This study aims to analyze the meaning and function of epistemic forms ‘-ji’ and ‘-jan-’. This study examines their semantics in terms of epistemic modality and shows how they function in a witness examination process. The first part of this study shows that both ‘-ji’ and ‘-jan-’ have an epistemic property which dictates that both the speaker and the listener have a knowledge the information. I further suggest that the difference between ’-ji’ and ‘-jan-’ does not come from the epistemic state of the listener but the property of assimilation about the listener; ‘-ji’ assumes that the listener has a knowledge about the information, but ‘-jan-’ further assumes that the listener has an ‘assimilated knowledge.’ The second part of the study suggests that both epistemic forms serve a function of ‘accusing’ during witness examination in a hearing. Since they signal that both the speaker and the listener already know about information, it puts high pressure to the listener that he/she must admit about the proposition. Therefore, they can function as a device to pressure the witnesses to admit their wrongdoing.
The purpose of this study is to classify the types of the construction ‘-ulkka po-’ based on the syntactic characteristics and to reveal the meaning of each type. The functions and meaning of ‘-ulkka po-’ appears to be different depending on the syntactic environment. Therefore the types of constructions are classified by syntactic environment. And meanings of each types are provided. ‘-ulkka po-’ constructions with connective endings bare [speculation], [apprehension], or [expectation] meaning. It is also noteworthy that the meaning of [apprehension] is stronger than the meaning of [expectation]. ‘-ulkka po-’ constructions with final endings signify [speculation], [intention], [warning], or [rhetoric question] meaning. The [expectation], [apprehension], [intention], and [rhetoric question] meaning were derived from [speculation] meaning, while [threatening] was derived from [intention]. However, the construction of [speculation] is a quatative construction rather than auxiliary verb construction.
The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the bias meaning of the long form negative polar question in Korean. In order to understand Korean polar questions and their meanings, this paper attempts to understand what exactly the bias means and investigate in what context the bias reading can arise. This paper will show the distributional properties of the various types of negative polar questions in the united way. Based on the distributional patterns of the negative polar questions, this paper will explain the semantic/pragmatic properties of Korean negative polar questions formally. This paper basically follows Romero and Han’s (2004) analysis which claims that the CG-managing operator VERUM is involved in the semantic representation of a negative polar question. Since Korean negative polar question does not allow Ladd’s ambiguity in its high negation form, however, departing from the VERUM-based analysis, it is not assumed that the negative form moves from the lower NegP to the higher NegP. Instead, it is assumed that in Korean high negation negative question involves VERUM operator, whereas low negation negative question does not involve VERUM operator in its semantic representation. In the case of low negation questions, following Goodhue(2018), it is assumed that the bias meaning can arise from the general pragmatic reasoning.
This study aims to educate learners of discourse marker to improve their presentation skills. Discourse marker enhances the cohesion and connectivity of the presentation and serves to convey the speaker’s intentions better. To find out about how to educate discourse markers, we first analyzed the usage patterns of discourse markers in the presentation of Korean Language learners and Native speakers of Korean language. As a result, the Native Speaker used discourse markers the most to connect or deepen the topic However, Korean Language learners used discourse markers the most to fill in the gaps in the conversation. These result show that Korean Language learner’s usage of discourse markers is small in their type and does not have a effective impact on the presentation. To make an improve on this problem and to let the Korean Language learners use various discourse markers, this three-step education method of discourse marker was presented. The first step is to dictate the learner’s presentation in order to recognize the deficiency with the usage of the discourse markers. In the second step, the learners will study the meanings of discourse markers and see the example situations used by native speakers. The third step is to revise the discourse markers that used in the presentation of his or her colleague through discussion. For the last, by delivering the revised presentation again, and see the actual use of the discourse markers that have studied. This three-step education method is intended to help Korean Language learners improve their presentation skills by using appropriate discourse markers.
This paper attempts to clarify the semantic and syntactic nature of ‘eoss’, which has been termed a “pre-final ending” signifying the past tense or perfective aspect. Emphasizing the distinction between the concepts of meaning and reference in any semantics-related research, it entertains that the fact that a sentence including ‘eoss’ is used to refer to a past event does not indicate that ‘eoss’ has the basic meaning of ‘past tense’. On the analysis of the empirical conversational data, ‘eoss’ is semantically characterized as ‘being finished’. This semantic characterization of ‘eoss’ is closely tied with its syntactic nature, which is a sort of “clitics”, whose scope is not the word-stem, but the preceding phrase. Further from the perspective of its behavior in the sentence formation process ‘eoss’ is rather a referent-requiring element than a grammar-requiring element. This syntagmatic character explains the reason why the paradigmatic opposition of ‘eoss’ vs. ‘neun/ø’ cannot be established in the Korean grammar.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the colloquial sentence final ending ‘-ulkel’ has polysemy between Epistemic-Event modality and to discuss the meaning and syntactic characteristics of ‘-ulkel’. When a sentence can be interpreted with more than two meanings, it has polysemy. ‘-ulkel’ can express the two meanings: Speculation and Regret. While there is less argument that ‘-ulkel’ belongs to Epistemic modality when it has the meaning of Speculation, it is controversial what modal category ‘-ulkel’ belongs to when it has the meaning of Regret. This study critically reviewed preceding literatures on the modality and analyzed syntactic and modal meanings of ‘-ulkel’. Through this process, it is revealed that the Regret meaning of ‘-ulkel’ is affiliated with Event modality when the subject(usually speaker) was able to control the state of affairs in the past. A speaker expresses Willingness to control the state of affairs in the past when ‘-ulkel’ is used as Event modality. However, it is impossible for the present speaker to control the state of affairs in the past. This is the reason why the speaker regrets. Also, the meaning of Regret may arise as a result of unreal conditions and speculation and, in this process, ‘-ulkel’ has Epistemic modality. When ‘-ulkel’ is used as Epistemic modality, it represents probability and has a meaning of speculation based on integrated knowledge. The results of this study can be used to establish the meaning of ‘-ulkel’ of Regret which has not been unified until now, and to prove the relation between Epistemic-Event modality.
This paper aims to show how to develop a knowledge graph as linguistic knowledge-base for linguistic artificial intelligence applications. Firstly, we investigate the previous researches and developments of knowledge graphs which have been developed so far and are the extensions of lexicon and ontology which are well-known forms of linguistic knowledge bases. Secondly, we describe how to develop a knowledge graph in the domain of affective disorder as a case study based on expert knowledge data and general text data. In the process of doing this, we would like to show how to collect language resources from the Web which have popular influences on people and try to make formalisation of representation way of linguistic knowledge in the domain of psychology. Finally, we show the application of using a knowledge graph as a semantic knowledge-base. Overall, we would say that a linguistic knowledge graph still would be one of the knowledge powers which will be linguistically explainable by humans in the world of digital data analysis floods.