Korean Semantics 2022 KCI Impact Factor : 0.86

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pISSN : 1226-7198 / eISSN : 2734-0171

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2022, Vol.78, No.

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  • 1.

    A Study on semantic change of clipped loanwords

    Li Yi | 2022, 78() | pp.1~27 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper aims to reveal aspects of semantic change in clipped loanwords in terms of the semantic broadening, narrowing and shift. Although loanwords in the new words participate in the word formation process as they are in the original language, it is found more often in its clipped form, when combined with other elements to form a new word. In the research on clipped words so far, there have been few studies on changes in the meaning of clipped words. A clipped word is characterized in that its meaning is not significantly different from the original word. However, among the clipped loanwords, there are not a few examples that in the process of undergoing a change in meaning. The semantic broadening and shift is more popular than narrowing in clipped borrowing words. The semantic broadening type is divided into two subtypes. The one is that generated by the scope of the object to be pointed becomes diversified such as ‘케미’. The other is that generalization of the scope of meaning such as ‘밍아웃’, ‘드립’, ‘디스’. The semantic narrowing is a type that specializes in semantic scope such as ‘팅’. And for the semantic shift, examples in which the meaning was changed by metaphor such as ‘테크’, ‘인싸’, ‘스펙’, ‘피셜’.
  • 2.

    A Comparative Study on the directive speech act patterns of Korean Textbooks and Korean native speakers

    JANG SOO JIN | 2022, 78() | pp.28~57 | number of Cited : 0
    The directive speech act is a speech act that instructs and requires a listener to act and can have a great influence on the formation of human relationships. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore and compare the directive speech act pattern that appears between Korean textbooks and Korean native speakers for the development of Korean learners' correct communication skills. This study newly defined the concept and category of directive behavior in the 'psychological authority of the speaker', and based on this, directive behavior that appeared in three kinds of Korean textbooks was extracted. In addition, a Description Completion Test (DCT) was designed to ask Korean native speakers to write what kind of ending they would actually use to speak in the context of the command shown in the textbook. As a result, it was found that various expressions were technically used in Korean textbooks, but depending on the situation and variables of various psychological authority, actual Korean native speakers preferred to use basic commands and indirectly performed command expressions. Based on these results, if the direction of the textbook moves toward approaching sentence functions with various communication situations and socio-cultural variables as a starting point, more efficient learners' communication skills will be improved.
  • 3.

    A Study on Machine Translation of Korean Idioms: focusing on {‘ma-eum’ + predicate}

    Leejiyong | 2022, 78() | pp.59~88 | number of Cited : 0
    This study attempted to examine how items classified as idioms in Korean are translated through machine translation based on artificial neural networks. in the standard Korean dictionary The results of 14 items presented as idioms translated into English through Google Translator, Kakao Translator, and Papago Translator were compared focusing on the equivalence of the semantic and morphological aspects. This study looked at how the corresponding items were realized in the translation of the title words and examples, and whether the result of the title control translation was applied to the example translation, that is, the result of the title control translation and the result of the example translation were consistent in the same translator. In order to confirm the accuracy of the results translated into English, a BLEU evaluation was conducted to compare them with back translation and human-performed translation. Based on the results of this analysis, the results derived according to the translator were compared, and the types were classified based on form and semantic relevance. The significance of this study can be found in that it suggested the direction of the parts and utilization measures that machine translation should supplement to contribute to improving the quality of the translator through various aspects of the translation results.
  • 4.

    About the ‘-e Ju- construction of that I use to myself -Focused on vlog register

    parkmieun | 2022, 78() | pp.89~117 | number of Cited : 0
    In this study, the agent and the beneficiary are the same auxiliary verb ‘Ju-’ in which the agent and beneficiary are same were examined. In this case, when the speaker describes his or her actions, the agernt and the beneficiary are referred to as speaker. When the same context is understood as an instructive act, both agent and the beneficiary are the addressee. This is due to the register of vlog and context of its use. The vlogger’s utterance is understood as both a description and instruction, because the vlog is communicative even though the usage is disconnected, In this context, ‘jupnida’ tend to be fixed in the form ‘ju-’ and does not combined tense elements. By introducing the syntactically redundant beneficiary argument, the objectivity of the utterance is secured the speaker’s actions are expressed to be beneficial. Also, politely express the directivity of instructive speech.
  • 5.

    Lexical Meaning and Language Education

    Choi, Kyeong-bong | 2022, 78() | pp.119~143 | number of Cited : 1
    In this paper, the relationship between lexical meaning research and lexical meaning education was explained by examining the content and methodology of lexical semantics reflected in language education. To this end, this paper developed discussions in two directions. First, the awareness about issues in lexical semantics and lexical meaning education was pointed out. This was done by reviewing 'the content and methodological characteristics of lexical semantics' and 'the achievement standards of Korean language education'. Second, we looked at how the awareness about issues in lexical semantics and lexical meaning education is connected, and how the content and methodology of lexical semantics are applied to lexical meaning education. Based on these discussions, this paper made some suggestions on the description of the lexical semantics area on the premise of compiling an introductory book on semantics that can be used as a reference grammar in lexical meaning education.
  • 6.

    Presupposition and the Education of Korean Semantics

    Choi Yoonji | 2022, 78() | pp.146~171 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper critically reviews the descriptions of presupposition found in the previous semantic-pragmatic textbooks and makes some suggestions for improvement. Based on the analysis of several textbooks selected, the notions of presupposition and presupposition triggers, especially the embedded clauses, dealt with in those books were examined and their problems were discussed. While the notions of presupposition are largely divided into a semantic presupposition and a pragmatic presupposition, depending on the textbooks, some of them focused on the former exclusively, and even if both were dealt with, the notions were somewhat different according to the books. Based on the relevance to linguistic expressions, we proposed to exclude the type of presupposition related to the appropriate conditions for speech act and to expand the contents related to the common ground of the speaker and the hearer, among various notions of pragmatic presupposition. In terms of the presupposition triggers, it was claimed to be important to consider the different forms of the complement clause chosen by the predicate, and it was shown to be dangerous to generalize that the embedded clause itself, such as an adnominal or adverbial clause, provokes a presupposition, but rather the properties of the entire sentence are claimed to be considered together
  • 7.

    Sentence Meaning and Linguistic Education.

    Park, Chulwoo | 2022, 78() | pp.173~200 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to understand the nature of sentence meaning and to devise a plan to apply the study of sentence meaning to linguistic education. For this purpose, we first reaffirm the simple truth that the meaning of a sentence is the state of affairs to which the sentence refers, to the question of what the meaning of a sentence should be. Then, as a methodology to study the meaning of Korean sentences, we present some explanation about the principle of compositionality and examples about how the principle of compositionality should be applied to the analysis of the meaning of Korean sentences. Although, in the meaning of sentences, there are parts to which the principle of compositionality can be applied, however, there are parts to which it is not. Therefore, we need to understand not only the generative aspects of sentence meaning, but also the context-dependent aspects. Although these examples are often presented as counterexamples to the principle of compositionality, they are not counterexamples but examples that complement the principle of compositionality. In this study, three cases were presented. They are contextual dependency in the semantic analysis of noun phrases, understanding of unitity of idioms, specific constructions and elliptical constructions in compositional constructions, and distinction from implicatures. Just as a sentence syntactically has generative aspects and conventionally frozen aspects, there are parts in the meaning of a sentence that can be understood by operations, and there are parts that are subject to operations and cannot be analyzed any more. Applying the results of the study in sentential semantics to language education is to understand the cases in which the sentences are used step by step as the language learner progresses from the sentence type that results in the smallest operation to the sentence type that results in more complex operations. It may start with the hypothesis that it would be useful to present tasks and have them practice them so that they can acquire the ability to use sentences. This is because expanding the ability to use language from simple and objective sentences to complex and subjective sentences will surely serve the purpose of communication to communicate thoughts.
  • 8.

    A basic study on pragmatic education of ‘안, -지 않다’

    Kim Seong-Gi | 2022, 78() | pp.201~230 | number of Cited : 0
    This study proposes a pragmatic language education of ‘안’, '-지 않다(will not)' for the pragmatic usage of meaning that Korean willful negative expression demonstrates. There is little suggestion regarding the necessary education of distinguishing between the meaning and the pragmatic function of a lingual form, and as a result learners express sentence structures simply into lexical meanings, rarely leading to rich expressiveness or expansion of fluency. This study will summarize what system of meaning the short-form and long-forms of willful negative have, reveal the functions of the neagtive used in context outside the semantic category. Through this study, it is argued that the content of pragmatic education should be presented additionally to negative expression education.
  • 9.

    Theoretical Issues of Conversational Implicature in Second Language Education

    Kim, Jinung | 2022, 78() | pp.221~242 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, the theoretical issues on the interface between semantics and pragmatics that have arisen over the generalized conversational implicatures are identified, and how these theories are applied and influenced in the field of pragmatics of second language education. In the traditional Grice‘s semantic model, ‘what is said’ is regarded as the level of semantics and implicature as the level of pragmatics. However, the problem Levinson (2000) calls Grice's circle raises questions about the boundary between semantics and pragmatics. Grice's model explains that 'what is said' is the combination of the sum of the constituent elements of a sentence and the interpretation of the contextual elements. However, as pointed out by Levinson (2000), the process of determining the contextual factor has to include a process of pragmatic reasoning, which is similar to the process of fundamentally determining the implicature. Moreover, there is a lot of evidence that the implicature that has been considered separate from what is said are involved in the interpretation of what is said. There are two representative theories that suggest alternatives to Grice's model. Among them, the Default theory tried to solve the problem of the Grice’s model by introducing pragmatic reasoning, that is, implicature, as a default value in the realm of semantics, and by Theory. There are various research cases of experimental pragmatics to determine the superiority and inferiority of the two theories, focusing on the interpretation of scalar implicature. In the study of the first language, there are generally many cases that support the claim of the Relevance Theory. Meanwhile, studies suggesting the superiority of the Default Theory are emerging in second language research. However, a careful approach is required because the implicature research centered on the second language is just beginning.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Pragmatic Information Items in Korean Education - Focus on ‘-느라고’, ‘-던 데’, ‘-는 바람에’

    Cha Jun Woo , Lee, Chan Kyu | 2022, 78() | pp.244~276 | number of Cited : 0
    This study examines the pragmatic information shown in Korean language education for Korean learners and identifies items necessary to describe pragmatic information. To this end, we first examined the aspect of pragmatic information necessary for speech education based on the intermediate textbooks used by five university educational institutions. It was found that pragmatic information in these textbooks was implicitly presented through discourse or illustrations rather than explicitly. To identify grammar items that present pragmatic information, the intermediate grammar items of the selected textbooks were sorted to select grammar items that overlapped with the intermediate grammar items of the International Standard Model for Korean Language Education. Eight grammar items overlapped with the “intermediate grammar items for conversational information technology” suggested by Lee, Jun-ho(2018) and we were thus able to extract and present information for three grammar items: the connecting ending (-느라고), the final Ending (-던데 2), and one expression (- 는 바람에). Future research should focus on developing structure with grammar items in consideration with pragmatic information.
  • 11.

    Semantics of Korean complementation system and Obligatory -key, -tolok, -lyeko adverbial clauses : Purposive linking as a complementation strategy in Korean

    Ju Eunkyeong | 2022, 78() | pp.277~310 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this paper is to suggest that adverbial clauses marked by the ending -key, -tolok, -lyeko which is embedded the meaning of purpose employed as a complementation strategy for ‘potential’ type complement in Korean and to illustrate the systemic isomorphism between syntactic and semantic integration of complementation by purpose clause linking. Sentences with purpose clauses as a complement represent the SoA which has close correlation with the other SoA represented by the complement clause.
  • 12.

    On the Grammaticalization and Semantic Characteristics of Auxiliary Verbs combined with ‘-eoss(었)’

    LEE, KEUM-HEE | 2022, 78() | pp.312~330 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this paper seeks to examine the grammaticalization process and semantic characteristics of the auxiliary verbs ‘-ko anjassda(-고 앉았다)’, ‘-ko jappajyeossda(-고 자빠졌다)’, ‘-eo ppajyeossda(-어 빠졌다)’ and ‘-eo teojyeossda(-어 터졌다)’. These auxiliary verbs have the same in that ‘-eoss-(-었-)’ is combined, but the connective ending combined with the main verbs appear differently as ‘-ko(고)’ or ‘-eo(어)’. ‘anjassda(앉았다)’ and ‘jappajyeossda(자빠졌다)’ combined with ‘-ko’ indicate that the preceding proposition is in progress, and ‘ppajyeossda(빠졌다)’ and ‘teojyeossda(터졌다)’ combined with ‘-eo(어)’ indicate the continuation of the resultant state. All of these auxiliary verbs indicate the speaker's dissatisfaction and disapproval. ‘-ko anjassda(-고 앉았다)’ and ‘-ko jappajyeossda(-고 자빠졌다)’ are auxiliary verbs that reveal the speaker's dissatisfaction with an action, but ‘-eo ppajyeossda(-어 빠졌다)’ and ‘-eo teojyeossda(-어 터졌다)’ reveal the speaker's dissatisfaction with a state. In previous studies, it was discussed that ‘-eo ppajyeossda(-어 빠졌다)’ and ‘-eo teojyeossda(-어 터졌다)’ were combined only with state verbs, and it was considered that auxiliary verbs selected according to the semantic characteristics of main verbs were different. However, these auxiliary verbs are also combined with state verbs and change verbs, and the binding constraints seem to gradually disappear and change into auxiliary verbs representing similar semantic functions.
  • 13.

    The Function of Final Endings and the Role of Intonation according to Gender in Spoken Language: Through Usage Analysis of Spontaneous Speech

    Jo Min-ha | 2022, 78() | pp.331~359 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the completion structure of final endings in spoken language according to gender. For that, the spontaneous speech of 72 male and female were analyzed. The results of the study are as follows. First, a list of final ending is presented. female use high frequency forms intensively. The final endings are defined as relativity, not absoluteness. Second, boundary tones of utterance reveals a significant difference in grammatical and conversation function according to gender. Female use a higher rate of complex tones and lengthening tones than male. Male use a higher rate of ‘L’, and ‘HL’ intensively than female. Third, significant pragmatic characteristics are revealed according to gender. Female use the utterance connection function more than male. Politeness is revealed through indirect expression. Also, various makers are used to effectively pragmatic strategy. Male use more direct and assertive expression than female. In addition, performs the connect function of utterance by limited makers.
  • 14.

    A historical study of disjunctive ‘-deunji’

    Chung, Hye-sun | 2022, 78() | pp.362~382 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper aims to discuss the grammatical characteristics and grammaticalization of disjunctive ‘-deunji’ in the 19th century. The results of the discussion are as follows. First, connective ending ‘-deunji’ had the meaning of choice and irrelevance. The meaning of choice could be classified according to whether or not ‘-deunji’ coordinate sentence combined with ‘hada’. And ‘-deunji’ had the meaning of irrelevance when it combined with various forms such as indefinitive forms. ‘-dadeunji’ that had developed from a quotative construction performed as a disjunctive ending. Second, ‘-eunji’ had the meaning of uncertainty and appeared in a repetitive construction, with the possibility of developing into a disjunctive ending. ‘-deunji’ was grammaicalized through combining with the upper sentence verb that requires the meaning of choice in the context. Third, ‘-deunji’ and ‘-radeunji’ performed as a disjunctive josa in the 19th century. Josa ‘-deunji’ had different grammatical patterns from Contemporary Korean in that the noun phrase that was coordinated by ‘-deunji’ combined with case markers and it had the meaning of choice
  • 15.

    Suggestions for Politeness Theory Based on Korean Social Culture

    Haeyong Lee | 2022, 78() | pp.384~409 | number of Cited : 1
    This study raises questions about whether Brown and Levinson's politeness theory is universal, and whether their theory can explain the politeness phenomenon in Korean language. This paper proposed a politeness theory suitable to explain the politeness phenomenon in Korean. To this end, based on actual language data, the concept of face, which is the core of politeness theory, was set as ‘family-centeredism’. In addition, according to the hierarchical status of the relationship, the types of politeness in the Korean language are divided into two categories: 'conventional politeness' and 'strategic politeness'. This study is significant in that it is an attempt to review Brown and Levinson's theory from a critical point of view, and to propose a theoretical framework that can adequately explain the phenomenon of Korean politeness.
  • 16.

    The Constructional Grammar Approach to eygey Constructions.

    kim, in-hwan | 2022, 78() | pp.412~440 | number of Cited : 1
    This study attempts to categorize constructions formed by the Korean particle eygey and inheritance link relationship between them. In other words, the goal is to reveal the constructional polysemy of eygey constructions. The first is the recipient construction’, which has the meaning of ‘giving’. The second is the goal construction, which has the meaning of ‘movement’. The third is the locative construction, which has the meaning of ‘being’. The fourth is the possessor construction, which has the meaning of ‘possession’. The fifth is the experiencer construction, which has the the meaning of ‘experience’. In these constructions, the inheritance relationship between ‘sub-part link’ and ‘metaphorically extension link’ is confirmed. the recipient construction and the goal construction, the goal construction and locative construction form a sub-part link with each other. The possessor and the experiencer construction correspond to Korean dative subject, and they can be seen as a metaphorical extension connection relationship with the goal construction as the source domain