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2013, Vol.42, No.

  • 1.

    A Study on the Interrelation between Incompatible Relation and Lexical Relation

    Do Jaehak | 2013, 42() | pp.1~26 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper aims to investigate a concept and scope of ‘incompatible relation’ in major preceding researches of semantics. Concerning a concept of incompatible relation, I draw a distinction between paradigmatic and syntagmatic relation of items. The former of the two could be classified into three different notions again. First, an exclusive relation among words within a lexical field, that is a contrastive relation among co-hyponyms. Second, a relation among words extraneous. Third, a comprehensive term that includes antonymy and co-hyponymy. Through considering each of the notions, I conclude that incompatible relation is not that is limited to paradigmatic relation of level of words but that is regarded as a paradigmatic and syntagmatic relation of several levels. In accordance with this notion, incompatible relation is defined as a relation that imply a contrast(or exclusion) among the random items in a certain dimension. And an extension of incompatible relation covers levels of a ‘concept’, a ‘meaning’, a ‘phoneme’, a ‘morpheme’, a ‘word’, and a ‘sentence’. From among these, it’s a meaning, a morpheme, a word, and a sentence level that have a relationship with semantics. Lastly I commented that incompatible relation implies a paradigmatic irreplaceability and a syntagmatic conflict of semantic feature.
  • 2.

    Organization and Operation of Lexical Meanings and Semantic Relation Informations

    Choi, Kyeong-bong | 2013, 42() | pp.27~55 | number of Cited : 7
    This study investigated the actions of lexical meanings and semantic relation informations in the sentence and discourse organization and discussed the matters on the generation of meanings and the organization of a mental lexicon. The discussion results can be summarized as follows:In the chapter 2, I divided the research flows of lexical meanings into structuralism, contextualism, and cognitivism and sorted them out. It also explained the patterns of interaction and reform among the three perspectives based on “analogy” and “association,” the two keywords penetrating the three perspectives. The approach led to the two following findings: first, as the hypothesis that individual meanings in a mental lexicon would be saved in a row lost its persuasive power, analogy, association, and calculation process in a mental lexicon started to get attention as a procedure of generating a meaning. Secondly, given the easiness of analogy and association, it will be rational to regard the meanings that are the grounds of analogy and association as linguistic knowledge saved in a mental lexicon. In the chapter 3, I demonstrated that lexical meanings were generated through analogy, association, conventionalization, and calculation and hypothesized that a mental lexicon would be comprised of the meaning storage part and the calculation part. It was hypothesized that while the former would save the meanings remembered and systemized through the pragmatic reinforcement action as well as the meanings that would become the grounds for analogy and association, the latter would implement the saved meanings according to the conditions of contexts. In the chapter 4, I examined the patterns of using vocabulary forming semantic relations and showed that there were cognitive efforts to systemize and perceive pragmatic experiences. It further hypothesized based on those grounds that information about semantic relations would be systemized and saved in a mental lexicon and that the saved information would contribute to the generation of meanings through proportional calculation.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Correlation between Knoweldge of Loan Words and Individual Variables of North Korean Refugee

    Hye-Jin Shin , Youngjoo Kim | 2013, 42() | pp.57~79 | number of Cited : 6
    This study aimed to examine vocabulary knowledge of loan words and investigate a correlation between knowledge of loan words and individual variables. To meet the goal, this study recruited 17 South Koreans and 57 North Korean refugees and surveyed loan word adaptation through a questionnaire. The study also employed a vocabulary knowledge test to evaluate North Korean refugees' knowledge of loan words. Consequently, the study found out that there was very significant correlation between accuracy rate and degree of life satisfaction in South Korea. However, no correlation was found with gender, age, and duration of stay in South Korea. Also, the more important words are, the higher accuracy rate they showed with significance. Based on the results, the study suggested that there were strong necessities of developing a workbook for loan words with self-study purpose and providing ongoing community-based South Korean language program.
  • 4.

    The Semantic Function of a Past Imperfective Aspect Marker '-deo-'

    강계림 | 2013, 42() | pp.81~110 | number of Cited : 2
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the semantic functions of prefinal ending ‘-deo-’ in relative clause forms. The prefinal ending ‘-deo-’ in relative clause forms is a past imperfective aspect marker which is a type of view aspects. A imperfective aspect marker describes a situation focusing on internal stage without mention about initial and final endpoints. On the other hand, a perfective aspect marker describes a situation as a point. These view aspects interact with situation aspects which are classified by the internal temporal features of verbs, argument, and etc. To achieve our purpose, we divide the semantic functions of ‘-deo-’ into basic meanings and usage meanings. On basic meanings, it has progressive or continuous aspectal meaning in activity, accomplishment, or stative situation. Whereas in semelfactive or achievement situation without duration, ‘-deo-’ tends to have inceptive, iterative and habitual aspectual meanings. On usage meanings, ‘-deo-’ is able to function time backgrounds through the basic aspectual meaning focusing on a internal stage of a situation. Next, it has implication meanings of incompleteness or stop meanings. These implication meanings are up to whether the situation aspect has a telic or atelic feature. Lastly, it is possible to distinguish ‘-deon’ from ‘-eon’ and ‘-essdeon’ which are past markers in relative clauses on usage meanings. The form ‘-eon’ and ‘-essdeon’ respectively tends to emphasize the result of situations and discontinuity about the result of situations.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Grammaticalized Processes and the Semantic characteristics of the Final Endings ‘-eungeol(은걸)’, ‘-neungeol(는걸)’ and ‘-eulgeol(을걸)’.

    LEE, KEUM-HEE | 2013, 42() | pp.111~139 | number of Cited : 11
    This paper examines the grammaticalized processes of ‘-eungeol(은걸)’, ‘-neungeol(는걸)’ and ‘-eulgeol(을걸)’ to find the relativeness resulting from meaning of these three forms. These endings are commonly used to represent the speaker’s emphasis on claims, admiration or surprise, and regret. But in case of the ending is regret, it is not completely grammaticalized. There are three grounds for this. First, the ending is not free to combine with ‘yo(요)’ in syntactic context. Second, it can be used with the substitute ‘graessda(그랬다)’. And finally, it can return to the original form. Also, ‘-neungeol(는걸)’ combines with ‘-gess(겠)-’ to form ‘-gessneungeol(겠는걸)’, and this form is similar to ‘-eulgeol(을걸)’ in a future situation. And ‘-eossneungeol(었는걸)’ is similar to ‘-eungeol(은걸)’ in a past situation. But each has a slightly different meaning.
  • 6.

    Lexical Information of {moyang [shape/form] and {moyangita [look like/seem to do(be)] in the Korean Lexicon

    Hyon-Sook Shin | 2013, 42() | pp.141~165 | number of Cited : 2
    The lexical items {moyang} and {moyangita} are basic lexical items in the Korean Lexicon. Therefore, these items not only are pervasively used in the daily life of a typical Korean language user but also used in a range of contexts. This study sets out to provide the full scope of the lexical items’ usage and meaning through concrete and explicit explanations and examples as thoroughly as possible. For this purpose we applied the analytical tool proposed by Shin (2010, 2011). Furthermore, we discuss the syntactic relation of {moyang} and {moyangita} construction, including {pota [to see]} construction based on the semantic relation to these items. Particularly we point out that the syntactic structure is strongly related to the semantic category that belong to {moyang} and {moyangita}. We also discuss the extension model of the syntactic construction and the semantic domain of {moyang} and {moyangita}. For instance, the lexical item {moyang} extends to the {moyangita} construction within the embedded sentences or complex sentences. We show the basic meaning [shape/form] of {moyang} extends [look like/seem to do(be)] of {moyangita} with two semantic features [±eye], [±concrete object] and Korean Language user’s cognition. We do this by providing the lexical information for application in Korean language education. The revealed syntactic structure and semantic information necessary for structuring lexical information can be of aid to dictionary authors and developers of artificial intelligence. This study also provides a method for structuring lexical information for Korean linguists and linguist in general.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Aspect of Responses to Thanks through Discourse Analysis of Spoken Text in Korean

    Park KiSeon | 2013, 42() | pp.167~197 | number of Cited : 9
    This paper is to analyze discourses of spoken language in order to deliberate the practical forms of the responses which express thankful feelings. The different types of responses were analyzed through discourse analysis under official and private situations. The context and frequency have been researched to find the forms of responses. As a result, the most frequently used responses to express thankful feelings were ‘Repeat type’ which occupies about 46% out of total 449 times. The second, ‘Other greeting type’ which includes diverse recognizing words as responses occupies about 17%. The third, ‘Answer avoidance type’ occupies about 15%. These three types of responses occupy almost 78% of total which appears very high frequency. And ‘Modesty type’ and ‘No response type’ occupy about 16%, and ‘Acceptance type’ occupies about 6%. Like the above, through this analysis research, it turned out that various responses are being used according to discourse contexts as well as ones in ‘Modesty type’ which is suggested as general expressions to present thankful feelings in KFL textbooks.
  • 8.

    The Analysis of Personal Suffix of Sino-Korean Words between Korean and Chinese - Focused on the Occupational Personal Suffix

    김청룡 | 2013, 42() | pp.199~221 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Whether in Chinese or Korean, in creation pattern derivative role of the suffix is very important. Especially in Korean suffix which was well developed, and also there were many derivative words, also had many personal suffix. This paper is focus on the occupational Sino-Korean words of personal suffix, which showed hierarchical characteristic. In this paper, we collect the occupational Sino-Korean words of personal suffix list in Korean and Chinese, through semantic marker analysis, to compare the common and different points of the occupational word suffix between these two languages. Through compare analysis, the characteristic of Sino-Korean words of personal suffix between Korean and Chinese are:Firstly, in Korean and Chinese, occupational Sino-Korean words of personal suffix was based on “specialty”(전문성), which can be classified as “specialty in knowledge” type (지식전문성 유형) “specialty in skill” type(기술전문성유형), “not specialty in knowledge or skill” type. Second in Korean and Chinese with the occupational personal suffix in their own system, not only can reflect hierarchical characteristic but also show the phenomenon of differentiation. Third in Korean and Chinese, some of occupational personal suffix exhibit cross relationship. e.x. Korean ‘-사士’corresponding to Chinese‘師, in Korean ‘-사師’ corresponding to Chinese‘士’. Fourth in Korean and Chinese, some of occupational personal suffix exhibit one to many relationships. e.x. Chinese ‘-家’ corresponding to Korean ‘-가家’ and ‘자者’ at the same time.
  • 9.

    A Study on Formation and Word order of 'wa/kwa' Conjoined Noun Phrase.

    JU HYANGA | 2013, 42() | pp.223~245 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper deals with formation and word order of ‘wa/kwa’ conjoined noun phrase. This study particularly concentrates on animacy. Previous studies categorize animacy in two binary features([+animacy], [-animacy]) and organize animacy hierarchy depending on degree of animacy. It is usual that constituents of conjoined noun phrase have same status in terms of animacy hierarchy. Under any circumstances, however, constituents which are have different degree of animacy can construct conjoined noun phrase. In a aspect of word order, there is a tendency for a constituent which is located at higher position with animacy hierarchy precede another constituent. For conjunction of noun phrases with same degree of animacy, three principles influence word order; me-first principle, naturalness principle, salience principle. Though, due to special culture in Korean society, in some cases word order doesn’t correspond with degree of animacy or general word order principle.
  • 10.

    On the Meaning Opposition and the Co-occurrence of some NPIs

    Lee, Eunsup , Yi Seon-ung | 2013, 42() | pp.247~267 | number of Cited : 7
    This paper tries to figure out the way a negation sentence are formed based on Aristotle’s description about opposition. Also we focus on the factors that make some NPIs occur in non-negation sentence. According to Aristotle, the opposition of meaning gives a logical and semantic foundation. Especially it is the privation and the contradiction that form the typical oppositions related to forming a negation sentence. On the other hand, even though it is not the general case, there are some NPIs that occur in a non-negation sentence that belongs to contrary opposition. We have two reasons as follows. First, when elements such as ‘mollae’(몰래), ‘moreusoy’(모르쇠), ‘mushinkyungha-’(무신경하-), etc. have diachronically lost their negative properties, the above situations may happen in a non-negation sentence. Second, when the above elements appear in a certain context which induces negative implicature, they activate their original negative properties. Through this process, it can be argued that some NPIs appear in the non-negation sentence.
  • 11.

    The Study of a Time Adverb, 'imi'

    Jang Chae Rin | 2013, 42() | pp.269~295 | number of Cited : 3
    The purpose of this study is to identify a temporal adverb ‘imi’ in terms of the sphere it belongs to, the relations of co-occurrence with tense and situation types, and the meaning. To achieve this purpose, this study critically reviewed preceding researches which suggested that ‘imi’ be an aspectual adverb, and examined certain example sentences with respect to the relations of co-occurrence with the types of tense and situation types. Based on the findings from this process, this study revealed the meaning of ‘imi’. Although in many preceding researches the adverb ‘imi’ is identified as an aspectual verb, this study revealed that ‘imi’ cannot be limited only to an aspectual verb. This adverb needs to be seen in the various aspects. In chapter 3.1., it is examined that the relations of co-occurrence between ‘imi’ and tense grammatical forms with sample sentences. ‘Imi’ could co-occur with past, present, and future tense. A noteworthy phenomenon here was the relations of co-occurrence between ‘imi’ and future tense, which showed that ‘imi’ confine the meaning of the future to the guess of speaker not the will of speaker. In doing so, a hypothesis that “‘imi’ requires reference time.” can be established. On the other hand, chapter 3.2 examined the example sentences with respect to situation types suggested by Smith(1991/1997). A certain situation type could not co occur with ‘imi’, but in this case a little manipulation could made the co-occurrences very natural. In the course of doing so, a hypothesis above could be developed like following. “The ‘imi’ clause requires a reference time of which an event may influence to(or make different) the situation, and the point of time indicated by ‘imi’ is before the reference time.”Chpater 4.2 discussed the meaning of ‘imi’ based on the findings above. For convenience of discussion, this study introduced the signs and concepts from Michaelis(1992): RI(the event which can change the ‘imi’ clause situation), AS(the state of ‘imi’ clause), and AS'(the state of an event which can change the ‘imi’ clause situation). This study invented a function relation, “f(x) = AS′(RI)”. The possible results were two types: ① AS′(RI)=AS, ② AS′(RI)≠AS. In conclusion, the meaning of ‘imi’ clause can be divided into two. In the case of ①, ‘imi’ clause refers to that “there is no need any RI(the event which can change the ‘imi’ clause situation). In the case of ②, ‘imi’ clause refers to the situation which cannot be helped. In this context, this study shed new light on the role of reference time in the temporal adverb ‘imi’ and revealed the possibility that ‘imi’ can be seen as a versatile adverb in terms of categories of aspect and modality.
  • 12.

    The Semantic Correspondence between Korean Heating Cuisine Verbs and Chinese Heating Cuisine Verbs

    Zhang Hui Hui , Kim Jung Nam | 2013, 42() | pp.297~320 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper aims to pointing out the errors of <Korean-Chinese Dictionary>, and to represent the corresponding meaning of heating cuisine verbs in Korean and Chinese. In order to achieve this goal, we analyzed the distinctive semantic features of cuisine verbs of two languages. The criteria of analysis based on the Kim(2011). In Kim(2011), Korean cuisine verbs are divided several types. One of them is heating verbs. In this paper, we selected 8 verbs from the heating cuisine verbs on the basis of Korean textbook for immigration women. After analyzing the distinctive semantic constituent features of corresponding Chinese cuisine verbs with Korean cuisine verbs, and comparing the features of them respectively, we established a new corresponding system and clarified the aspect of correspondence.
  • 13.

    The Problems of the Education of Semantic Relation and the Solution.

    Lee dong hyeok | 2013, 42() | pp.321~349 | number of Cited : 4
    The purpose of this paper is to identify the problems of the education of semantic relation which the 2007 revised Korean curriculum and 2011 revised Korean curriculum have, and to look for the solution. The existing curriculum had tried to meet its two targets which are increase of both quantitative lexical competence and communicative competence, but it failed to reach goal due to Korean textbook. Semantically related words are able to co-occur in a particular grammatical construction. So it is highly efficient to propose related words in a particular construction and make frequent use of them in order to increase quantitative lexical competence. Alternating related words with each other is acceptable, and it has different results. So it is necessary to let learners know alternating related words with each other.
  • 14.

    On the Korean Materials in Oppert (1880) - 19th century German-Korean Vocabulary

    Young Gyun Han | 2013, 42() | pp.351~405 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to investigate 19th Century’s German-Korean Vocabulary, which is not found up to now. The author conclude that the German-Korean translations in ‘Coreisches Vocabular’, which is a appendix to Oppert(1880), is a reprinted material from a third book which was compiled by Johannes Hoffmann. Johannes Hoffmann was a assistant to Siebold in Japan, and served as a Professor at Leiden University later. The author compared appendix of Oppert(1880), namely ‘Coreisches Vocabular’, with Lui-hŏ(1838) by Siebold and the chapter Lui-hŏ which is included in volume 7 of Siebold’s Nippon, and recontructed German-Korean Vocabulary.
  • 15.

    Study on Methods of Presenting ‘i/ka’ and ‘eun/neun’ in Korean Language Textbooks for Beginners

    Yi Miji | 2013, 42() | pp.407~441 | number of Cited : 7
    Usually ‘i/ka’ is used as a subject marker and ‘eun/neun’ is used as a topic marker in Korean language. These two particles are learned in the early stages of Korean language education, however, Korean leaners experience difficulties in understanding and distinguishing the meanings and use of them even after their proficiency is reached to a higher level. This paper supposes the learners‘ difficulties are in large part resulted from lack of systematic learning of ‘i/ka’ and ‘eun/neun’, especially the meanings and contexts of them. Thus, this study sought to suggest methods of presenting ‘i/ka’ and ‘eun/neun’ in the Korean language textbooks for beginners level. To this end, the meanings and contexts where ‘i/ka’ and ‘eun/neun’ are used were discussed by examining previous studies, and Korean language textbooks were also analysed to identify problems of presentation methods of ‘i/ka’ and ‘eun/neun’. Contents of explanation, presentation methods, example sentences, and practices of these two particles which should be presented in the textbook were suggested based on the analysis result of the previous studies and Korean language textbooks.
  • 16.

    Rethinking the Systemicity of Lexical Relations

    Kim Jin Hae | 2013, 42() | pp.443~462 | number of Cited : 12
    This research aims to rethink the systemicity of lexical relations in the contextualistic point of view. Word meanings and lexical relations essentially depend on context. Word meanings without context do not exist. Therefore, I question the approach which classifies semantic relations as ‘established semantic relations’ or ‘semantic relations by contextual modulation’. This approach has a limitation in that word meanings are considered to be fixed and stable, that is, context-independent. Because signification essentially requires context, lexical relations are not systematic. Thus, I suggest that we classify context as ‘conventionalized context’ or ‘creative context’. The lexical systemicity is partial, dynamic and context-based.
  • 17.

    A Corpus-Based Analysis of the Meanings and Uses of Yelmay, Kwail, and Kwasil ‘Fruit’ in Korean

    Haeyeon Kim | 2013, 42() | pp.463~494 | number of Cited : 1
    As a study of synonymy, this research examines and compares the meanings and uses of the synonymous words yelmay, kwail, and kwasil ‘fruit’ in a Korean written corpus by using the methodology of corpus linguistics. To achieve this goal, this research first examines dictionary definitions of yelmay, kwail, and kwasil. After that, it explores their frequency, co-occurrence relations, and collocational patterns, and the distribution of literal and metaphorical meanings. The research results are summarized as in the following: (i) yelmay and kwail are almost equal but kwasil far low in frequency, (ii) yelmay makes a number of collocational patterns, but kwail does not, (iii) yelmay is frequently used to display metaphorical meanings but kwail denotes literal meanings in most cases, and (iv) the figurative meanings of yelmay come from the metaphors ABSTRACT CONCEPTS ARE PLANTS, LIFE IS A PLANT, RESULTS OF EFFORT ARE FRUIT, LOVE IS A PLANT. Finally, this research shows that a corpus-based analysis of synonymous words is a useful method for the study of synonymy in lexical semantics.
  • 18.

    Lexical Semantic Relation in Sentence and Discourse Levels

    Chae-hun Yim | 2013, 42() | pp.495~514 | number of Cited : 4
    The purpose of this paper is to answer the following question: Where should lexical semantic relation be situated in a model of language competence and language use? To achieve this, I inspected the functions of lexical semantic relation in sentence and discourse levels. These show that lexical semantic relation not only represent the semantic relation between words in lexicon, but also act as mechanism of sentence and discourse meaning formation. Because it fulfills function as mechanism of sentence and discourse formation, I proposes that lexcial→lexical semantic relation→relations must be represented in the lexicon, with other knowledge of words.
  • 19.

    A Study on Ways to Improve Korean Reading Proficiency Using Transitivity

    Lee Young Jun | 2013, 42() | pp.515~535 | number of Cited : 4
    This article aims to explore pedagogical techniques that may facilitate reading proficiency in Korean learners. The lexical and grammatical elements need to be included in the foreign learners’ reading activity. The knowledge about words and their semantic meaning can make learners understand the core meaning of text. Especially the understanding about transitivity could help learners understand the context. In this property could be included such attributes as animacy, agency, and intention. In this study with the aid of measurement of transitivity, I could verify that the core meanings are located near the sentences that have high degree of transitivity. A study program should be devised that aids learners with regard to the aforementioned, so I suggest such methods as semantic mapping and semantic feature analysis.
  • 20.

    A Study on the Method of Word Formation through Newly-coined Words Collected from Twitter

    Yoon Gyung-Seon | 2013, 42() | pp.537~555 | number of Cited : 6
    The purpose of this study is to examine how neologisms used on SNS are different from the existing or new words in terms of the method of word formation through newly-coined words collected from Twitter, one of social media. These days, most of Smartphone users use one or more SNS. SNS(Social Network Service) allows real-time conversation to be common and a number of neologisms are constantly appearing and disappearing. As the existing new words, neologisms on SNS are coined by the traditional method of word formation, which is complex and derivative. However, it is noticeable that neologisms usually used on SNS show distinctive word combinations as well as affixes attached to a word stem that previous studies of new words have dealt with. A group of young people, who refuse a cliché and long for fresh and amazing expressions, creates such a new word in a natural and prolific way. This study attempts to investigate a new pattern of word formation through recent neologisms that seem to follow the traditional method of word formation, but in fact, do not follow it. The result of analysis on examples on Twitter shows that some new words are derived by the existing derivative affixes or seem to be derived by it although it is not a real affix. The creation of a new word and its use were more prosperous in substantial accord with the nature of SNS. Through the additional study, the method of neologism formation will be organized by setting up a category of Twitter users who engage in many different jobs and having the more number of tweet.