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2014, Vol.46, No.

  • 1.

    A Study on Pragmatic Information of ‘Gamsahada’ and ‘Gomapda’ through Discourse Analysis

    Park KiSeon | 2014, 46() | pp.1~24 | number of Cited : 3
    Utterance meaning of ‘Gamsahada’ and ‘Gomapda’ which are frequently used in spoken discourse, was determined through discourse analysis in this study and the tendency of usage about two words was examined in the basis of frequency classified by their meaning in use. According to these results, this study aims to provide the basic data regarding pragmatic information of two words in KFL. Brief of the result on discourse analysis in this study is as follows. 1. The main factor is [±gratitude] which is the prototype meaning of ‘Gamsahada’ and ‘Gomapda’ when speaker selects a word from the two words in spoken discourse. 2. Two words are more highly apt to be used in spoken discourse with expressing [-gratitude] than with expressing [+gratitude]. 3. Utterance meaning of two words can be divided into ‘expression of gratitude, praise, response word1’ which are used in expressing [+gratitude] and ‘response word2, closing remark, change of subject, affected greeting, courteous refusal etc.’ which are used in expressing [-gratitude].
  • 2.

    The evaluation and suggestion regarding synonyms

    Kim Kwang Soon | 2014, 46() | pp.25~52 | number of Cited : 7
    This study on the evaluation and suggestion regarding synonyms. This article contains the novel evaluation and suggestion regarding synonyms. In the previous discussions about synonyms, the major study method was to classify the common meaning and the individual meaning by investigating the individual meaning of each lexeme with a dictionary and the examples of corpus data. However, this research method has not fully discussed the principle of how each lexeme becomes a synonym. In addition, categorization of lexemes used as synonyms for users of Korean without academic review may be a problem. We need to reflect on whether lexemes confused the similarity of synonyms to categorize them into synonyms and whether a possibility of new discussions has been excluded. Many lexemes may not become synonyms in a common shape. In this article, the meaning of a lexeme recognized as a synonym for users of Korean is investigated in depth based on the problems and the relation is evaluated and discussed by a new method. To achieve this, {Abeoji}, {Appa}, {Abeonim}, {Abi} and {Bu(父)} recognized as a synonym for users of Korean are used as subjects for the study and whether it is a synonym is examined. In addition, the meaning of those lexemes is investigated through corpus examples and their semantic relation is newly discussed. The semantic relation discussed would suggest the method and necessity of new discussions about synonyms.
  • 3.

    The Study of functions of arguments in the verb phrase as a uint of meaning

    조민정 | 2014, 46() | pp.53~77 | number of Cited : 3
    This study intends to investigate which verb phrase is a unit which differenciates between basic and derivational meanings of verb. And also the argument of a verb is an essential element which discriminates between senses of polysemy in lexical and aspectual level. Polysemy have the differences in the semantic, and syntactic level. Firstly, polysemy have different senses in semantic level, secondly it have lots of different syntactic phenomenons which are word scambling, relativization, ‘-ko iss’ sentences entail ‘-ess’ sentences, differences between senses in a combination with time adverbs, etc. What is more the Aktionsart is used as a criteria for distinguishing between senses of polysemy. This study shows that the VP is a significant criteria which distinguishes between senses of polysemy, and also actionsart divides verb and adjective in Korea.
  • 4.

    A Comparative Analysis of the Meanings and Uses of Phalahta and Phwuluta 'Green/Blue’ in a Korean Written Corpus

    Haeyeon Kim | 2014, 46() | pp.79~110 | number of Cited : 8
    The purpose of this research is to characterize and compare the meanings of the color terms phalahta and phwuluta ‘green/blue’ through an analysis of a written corpus. This study examines and compares the frequency rates, co-occurrence relations, collocation patterns of these two color terms in the database. More specifically, first, after critically reviewing dictionary definitions of the two terms, this paper claims that we need a corpus-based approach to proper characterization of the meanings and uses of phalahta and phwuluta. Second, this research examines the frequency rates of the two terms and related color terms, showing that the frequency rate of phwuluta amounts more than three times to that of phalahta. Third, the study shows that phalahta and phwuluta are used attributively with high frequency rates of 78.7% and 81.9%, respectively, showing low frequency rates in the predicative use. Fourth, this research examines the co-occurrence relations of the two adjectives with modified nouns, showing that they co-occur with nouns which refer to environmental, botanical objects, colors, and lights. Fifth, examination shows that the figurative meanings of phalahta and phwuluta are positive ones, denoting life, hope, freshness, youthfulness, etc, unlike the negative connotation of green and blue colors in English. Finally, this research shows that a corpus-based analysis of lexical items can be used fruitfully to characterize the meanings and uses of closely related words such as color terms.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Current Trend and Issues of Korean Verbs Polysemy

    Nam, Kyoung-woan | 2014, 46() | pp.111~139 | number of Cited : 10
    The purpose of this study is to survey the current trend and some issues about polysemy of Korean verbs. Each theory researching polysemy has methodology in its own way. The traditional approaches such as lexicographic description, discontinuity of meaning and formalism are based on the analytical viewpoint, whereas cognitive approaches are based on the generative viewpoints. These two main approaches to the polysemy show the differences not only in the concrete analyzing process but also in the representation method of meaning. But especially in the research on the polysemy of verbs, the critical research issues that are interested by every theory are argument structure, selectional restriction and the principle of meaning extension. Because verbs represent the state-of-affairs in the real world and function as predicate in the sentence, the syntactic and semantic relations between the verbs and their arguments are the most important research themes. In that respect there is common ground on the analyzing of verb polysemy and the hierarchy that is made by the distance of semes is the starting point to synthesize several methodologies of polysemy research.
  • 6.

    동일 어간 반복 구문의 의미 특성-‘V-기는 V, V-기만 V’ 구문을 중심으로

    LeeSooYeon | 2014, 46() | pp.141~161 | number of Cited : 6
    This paper invastigate the semantic aspects of that expressions. When we used this 'v-GINUN v' expression, it shows an implicature "I did it(V), but I wasn't completely satisfied." For examples, just saying "v(먹었어).", it means just "v", however, saying "v-GINUN v(먹기는 먹었어).", it implies "I ate something, but it wasn't perfect." In this paper, the implicature is due to following reasons. 1. 'NUN', a delimiter for contrast is set up 'sister members'. 2. to repeat v emphasizes meaning of 'v' and it divides properties consisting of 'v'. So it necessarily imply another sister members are dissatisfied. 'v-GIMAN v' is ambiguous construction. The "MAN" attached element can be 'unique in the context' or it has 'emphatic use'. Especially, 'v-GIMAN v' used as 'emphatic use', it usually appeared with an adverb like 'JAL(잘)'
  • 7.

    Research Trends and Issues on Corpus-linguistics-as-theory

    Nam, Kilim | 2014, 46() | pp.163~187 | number of Cited : 20
    This paper aims to introduce research trends and issues related to corpus- linguistics-as-theory. Recently there have been a number of studies which have attempted to identify the relation between corpus linguistics and linguistic theory not only in the field of corpus linguistics but also in the fields of cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, and discourse analysis. Though these research trends has a great important implication in corpus linguistics, there are few domestic studies to investigate and introduce the research trends and issues. Corpus-linguistics-as-theory is characterized to explain linguistic performance, contrastively to formal linguistics for linguistic competence. This paper characterizes corpus-as-theory as one of the most critical recent issues in corpus linguistics and investigate and introduce some important topics in recent studies.
  • 8.

    A study on the imbalance of Korean antonyms

    이사교 | 2014, 46() | pp.189~213 | number of Cited : 3
    This experiment was studied on the imbalance in the distribution of Korean antonym. First of all, the imbalance in the frequency of usage presented the phenomena that the one-side of antonym daeripssang was less used, or not used, even lacked. The imbalance in the frequency of usage could be divided into three phenomena. First, in the case of 'Less usage of one-side’ was made by neutralization phenomenon, for example, 'brother - sister'. Second, in the case of 'Not usage of one-side' was imbalance phenomenon that it was made by Korean vocabulary system, for example, 'city - rural community / country'. Also, imbalance phenomenon could be made by linguistic habits, for example, 'bridegroom - bride / wife'. Third, 'The phenomenon of lack of one-side' presented that it was formed linguistic empty on one-side of antonym. It was that the imbalance phenomenon was made by neutralization phenomenon, for example, 'President-Female President'. Or it was that the imbalance phenomenon was made by cultural awareness, for example, 'Satellite - Artificial satellite'. Then, for studying on the imbalance of coinage ability, this experiment was studied on word coinage of antonymous relations of syllable of three pairs, 'man-woman', 'much-less', 'exit-entrance'. The conclusion was a very great difference on word coinage ability of antonyms of this three pairs. The first major cause of presenting of this phenomenon was neutralization phenomenon, and it could be affected by limit of word coinage. Lastly, the imbalance of meaning distribution was divided into semantic change of one-side and semantic loss. The cause of semantic change was semantic change, and semantic loss was related with neutralization phenomenon, linguistic habits, word coinage restriction.
  • 9.

    A study on the correlation between predicate classification

    Lim Geun Seok | 2014, 46() | pp.215~246 | number of Cited : 2
    This paper aims to explore the possibility of how verbal classification helps the development of linguistic typology and how linguistic typology can be used to building universal predicate classification. Compared to nominal classes, predicate classes are not studied systematically in terms of quality and quantity particularly because of the difficulties of classifying predicates. In section 2, two different approaches― ontological and pure linguistic approach―are examined in verbal classification. In section 3, I will deal with some basic issues which must be argued for predicate classification. It contains the universal existence of verbal class, and the target of predicate classification. In section 4, I will examine two examples that show somehow the positive possibility of heuristic research between predicate classification and linguistic typology.
  • 10.

    A study on the Meaning Extension of the Change of 'Salty'

    Kim, Hae mi | 2014, 46() | pp.247~278 | number of Cited : 2
    This study explored the aspect of conceptualization of 'Salty' -series words among the Korean taste adjectives; jjada(salty),'jjabjjalhada(nice and salty). jjibjjilhada(unsatisfactory), jjabjjareumhada, jimjimhada. For this exploration, the study was based on 'conceptual blending theory'. Through a discussion process, the meaning of jjada-series words extended from judging to status and then to ability, in other words, from ‘materiality' to 'abstractness'. It can be noticeable that the reason why jjada-series words that mean the physical experience the sense of taste get extended to the meaning of 'judging, status, attitude' is that the words as an linguistic expression are ceaselessly synchronized by our experiences and constitute a meaning. In other words, in the extension of the meaning of jjada-series words, considerable portion of the experience through is inherent. As the result of the investigation of the conceptualization of jjada-series words, the words that mean a high degree of pleasure to feel when eating were related to an affirmative mental state or ability and the words that mean a low degree of pleasure were related to a positive mental state or attitude. That is the standard of a hat taste influences on the Meaning Extension. This is related to the recognition system for jjada-series words of linguistic public and one aspect of the recognition system of linguistic public can be understood.
  • 11.

    A Study of the Complaint Speech Act by Chinese Office Workers in Korea: With Focus on Low-Level Strategies

    유양 , Yang, Myunghee | 2014, 46() | pp.279~302 | number of Cited : 2
    The present study aims to analyze low-level strategies in the complaint speech act of Chinese office workers in Korea in comparison with native Korean office workers. By means of a discourse completion test (DCT) in six situations, Chinese and Korean office workers of 0~1year-long speakers and 1~3 years-long speakers were surveyed with respect to their changing use of low-level strategies. The results indicated that the two groups used 24 low level strategies altogether, but more strategies were used as employment period got longer. Moreover, Chinese speakers less than a year, generally preferred indirect strategies. However Chinese speakers more than a year, showed similar usage of Korean speakers, frequently using direct low-level strategies such as complaining behavior and employing silent strategy. This study has significant meaning in that it is the first to compare Chinese office workers in Korea with native Korean office workers according to employment period on the aspect of the change on the usage of low-level strategies on the speech act of complaint.
  • 12.

    The cuisine verbs and their meanings in Middle Korean

    SeonYeong Lee | 2014, 46() | pp.303~330 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper aims to discuss the cuisine verbs and their meanings in Middle Korean. Until now the studies on the cuisine verbs have been limited to Modern Korean. It is difficult to collect cuisine verbs in Middle Korean, because there are no Hangeul cookbooks in Middle Korean and very few data related to recipes. Cuisine verbs can be classified into three types: cutting verbs, mixing verbs and heating verbs. In Middle Korean the cutting verbs are Galda, Dihda, Sahalda etc. The mixing verbs are Damgada, Damada, Jamda, etc. The heating verbs are Goda, Gubda, Dalhida, etc. Characteristics of cuisine verbs in Middle Korean are as follows. First, some cuisine verbs in Middle Korean represented more detailed meaning than Modern Korean. Second, there were a lot of derived words in cuisine verbs. Third, ‘Jeonhada, Bsdarida, Malda, Jaeda’ had been used in Middle Korean. These features show the change of food culture in Korea.
  • 13.

    The Universality and the Speciality of Conceptual Metaphors –Focusing on the Frequency of Korean Word ‘ma-eum(Kor. mind)’’s Conceptual Metaphors

    Kim Jin Hae | 2014, 46() | pp.331~349 | number of Cited : 7
    This study examined and criticized the universality of conceptual metaphors through an inductive analysis on language data, which is an explanatory concept of cognitive linguistics. For this purpose, the universality of conceptual metaphors was doubted and disproved through actual language data. To deal with metaphors, elucidative method on verbal expression itself and reasoning inductively is needed. As well known, cognitive linguistics is based on experientialism which believes that human thoughts and understanding are from bodily action and an abstract thinking happens through metaphoric expansion. From the perspective of cognitive linguistics, abstract concepts are understood as physical ones or physical experience. Korean word ‘Maeum’(mind), for example, is also embodied. However, we take the universality and ubiquitousness of metaphors too easily. There is a tendency that we think the universality happens in every individual language. This study suggested that some of abstract concepts are literal and non-metaphoric by examining which verbs combine with the word ‘ma-eum’(Kor. mind), an abstract noun, statistically.
  • 14.

    Study on the subjective quantity expression of Korean

    채옥자 | 2014, 46() | pp.351~377 | number of Cited : 5
    This paper focuses on doing some semantic research centrally on the appraisals, that is to say manners. While the semantic characteristics and syntactical characteristics has been discussing through some syntactical units such as numeral, classifier, quantifier, quantity configuration In the old research about the Korean quantity expression. Speaking of subjectivity of language expressed by quantity category, it must be the 'subjective quantity', in other words, the quantity that is valued by saying 'many/much' or 'few/little'. And this kind of quantity can be divided into the one that is connected with the speaker's supposition and the one that is depended on individual conditions of the speaker. In addition, subjective majority and subjective minority mostly is formed through the differences of the cognition, the view and the expectation of speakers. Speaking of subjective quantity in Korean, the meaning of subjective majority mostly appears by adverb such as '무려'(approximately), ’자그마치‘,postposition like '-(이)나'(as many/as much as), syntactic formation like'무려…-(이)나'(as many/much as...approximately). On the other hand, the meaning of subjective minority appears with adverbs like '겨우, 고작, 기껏해야, 단지'(barely, narrowly, at most, only), postposition like '-뿐', '-밖에'(just, expect of), syntactic formation such as '-에 불과하다', '-에 그치다', '-에 지나지 않다'(nothing but-, end in-, no more than-), and so on.
  • 15.

    A study on the strategy use of refusal act in different learning contexts: Focusing on Chinese speaking Korean learners

    Hyo Jung Kang , Youngjoo Kim , YAN SHUAI | 2014, 46() | pp.379~405 | number of Cited : 5
    This study investigated the strategy use of refusal speech act of two Chinese learner groups of Korean(SA vs. SH). The study employed 45 SA learners, 45 SH learners, and 15 Korean native speakers as control group. The study applied refusal speech act strategy classification by Bee, Takahashi & Uliss-weltz(1990). As results, the study found out that (i) SA learners used strategies 150% more than SH learners, (ii) SA learners used indirect strategies four times more than direct strategies; however, SH learners used indirect strategies two times more than direct strategies. (iii) SA learners felt more stress as their learning duration got longer, but SH learners felt less stress.
  • 16.

    A Study of function meaning {dwaess-eo} as a Korean response marker

    Ahn, Joo-hoh | 2014, 46() | pp.407~426 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This article is aimed at the meaning features of {dwaess-eo}, context-dependent response marker, and grammaticalization process in spoken Korean corpus. The response marker {dwaess-eo} derived from the verb {doe-ta(become)}, has the positive signs like {Yes} as well as the negative signs like {no} depending on the context. The verb {doe-ta} has the argument structure of [NP1-i/ka NP2-i/ka], and basic meaning of '(what) to fit standard'. So this means NP1 reached to the reference point (or target position). Meaning of the {dwaess-eo} is changed into the direction of [completed person's utterance or action → Understanding → satisfaction of current state → refusing speaker’s request]. The fact of grammaticalization of {dwaess-eo} is known through the morphological characteristics like this. The {dwaess-eo} as a discourse marker is combined the only past tense endings {-eoss-}, impossible of present tense or future tense. In addition to, the syntactic argument structure of the original reduction is impossible. In conclusion, the {dwaess-eo} is one of the discourse markers through the grammaticalization.