Korean Semantics 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.92

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pISSN : 1226-7198 / eISSN : 2734-0171

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2020, Vol.70, No.

  • 1.

    The word embedding and the semantic relation

    Kim, SoHee , Do Jaehak | 2020, 70() | pp.1~49 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper investigates semantic relation which is captured by the word embedding(Word2vec). As precedent researches using this methodology already have reviewed the effectiveness of study on the semantic similarity or relativeness of lexical units, it is focused on that which specific properties could be identified. In particular, not only lexical units but also grammatical units were included in this study as the objects. To sum up, it is hard to say that a certain specific type of relation such as synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, meronymy, or contrastive relation is caught saliently by the word embedding. Rather various types of relations are widely observed since the related words which compose lexical field with target word are extracted under the influence of individual context(especially register). Generally, the results are heavily dependent on the contexts of word usage. Meanwhile, even though it was not enough in terms of grammatical units, there are two small but significant achievements. The first is that the word embedding shows relatively better results in some grammatical categories. And the second is that periphrastic constructions are worthy to be considered equal to single morpheme concerning grammatical function.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Grammaticalized Processes of the Reputation Construction of the Same Ending in Korean

    LEE, KEUM-HEE | 2020, 70() | pp.51~68 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper is a study of grammaticalization in the same ending repetition compositions. This Reputation Construction of the Same Ending in Korean is basically a coordination construction. This has two items of the preceding and the latter. However, Some of the latter items change their syntactic and semantic characteristics, and so add a special meaning to the preceding items. The meaning is the speaker’s negative emotions about the proposition. In other words, it represents emotional modality in the modality category. Examples of these are ‘-go jasigo(-고 자시고), -go eojjeogo(-고 어쩌고), -go malgo(-고 말고), -go mwogo(-고 뭐고), -na mana(-나 마나), -dana mworana(-다나 뭐라나) and -ne jjeone(-네 어쩌네) etc. The latter items of these compositions can be combined with various forms as the syntactic characteistics they originally had disappear.
  • 3.

    A study on the change of the semantic domain of emotional words through analysis of historical corpus

    Lee MinWoo | 2020, 70() | pp.69~100 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study attempted to capture changes in language use by using statistical methodology that enables detailed and accurate observation of language phenomena hidden in large corpus. To this end, eight contexts of emotion words were extracted from corpus of early 20C and late 20C and corpus analysis was performed. In this study, the method used to grasp the change of language semantic use is to analyze the language semantic information by substituting a vector space having size and direction. By using the statistical weight(TF-IDF), semantic distance measurement using cosine similarity, and density, the corpus was compared to understand the change pattern. At this time, we examined how the semantic change is made concretely by analyzing and comparing the categories and networks that are formed by the relationship of contexts rather than isolated units. As a result of the study, it was possible to capture general meaning changes such as widening and narrowing of meanings in terms of emotional words, and pejorative and ameliorative of meanings.(Cyber Hankuk University of Foreign Studies)
  • 4.

    ‘NP이 있다’ 구성의 대칭성과 비대칭성

    LeeSungWoo | 2020, 70() | pp.101~125 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to suggest the possibility that the composition of ‘NP이 있-’ is a unit and clarify its semantic features. This study was to discuss ‘NP이 있-’ composition from the viewpoint of symmetry and asymmetry by subdividing it into ‘NP1와 NP2이 있-’ and ‘NP1에/에게 NP2가 있-‘. This study was to comprehend that ‘NP1와 NP2이 있-’ had a meaning of symmetry but it was distinguished from the symmetric construction in case of ambiguity. This study has found out that ‘NP1에/에게 NP2가 있-‘ was considered as asymmetry but that it secured the meaning like symmetry because of the context or different sentence component. In addition, this study was to mention the direction of asymmetry as shown in ‘NP1에/에게 NP2가 있-‘ composition.
  • 5.

    An essay on the establishment of informativity makers in Korean

    Choi, Jeong jin | 2020, 70() | pp.127~156 | number of Cited : 0
    In this paper, it is suggested that the grammatical functions of representative korean assistives ‘i/ga, eon/neun, do, man’ were able to be classified into a new functional category ‘informative markers’ by discussing in the perspective of the exahustivity of contrast focus and the informativity. First, from the point of view of the exhaustivity of contrast focus, it is not proper to regard the function of assistive ‘do(도)’ as a sort of contrast focus marker. The function of ‘do(도)’ regarded as ‘plus new informative item(s)’ is able to cause highlight effect in relation with the given other items so called ‘alternative set’. Second, ‘eun(은)/neun(는)’ and ‘i(이)/ga(가)’ could be classified in same category named ‘informational markers’. The functional symmetry of ‘은(eun)/는(neun)’ and ‘i(이)/ga(가)’ might be summarized on the basis of the complex of two features: exhuastivity and informativity. The exhaustivity of ‘은(eun)/는(neun)’ may be regarded as ‘aboutness’ in discourse informational dimension. This result imply that the complex of exhaustivity and informativity have to categorized into a new hierarchy of korean assistives ‘josa’. Third, in the perspective of exhaustivity, the emphasis or uniqueness marker ‘man(만)’ is a represetative korean contrast focus marker. In conclusion, properties of ‘i(이)/ga(가), eun(은)/neun(는), do(도), man(만)’ can be described and be classified as ‘a system of informativity markers (16)’, which marks informational topology of it’s precedent noun or NP. The establishment of informative markers could give a new viewpoint for following hierarchical studies of korean assistives ‘josa’.
  • 6.

    The comparative study on the meaning of ‘mos’ negative expressions and ‘-ul swu eps-’ periphrastic construction

    SONHYEOK , Hyunkyung Yu | 2020, 70() | pp.157~188 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this study is to analyze the shared component meanings and non-shared component meanings of the similar expressions, ‘mos’ negative expressions and ‘-ul swu eps-’ periphrastic construction. The results are as follows. first, The shared component meaning of ‘mos’ negative expressions and ‘-ul swu eps-’ is ‘impossibility’. However, the component meaning of ‘mos’ negative expressions is ‘impossible of the actualization of an event’, which is more narrowly defined than ‘-ul swu eps’. Because the ‘mos’ negative expressions are limited in their use in adjectives or ‘-i-’ phrases. ‘Incapability’, ‘forbiddennes’, ‘willingness to non-actualization’, ‘prohibition’ mentioned as meanings of ‘mos negative expression and ‘-ul swu eps-’ can be judged as the conetxt meanings. ‘Epistemic meaning’ also cannot be the component meaning because it is difficult to distinguish it from ‘impossible’ and to find it’s own context of the use that is distinct from ‘impossible’ Second, ‘mos’ negative expressions have ‘non-actualization’ and ‘not reached to the state that a speaker prefers’ as their component meanings unlike ‘-ul swu eps’ periphrastic construction. ‘Non-actualization’ always appears with ‘impossibility’ and ‘not reached to the state that a speaker prefers’ appears in the different context of these. ‘Impossibility’ of ‘mos’ expressions is the cause of ‘non-actualization’, which leads to somewhat contradictory restrictions on the use of ‘mos’ negative expressions. ‘Not reached to the state that a speaker prefers’ can be found in some adjective phrases and ‘-i-’ phrase, in the same context ‘-ul swu eps-’ can be interpreted as ‘impossible’
  • 7.

    A Comparative Study on Request Speech Acts Between Generations

    Kim Soon-ok | 2020, 70() | pp.189~219 | number of Cited : 1
    The present study performs a comparative analysis of spoken speech acts in older generations against that of a younger generation, investigating the characteristics of speech and language strategies in each generation, in turn exploring the causes of language differences between them. Speech act questionnaires were conducted for subjects in their 20s, 70s, and 80s. The results suggest that younger generations produce more listener-centered utterances, whereas the older generations exhibit a tendency of speaker-centered speech. Such difference is attributed to a crucial divergence of values that each generation acknowledges. Speakers in their 20s seek amicable social relations; in contrast, the values of speakers in their 70s and 80s are contingent upon positive outcomes of their speech requests. While younger generations have entered the phase of social expansion, the opposite may hold true for older generations whose social networks are prone to continuous diminution, leading to a lack of conversational opportunities and enclosed social relations. Such factors may drive the differences in speech between the two generations.
  • 8.

    A quantitative study on lexicon and speech acts characteristics in dialogue corpus for the application of artificial intelligence learning corpus

    Jo Kyungsun , KANG EUNJIN | 2020, 70() | pp.221~245 | number of Cited : 1
    In this paper, the lexical characteristics and speech acts characteristics appearing in interactive corpus built for artificial intelligence learning were analyzed. Corpus was classified by the situation of search and reservation. As lexicon characteristics, the degree of lexicon density and lexicon diversity was investigated, and as speech act characteristics, the frequency of direct and indirect speech act was analyzed. As a result of the analysis, First, the hypothesis of lexicon density that search and reservation corpus is related to content words and function words was accepted without being rejected according to the results of the Chi test. Second, we calculated TTR and GI to understand lexicon diversity, and the GI value of the search situation was higher than the reservation situation, indicating that more diverse vocabulary was used in the search situation. Third, search and reservation corpus had significant differences in frequency of direct and indirect speech. The study can reveal the characteristics of language expressions that humans use to communicate with artificial intelligence. In addition, the results of this study could contribute to the composition of the principles and guidelines for building an efficient and balanced corpus for artificial intelligence learning.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Usage of Korean NP Complement Clauses in the Chinese Learners’ Corpus

    Jin Jeong | 2020, 70() | pp.247~267 | number of Cited : 2
    The purpose of this study is to analyze Chinese learners’ usage of the Korean NP complement clause. There are two kinds of the Korean NP complement clause that modifies the subsequent noun: the first has a sentence-closing ending and an adnominal suffix, ta-nun; the other ends in an adnominal suffix without a sentence-closing ending, -nun. Data were collected from the Korean learners’ corpus, which comprises 240,567 words. The results of the analysis are as follows: the noun kes most frequently co-occurred with the NP complement clause that ends in -ta-nun, followed by the nouns mal, sayngkak, cem, and cwucang. There was an accuracy rate of above 90% for the NP complement clause. However, the rate of accuracy of the complement clause that modifies sayngkak, iyaki, kocengkwannyem, or ttus was lower than 50%. These results indicate that Chinese learners use the Korean NP complement clause according to the meaning of the noun but still make some errors.
  • 10.

    A study on the improvement of the model for Korean semantic role description: Focusing on the structural improvement of the Korean PropBank framefiles

    Seoin Shin | 2020, 70() | pp.269~299 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the structure of the Korean PropBank framefiles and suggest several ways to improve it. In the paper, we discuss the features and limitations of the Korean PropBank framefiles and propose an alternative model for semantic role description. In terms of macro structure, the Korean PropBank framefiles have a peculiar structure. The lemma representing several words becomes the entry, and the related vocabulary is described in one file. Therefore, the lemma setting criteria and related vocabulary processing criteria should be clearly established, and homonyms should be processed in a consistent way. In terms of micro structure, there is no place in the Korean PropBank framefiles to describe postposition(josa) information, which is essential for Korean semantic role labeling. Therefore, this lack has to be supplemented. In describing the sematic role information, it is more useful to describe it as a label-type sematic role rather than as a number-type sematic role or a narrative-type sematic role. In the Korean PropBank framefiles, arguments and adjuncts are analyzed in different ways in the analysis of example sentence, but they need to be analyzed parallelly. In order to take care of the suggestions for improvement, we propose an alternative model for Korean semantic role description. This new model will be able to describe information that is useful for a more effective analysis of Korean semantic role.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Meaning and Function of ‘-ulkel’

    Kwon Young-Eun | 2020, 70() | pp.301~338 | number of Cited : 2
    The aim of this paper is to shed light on the meaning, function, and grammatical characteristics of ‘-ulkel’. This paper investigates the relationship between the meanings of ‘speculation’ and ‘regret’ of ‘-ulkel’. ‘-ulkel’ shows polysemy through event and epistemic modality. ‘-ulkel’ as event modality is used to express a speaker’s ‘willingness’ to realize the state of affairs; however, when it comes to past events, the speaker’s ‘willingness’ becomes ‘wish’, therefore its function becomes ‘regret’. This ‘regret’ usually arises when the speaker was able to choose the state of affairs in the past. ‘-ulkel’ of epistemic modality is used to show the probability of the speaker’s judgment about factual status. With counterfactual conditions, ‘-ulkel’ can express ‘regret’ too. This paper discusses the choice of ‘-ulkel’ usage in counterfactual conditionals. ‘-ulkel’ can be expressed as event modality if the situation is controllable for the speaker, if not, it is expressed as epistemic modality. This paper also discusses the role of postposition ‘ul’(selectional listing) and the development of the meaning of ‘-ulkel’.