRA)’ pragmatical competence focusing on refusal, request, and apology act and investigating correlations between the competence and current age, period of residing in Korea, and period of Korean language education. This study employed pragmatical competence acceptability judgment test that was proved its validity and reliability in previous studies. The study found out that there was significant discrepancy between NKRA and South Korean Adolescents in pragmatical competence, especially in accepting the different strategies following to power and distance in each act. However, NKRA showed significant improvement after one year of residing in Korea and also one year of Korean language education. Most of all, the period of Korean language education gave effect on their pragmatical competence. The study claimed that NKRA need to receive Korean language education for certain amount of time, although they seem to have similar Korean language competence.
  • 14.

    A Study on the Contrasting “Color” Languages of Korean and Chinese Regarding Physical Beauty

    Kim Sun-Ja , Wonchan Song | 2013, 40() | pp.385~413 | number of Cited : 5
    This study compares the Korean and Chinese languages of color concerning physical beauty as found in newspapers and fashion magazines. First, we find that there is a great similarity between the two languages in terms of colors describing bodily parts such as white skin and red lips. Second, we find that the Chinese language, more strongly than the Korean language, has the vestige of symbolism pertaining to the color vocabulary used in legends, fables and Beijing operas. There also exists a significant difference between the two languages in the range of gradation concerning skin color. Third, we find that the two languages show morphologic and syntactic differences. In Korean, differences in color are created by derivation and composition and by changes in fortis. Positive or negative connotations are revealed by change in vowels. In Chinese, however, these connotations are displayed by adding modifiers before or after the color word.
  • 15.

    Meaning acquisition of politeness of request speech act including ‘-겠-’ by Chinese learners of Korean

    Jin Jeong | 2013, 40() | pp.415~439 | number of Cited : 7
    The purpose of this study is to identify how Chinese learners of Koran acquire the meaning of politeness of ‘-겠-’ in a request speech act. Research subjects were 20 Chinese learners who were studying Korean in Korea and attending a university in Seoul. The research results include the following. First, the scope of ‘-겠-’, which could be produced was smaller than that of the meaning of politeness perceived by Chinese learners of Korean. Second, learners used ‘-겠-’ distinctively according to distance between a speaker and a listener and superiors in power. Third, learners perceived that they felt awkward in making a request using a declarative sentence although it may be a polite way of making a request; thus, the frequency in use was very low. (Ewha Womans University)
  • 16.

    A study on dictionary description of world class conversions in Korean

    Han, Jeonghan , Han Hee-Jung | 2013, 40() | pp.441~468 | number of Cited : 8
    Han Jeong-Han, Han Hee-Jung. 2013. A study on dictionary description of world class conversions in Korean. Korean Semantics, 40. The purpose of this paper, first, lies to comparing the current six major Korean dictionaries as to how they deal with word class conversions, and second, to show why it is so important to express ostensive criteria in determining word class of each lemma, and which is so helpful for dictionary users, especially Korean learners. After having compared the six major Korean dictionaries, we have known the fact that many dictionary users have difficulties not by the misunderstanding of word class conversion, but by the misunderstanding of the fact that on what condition a word class becomes another word class, along with the criterion of selecting lemma/sub-lemma. Therefore in order to solve out these problems, we had to provide with clear-cut standards with which word class of a word becomes another word class of it. For that matter, we suggest 5 criteria with which to determine word class conversions; form, distribution, function, meaning, and orthography, respectively. Together with it, we also provide with the lemma selecting principle based on function and meaning in addition to form of lemmas, which we believe help easier dictionary users understand word class conversions in Korean.
  • 17.

    Some Formal-Semantical Traits of ‘Rago.’

    민찬홍 | 2013, 40() | pp.469~493 | number of Cited : 2
    The author, after introducing two tests for intensionality of the component expressions of intensionally complex sentences, and the concept of de re and de dicto ambiguity which is typical in English sentences including propositional attitidue verbs. Components at de re position make referentially tranparent context, thus pass the above mentioned tests. Korean ending ‘rago’, used with speech act verbs and cognitive attitude verbs, deserves special attention in that it permits (unambiguous) de re sentences in addition to de re/de dicto ambiguous sentences. ‘Rago’ also makes speaker’s commitment to the content of the intensionally contained clause neutral. Korean provides other endings such as ‘um/im’ and ‘raneun gut’ for speaker’s positive commitment. Finally the author insists that Fregean theory of sense gives a hopeful line of approach to the formal semantics of ‘rago’.
  • 18.

    Typological Classification and Felicity Conditions of Evaluative acts in Korean

    Haeyong Lee | 2013, 40() | pp.495~520 | number of Cited : 4
    The purpose of this study is to explain evaluative speech act with its own felicity conditions and to suggest it should be categorized as an individual speech act in speech act system. Since the Evaluative speech acts had not been dealt with in classification of Searle(1976), it was regarded as one of the Assertive or Expressive. This study looks through authentic conversation examples and finds out unique characteristics of the Evaluative which are different from those of Assertive or Expressive. Differences between them are as followings. Firstly, Evaluative is related not only to a speaker's description of facts but to his psychological attitude about it, which is more crucial. Also, mentioned utterances in the Evaluative would be judged neither by the standards of truth or falsehood, nor by the speaker's belief in truth of proposition. The speaker of Evaluative expects hearer to accept his evaluative manner whereas the speaker of Expressive expects empathy. Overall, it seems that Evaluative has its own unique characteristics with its own felicity conditions and should be classified as a distinct category in the whole speech act system.
  • 19.

    Research on Productivity of Korean Suffixes for Selecting Vocabulary of Korean Education

    감한샘 | 2013, 40() | pp.521~547 | number of Cited : 20
    'Word family' is the set including derived forms and inflected forms from base. We need a list of the type of affix to apply the concept of 'Word family' to Korean vocabulary selection. There are several criteria for affix classification; frequency, productivity, predictability and regularity of function and so on. Frequency is the number of words in which an affix occurs. Productivity is the likelihood that the affix will be used to form new words. Predictability is the degree of predictability of the meaning of the affix. And regularity of function is the degree to which the affix attaches to a base of known form-class and produces a word of known. The purpose of this paper is to measure the productivity of Korean suffixes. The formula is 'P = (n1+1)․T/N', which is originally based on Baayen(1989). As a result of analysis based on dictionary and corpus, we get the list of suffix ‘-i, -gi, -jil, -(eu)m’ in order of productivity. The result is in accord to the predictive value by intuition. Research on applying the result of measuring the criteria is to be followed.
  • 20.

    Derivation of Korean Cuisine Verbs to Food Nouns

    Kim Jung Nam | 2013, 40() | pp.549~579 | number of Cited : 4
    This paper aims to investigate the patterns of derivative food nouns from Korean cuisine verbs. Two most productive nominal suffixes are '-i', and '-(eu)m' in word formation of Korean. These suffixes attach the stems of cuisine verbs and compose several bases or nouns, and these bases combine with nouns which represent the materials of cooking, and become the compound nouns. On occasion the words which mean the method to cook, combine with the derivative nouns from cuisine verbs. The binding of verb's stem and suffix plays as a base from which a derivative noun. Besides above two suffixes, 'zero-suffix' is relevant to forming the base. And though they are small number, '-gae' and '-eogi' are able to make a derivative food nouns.