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pISSN : 1226-7198 / eISSN : 2734-0171

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2014, Vol.44, No.

  • 1.

    A study of Lexical Information of {–ggun}

    권정숙 | 2014, 44() | pp.1~28 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this research is to offer lexical information of {–ggun} clearly. {-ggun} are used in a daily life so often in multifarious situation by Korean language user. And then I tried to study on the basic meaning of {-ggun} and the meanings reflected in the language life and try to clear the extended meanings. I used the data of the corpus and the newly coined word of National Institute of Korean language and used the data of Internet (daum & Naver), Newspaper, Which are used in a daily life for this study. We can find the most data of lexical information in the various Korean dictionary. {-ggun} is a compound word as personal suffixes of derivation suffix and the precedence lexicon (element) of {-ggun} combined as synthesis method. And the purpose of this research is to find the answers of the following questions. First, How {-ggun} extend the meanings and forms by combine with which form and which methods. Second, What is basic meaning which a Korean language user can recognize from{-ggun},and which method the meanings of {-ggun} extend. Third, To present the semantic information in the corpus and to categorize the semantic meanings. Fourth, To analyze the selectional restriction of the precedent lexicon of {-ggun}. The result of this research on the {-ggun} are those as following. 1.The Korean is an agglutinative language in the combination structure and it could extend the meaning in numberous ways. 2. The vocabulary connection framework of {-ggun} is so diverse and the frequency of connection Chinse, Korean native words an foreign language. 3. According to the research from The National institute of Korean language, the value of the meaning of {-ggun} is increasing. 4. The origin of the word of {-ggun} is Chinese but They deal with it as Korean native word.
  • 2.

    A study on the Meaning Extension and Aspects of Conceptualisation of the Change of 'Sweet'

    Kim, Hae mi | 2014, 44() | pp.29~58 | number of Cited : 7
    This study explored the aspect of conceptualization of 'dalda (sweet)'-series words among the Korean taste adjectives; dalda (sweet), daljakjigeunhada (somewhat sweetish), dalkomhada (sugary), deulkeumhada (unpleasantly sweet) and deulcheokjigeunhada (somewhat sweet). For this exploration, the study was based on 'conceptual blending theory'. Through a discussion process, the meaning of dalda-series words extended from judging to status and then to attitude, in other words, from ‘materiality' to 'abstractness'. It can be noticeable that the reason why dalda-series words that mean the physical experience via the sense of taste get extended to the meaning of 'judging, status, attitude' is that the words as an linguistic expression are ceaselessly synchronized by our experiences and constitute a meaning. In other words, in the extension of the meaning of dalda-series words, considerable portion of the experience through 'somatization' is inherent. As the result of the investigation of the conceptualization of dalda-series words, the words that mean a high degree of pleasure to feel when eating were related to an affirmative mental state or attitude and the words that mean a low degree of pleasure were related to a negative mental state or attitude. This is related to the recognition system for dalda-series words of linguistic public and one aspect of the recognition system of linguistic public can be understood.
  • 3.

    A Comparative Study of the Meanings of Meli 'Head' and Kkoli 'Tail’ Through an Analysis of a Korean Written Corpus

    Haeyeon Kim | 2014, 44() | pp.59~88 | number of Cited : 12
    This is a comparative study of the meanings of meli 'Head' and kkoli 'Tail’ based on an analysis of a written corpus. The research shows the frequency data, co-occurrence relations, collocation patterns of these two body-part terms in the database. First, after critically reviewing dictionary definitions of the two terms, this research shows the meanings of meli and kkoli based on the frequency rates of the two. Second, analysis of the data shows the following meanings for meli (i) the body-part head, (ii) hair, (iii) cognitive/sensual functions of the brain, (iv) the top part of concrete objects or the starting point of events/abstract notions. kkoli shows the following: (i) the body-part tail, (ii) the last part of concrete objects or abstract notions/ events. Examination shows that frequency rate of the figurative use of meli amounts to 3.5%, and that of kkoli to 67.0%. In addition, examination of the collocation patterns shows that kkoli makes a number of fixed idiomatic expressions. When we adopt metaphor theory, the figurative meanings of meli and kkoli are based on the metaphors of ABSTRACT CONCEPT(S) IS/ARE A BODY and CONCRETE OBJECT(S) IS/ARE A BODY. Finally, this research shows that a corpus-based analysis of lexical items is a useful method for the characterization of polysemous words. (Chung-Ang University)
  • 4.

    Sub-categorization of sentence adverbs in relation to discourse components

    Seoin Shin | 2014, 44() | pp.89~118 | number of Cited : 17
    This study aims to clarify the characteristics of sentence adverbs in the Korean language by re-subcategorizing them. Sentence adverbs are divided into four sub-categories: propositional adverbs, domain adverbs, speech act adverbs, and connecting adverbs. Propositional adverbs are sub-divided into modal adverbs, event-oriented evaluatives, and participants-evaluatives, whereas speech act adverbs are sub-divided into speech act-oriented adverbs and speaker/ hearer-oriented adverbs. Previous studies focused on the relationship between sentence adverbs and other constituents at the sentence level. In contrast, the current study attempts to define the characteristics of sentence adverbs by investigating at the discourse level the relationship between sentence adverbs and other factors such as propositions, speech acts, the speaker, and the hearer.
  • 5.

    Prosody in Spoken Korean

    Shin, Jiyoung | 2014, 44() | pp.119~139 | number of Cited : 29
    The previous studies on semantics and syntax are mainly based on written language. As a result, semanticians and syntacticians do not seriously consider the prosodic aspects of language, which is not visible in written texts. However, as the prosodic aspects of language play an important role in spoken language, researchers who are interested in the spoken grammar, have to take account of the prosodic structure of the speech data. This paper aims to show how prosodic account can help to find some plausible answers to semantic and syntactic problems based on some empirical evidences by analysing the 46,529 entries of dictionary, spontaneous speech over 400,000 syllables, and 446 proverbs. The average number of intonational phrase is 7.2 syllables, which reflects working memory proposed by Miller(1994). Strikingly similar statistical results between spontaneous speech and proverbs are obtained. In addition, asymmetric use between short negation and long negation is observed by comparing the frequency of occurrence of negative sentence in casual dialogue, formal presentation, and a written report. Long negation tends to be more used in formal speech than in casual speech and more used in writing than in speaking. The reason why short negation is more used in speaking than in writing, appears to be related to the disambiguation of a negative sentence by prosody of speech.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Conceptualization of FEAR in Korean and English

    오상석 | 2014, 44() | pp.141~170 | number of Cited : 10
    The purpose of this paper is to explore the conceptual metonymies and metaphors of FEAR in Korean and English, and to account for both the universality and variation of the conceptualization of FEAR. FEAR is one of the emotions most common to humans and its concept is universal across cultures. Recent findings from cognitive linguistic studies reveal that the conceptualization of an emotion among various cultures can be based on both embodied cognition arising from the common human experience and thought and variant cultural models founded on individual socio-cultural contexts. The analysis of metonymic and metaphorical expressions of FEAR in Korean and English show that both the conceptual metonymies and conceptual metaphors in each language are highly commensurate, with a 95% match for the former and 90% match for the latter. This validates to a considerable degree the hypothesis for universality of conceptual metaphors and metonymies between languages. At the same time, it is proposed that some variations in conceptual metonymies and metaphors found in Korean arose from the folk models based on the unique Korean culture and consciousness.
  • 7.

    A Study for expanding the horizons of lexical competence assessment

    Kiyoun Yi | 2014, 44() | pp.171~197 | number of Cited : 6
    Assessing lexical competence should be targeted to ‘real’ lexical competence as an ability. Usually so called vocabulary ‘test’ ask the meaning of each words. However the essence of the ‘assessment’ is not limited to ‘testing’. And the original assessment is very diverse activities in every aspect of education. Therefore to recover the essence of the lexical competence assessment, we should examine the attribute of the lexical competence. Unlike commonly known as a knowledge of a words, the lexical competence should be considered as a ‘ability’. It is same in evaluation. So, in this study, the lexical competence is divided into three the area-knowledge, skill, attitude. And each of them are complementary. So the lexical competence assessment should be evaluate the lexical competence in accordance with the characteristics of the each area. So making of question should be systematical considering each area and not only the way of question, lexical competence assessment should be performed as a usual practice in classroom.
  • 8.

    Aspects of Cultural Variations in Emotions: Mainly on ‘anger’

    LIM JI Ryong | 2014, 44() | pp.199~234 | number of Cited : 17
    The purpose of this paper is to reveal semantic characteristics of ‘anger’ in the Korean culture perspective of cognitive linguistics and contrastive view. The results are as follows: First, there are a lot of commonalities in physiological metonymy among seven cultures, due to bodily experience, while there are also some peculiarities, due to socio-cultural contexts. Korean has the greatest number of body parts related to the responses to ‘anger’, and the most precise physiological responses. Second, there exist both commonalities and peculiarities in the source domains of conceptual metaphors of ‘anger’ in 9 cultures. This is due to the difference of classification standards and the perspectives of researchers as well as a variety of manners of conceptualization. Korean has the greatest variety of source domains. Third, the cognitive models of the scenario of prototypical ‘anger’ in 7 cultures are composed of 5 levels, and their commonness is wide, with cultural peculiarities appearing in the fifth level. Korean culture shows a typical cognitive model of this scenario.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Korean Contrastive Focus Entailment Construction

    Jeon, Hu-Min | 2014, 44() | pp.235~261 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper aims to reveal the semantic characteristics of the Korean contrastive focus entailment construction. The findings of this paper under this purpose are as follows. First, ‘khe-nyeng’ construction, ‘ko-sa-ha-ko’ construction, ‘mwul-lon-i-ko’ construction, and ‘mal-hal-kes-to- eps-ko’ construction are named as Contrastive focus Entailment Construction, because the antecedent word and the following word of these constructions are contrastive focus, and a proposition that is expressed by the following sentence of construction entails a proposition that is inferred from the antecedent word of construction. Second, ‘khe-nyeng’ construction and ‘ko-sa-ha-ko’ construction have negative polarity, but ‘mwul-lon-i-ko’ construction and ‘mal-hal-kes- to-eps-ko’ construction don't have. Third, all constructions are combined with ‘to’ in a negative sentence, but the [+negative polarity] types can't be combined with ‘to’ in an affirmative sentence. Fourth, the [+negative polarity] types are not the same as [-negative polarity] types in that in case of [+negative polarity] types, a proposition that is inferred from the antecedent word of construction doesn't consist of the predicate of the following sentence of construction in a affirmative sentence. Fifth, the [+negative polarity] types can't be presupposed scale in a affirmative sentence, unlike the [-negative polarity] types. Sixth, while the [+negative polarity] types select ‘-ki’ noun clause as the antecedent word of construction, the [-negative polarity] types choose ‘-um’ noun clause as the antecedent word of construction. Seventh, these differences between the two types result from negative polarity.
  • 10.

    Compositionality in Word Formation

    Jeong Handero | 2014, 44() | pp.263~289 | number of Cited : 19
    This paper starts from this question and argues that word formation has compositionality. First of all, I analyse features of complex words by using two criteria, [coherence] and [compositionality]. The [compositionality] is related to functional possibility and the [coherence] is decided whether there are other additional elements beyond constituents of words. I argue that specific construction including additional elements also has compositionality because the functional relation can be valid at least. Principle of compositionality as a functional relation makes meaningful results in word formation by revealing clearly the context( α ) elements on word formation process. In this process, I review Chae(2012) that examined word formation with paradigmatic relation as a center, then try to highlight advantages of word formation-based syntagmatic relation. In addition, I argue that covert context( α ), not paradigmatic relation of overt base of words, is central element for catching lexical relatedness between words in lexicon in spite of word formation-based paradigmatic relation.
  • 11.

    The combinatory condition and thematic role of ‘iyo’

    Hyeong-gang Choe | 2014, 44() | pp.291~311 | number of Cited : 0
    The goal of this paper is to check the thematic meaning of ‘i(이)’ in ‘iyo(이요)’. In ‘iyo, ‘yo’ is not the variation of final ending ‘-o(오)’ and ‘yo’ doesn't have the thematic meaning. The honorific marker ‘yo’ dosen't have the thematic role for topic or focus. Though ‘i’ is a zero morpheme, the thematic role of ‘iyo’ is realized. The case marker can combine ‘yo’, but case marker can't combine ‘iyo’. Because the combination of ‘case marker + yo’ has the same effect as ‘thematic marker ‘i’ + yo’. In iyo, ‘i’ is not a bridging vowel, so realization of ‘yo’ or ‘iyo’ are not always constrained by preceding phonological conditions.
  • 12.

    A Study on the functions of Complex Discourse Markers

    kang soyoung | 2014, 44() | pp.313~344 | number of Cited : 13
    Language elements that perform certain functions on discourses without making effects on the contents of statements on discourses such as showing attitudes of speaker or showing discourse structure are called discourse markers. In this article, discourse markers made up of more than two words were set as complex discourse markers and their generation factors were reviewed. Complex discourse markers function just like a word as components are combined closely. The representative examples such as 'A Geunde' and ‘Ani Geunde’ were classified as complex discourse markers based on syntactic and semantic characteristics of discourse markers. Especially, as they are used meaningfully in colloquial language and they can be omitted without difficulties in meaning delivery because they do not have connection with other components, they fit the characteristics of discourse markers. This article classifies them complex discourse markers and discusses their semantic functions and generation factors. ‘Ani Geunde’ has functions of topic change([+ rupture]) and meaning of correction request with time difference. 'A Geunde' has function of topic change, correction request, and acquisition of right to speak. Those functions do not come from meanings of existing ‘Ani’, ‘A,’ and ‘Geureonde’, it is needed to classify them separately. Finally, based on their semantic functions, it was proposed that their functions such as change of topic, request of correction, and acquisition of the right to speak could be proper points requiring discourse strategy in macroscopic and intermediate dimension(Henne & Rehbock). It is also proposed that it is possible that more than two discourse markers can be combined into one and become a new complex discourse marker with new semantic functions.
  • 13.

    Research on meaning extension aspect of verb: a case study of 'Beo-ri-da'

    김용군 | 2014, 44() | pp.345~366 | number of Cited : 7
    Polysemous word achieved its meaning extension thorough ‘cognitive salience principle’. However, in Korean, you could find some verb that doesn’t fit this principle, which is ‘Beo-ri-da’. Most of previous cognitive linguistic researches on the use of ‘Beo-ri-da’ usually explained it through the core meaning structure and meaning chain structure. This article is going to explain this complex meaning extension by complementing the restraints of previous research methods, while utilizing the maximum benefits of them. Furthermore, it will observe meaning extension phenomenon of ‘Beo-ri-da’ based on corpus. Meanings of ‘Beo-ri-da’ will be examined through dictionary explanations, and similarities and differences would be compared. Also, I will analyze the feature of meaning extension of ‘Beo-ri-da’ through establishing prototypical meaning, extended meaning and meaning network. Furthermore, I will focus both analysis and explanation about the usage frequency of ‘Beo-ri-da’ in terms of asymmetry.
  • 14.

    Research on Predictability of Korean Suffixes for Selecting Vocabulary of Korean Education

    Hansaem Kim | 2014, 44() | pp.367~391 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper aims to discuss the semantic predictability as criteria to classify affixes for applying the concept of word family to Korean vocabulary selection. The meaning of affixes as the object of prediction means a very complex aspect of lexical meaning and grammatical meaning of the terms of the transverse and longitudinal perspective. The demarcation of polysemy can vary depending on the scale of dictionary and aspect of editors. Meaning of affix pre-breaking technology, Macro, includes information on derivatives. The description of meaning of affix includes the information about base, affix, and derivative. The demarcation of polysemy is based on category and semantic field of base, lexical meaning and pragmatic meaning. Macro factors influencing the prediction can be the number of polysemy, polysemy distribution, and the relation between category of bases and the meaning of affixes. Semantic predictability of affixes will contribute to the process of affix classification through coordination with other elements such as frequency, productivity, regularity.