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2008, Vol., No.59

  • 1.

    Lutie's Nightmare: Deconstructing the 'American Dream' in Ann Petry's The Street

    안지현 | 2008, (59) | pp.3~28 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is an attempt to re-evaluate Ann Petry’s The Street in light of the recent culturalist readings of the text that read Lutie as a negative character who has internalized the ‘American dream’ and suggests that the black women’s community comprised of Mrs. Hedges and Min should be viewed as an alternative to the hostile white society. The paper argues that contrary to this negative characterization, Lutie does not internalize the ‘American dream’ and furthermore, is very much aware of the fictionality of the discourse of the ‘American dream.’ Lutie, who perceives the fictional nature of the ‘American dream’ embodies the Du Boisian double-consciousness. In this context, Sacvan Bercovitch’s assertion that ‘American dream’ is an ideological construct is much more useful in reading Petry’s Street. In fact, the text can be read as a theoretical precedent to Bercovitch’s theorization of the critique of the ‘American dream.’ This paper goes on to demonstrate that through the figure of Junto who symbolizes the oppressive nature of capitalistic democracy in white America, the text deconstructs the ‘American Dream’ by fundamentally questioning the validity of capitalistic democracy as a workable system for black women in the 1940’s. The text suggests that the system of democratic capitalism is deeply flawed by showing the destructive forces brought on by the disfigured character Junto who embodies both white control of capital and the spirit of democracy gone awry. In this way, The Street refuses to be contained but rather subverts the existing order, compellingly contesting Bercovitch’s argument that all narrative challenges to the ‘American dream’ are already and always contained.
  • 2.

    Multiculturalism in Latin America and the Latino Society

    이은아 | 2008, (59) | pp.29~58 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The last couple of decades have seen the proliferation of the discourse about multiculturalism, and the role played by literature in its constitution and development. This study attempts to trace the development of the discourses of mestizaje, hybridity and transculturation in relation to multiculturalism throughout Latin American and Latino society. In Latin America, the discourse of mestizaje and the question of nation building have been so intimately intertwined since post-independence era. Diverse societies created by mestizaje have been obliged to cope with the cultural, racial, and ethnic heterogeneity for the purpose of establishing national identity. While the discourse of mestizaje and hybridity paradoxically was historically used to imagine a common past and a homogeneous future, it is, yet, still deeply related to current discussion of multiculturalism due to attempts to reconcile cultural, racial, ethnic heterogeneity with national identity. The Latino writers who are dealt with here, such as Richard Rodriguez, Edmundo Paz-Soldán and Gloria Anzaldúa, are experiencing a process in which multicultural identities are being built and reconstructed in the stream of trans-americanism. They are producing diverse versions of the discourse of multiculturalism based on different ethnic backgrounds, which contribute to formulating the similarity and distinctiveness of their respective multicultural identities. Even though Rodriguez argues that North American Latinization is developing a mestizo and heterogeneous society by a process of miscegenation and cultural interaction, it may lead to a greater and more profoundly integrated common culture, and hybrid homogeneity. Unlike his contradictory reflection on multiculturalism, Anzaldúa sees the future as characterized by the proliferation of bicultural and multicultural identities by the simultaneous celebration of the border and permanence of cultural difference. Furthermore, Paz-Soldán emphasizes the importance of the inter-lingual and trans-american experience and challenges previously consolidated concepts of Latino identity and multiculturalism stereotyped by dominant Latino scholars. Now their multicultural identities in perpetual change demand the correction of the concept of nation as well as the idea of ‘Latin America’.
  • 3.

    Multikulturelle Gesellschaft im Roman Selim oder die Gabe der Rede

    Youn Young Choi | 2008, (59) | pp.59~87 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Ein das moderne Deutschland prägendes Bild kann man mit dem Schlüsselwort der multikulturellen Gesellschaft beschreiben. Die deutsche Gesellschaft und deutsche Literatur(wissenschaft) reagieren jedoch auf die neue Realität mit Verzögerung und Vorbehalt. Dieses Phänomen wird zuerst durch die Betrachtung der modernen deutschen Literaturgeschichte beschrieben. In dieser Situation erweist sich der Roman Selam oder die Gabe der Rede von Sten Nadolny (1990) als hoch interessant, nicht nur wegen seiner charakteristischen Romanstruktur oder seines engen Bezugs zur modernen deutschen Geschichte, sondern auch wegen seiner interkulturellen Schreibweise. Dies lässt sich auf mehreren Ebenen feststellen. Erstens bezieht der Schriftsteller deutsche moderne Geschichte eng in das Erzählen mit ein: Nicht nur die Geschichte des dritten Reichs, der deutschen Teilung, der 68er Bewegung, des Terrorismus oder der konservativen Politik der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in den 70er und 80er Jahren, sondern auch die Geschichte der Gastarbeiter und Migranten in Deutschland sind dabei als deutsche Geschichte betrachtet und in einer engen Verbindung mit den Schicksalen der einzelnen Figuren dargestellt. Die Romanstruktur zeigt ebenfalls parallele Entwicklungen, die sich im Laufe der Handlung einem Fluchtpunkt nähern, indem sie aus den Perspektiven beider Hauptfiguren, des türkischen Gastarbeiter Selim und des Deutschen Alexander abwechselnd beschrieben werden. Im ersten und zweiten Teil lernen hauptsächlich die türkischen Gastarbeiter die fremde deutsche Gesellschaft kennen, während im dritten Teil zuerst von den harten Bemühungen einer Türkin um den Dialog zwischen der deutschen und türkischen Gesellschaften die Rede ist und später das Kennenlernen der türkischen Gesellschaft und Kultur von Seiten Alexanders thematisiert wird. Nicht zuletzt kann man den Höhepunkt der interkulturellen Schreibweise in der Beschreibung von Freundschaft zwischen Selim und Alexander erfahren. Sie kann man mit der Freundschaft zwischen Lessing und Mendelssohn vergleichen. Die besondere Errungenschaft von Sten Nadolny liegt vor allem darin, dass er die vielseitigen problematischen Aspekte auf die Rede konzentriert und eine einmalige Rednerfigur geschaffen hat. Die Problematik der Rede und des Redners wird nicht nur im Sprechen, Schreiben oder in der Rhetorik sondern auch im neuen Verhältnis des Redners zu Glaubwürdigkeit, dem Publikum und der Lebensfrage reflektiert. Wenn auch der Schriftsteller immer noch die Figuren teilweise in der typischen kulturellen Dichotomie, wie der zwischen deutscher Innerlichkeit und türkischer Äußerlichkeit verbleiben lässt, ist die Gestalt von Selim dem Redner als Nachfolger von Nathan dem Weisen, als Korrektiv gegenüber der deutschen Gesellschaft zu interpretieren.
  • 4.

    Cultural Studies and Minority Literature in America

    김성곤 | 2008, (59) | pp.91~118 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    For the past dew decades, Korean American writers’ immediate concern has been how to render the compelling diasporic experience of immigrants, and how to mediate the irreducible chasm between one’s indigenous cultural identity and the dominant culture that one must assimilate into. This is precisely what cultural studies, especially in the sphere of ‘cultural translation’ and ‘trans-cultural studies, has endeavored to explore for the past few years. As a first generation immigrant, for example, Theresa Hak Kyung Cha’s literary world is situated somewhere between her ethnic identity and the dominant culture, in which she is thrown as an existential heroine. Choosing any one of the two will inevitably result in losing the complex issues of socio-political as well as cultural change that take place in the psyche of the uprooted, living in an unfamiliar, often hostile, environment. That is why in Dictee (1982), Theresa Cha investigates the clashes between cultures and languages, which inevitably culminate in power politics between the dominant and the marginal ideology. Hopelessly exiled and uprooted from her own culture, the protagonist of Dictee has to write passively what is already spoken, and quietly copy what is already pronounced, as dictated, all in a foreign language. Nevertheless, Theresa Cha disrupts the linguistic norms and rules inherent in dictation that do not allow cultural interactions and diversity. With the spirit of diversity and defiance, she successfully converts Dictee into a “writerly text” as Barthes puts it, which invites active interpretation. It is exactly at this moment that Dictee achieves what we call “cultural translation” and “trans-cultural interaction.” The literary world of another representative Korean American writer, Chang-rae Lee, is also deeply rooted in the struggle of a spiritual exile who constantly sways like a pendulum at the threshold of two different cultures. In his first novel, “Native Speaker” Lee depicts a Korean-American who is a perpetual outsider who is alienated from the mainstream America and torn between the two worlds: Korea and America. The novel is about loyalty and betrayal, alienation and accommodation. It is about how to connect with the world rather than stand aloof from it. In his second novel, Don Lee, however, is radically different from them in the sense that he is deeply concerned not with the cultural or social alienation, but with the psychological problems one encounters while living in American society as a minority. Lee examines the predicament of Americans born of Asian parents in a predominantly Anglo-American society, and the irreducible hiatus and inevitable tensions often unnoticed by white Americans. Don Lee is unique in the sense that, instead of complaining about racial intolerance in American society, he has doggedly explored the possibilities of Asian Americans by redefining the concepts of difference and identity. He does not perceive ‘difference and identity’ as a crisis. Rather, he perceives them as a new possibility for Asian Americans living in multicultural America. While other Asian American writers are struggling with the more immediate problems of the first-generation immigrants such as language barriers, nostalgia, or acculturation, Lee focuses on more profound issues of the second or third generation immigrants. Yellow well illustrates this new insightful thematic concern of Don Lee’s that has significantly broadened the horizon of Asian American literature, thereby opening up a new field of cultural translation and trans-cultural studies.
  • 5.

    Toward a Non-Eurocentric World Literature: Cross-theoretical encounter of world Literature and Translation

    박선주 | 2008, (59) | pp.119~146 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to conceive ‘world literature’ using translation theory to understand the world and literature in a broader context in the age of globalization. Translation is key concept to figure out the nature and the form of ‘world literature’ that we need to re-imagine our world outside of the dominant narrative of ‘universality’ which the West has produced and spread all over the world. Translation opens up a possibility where another type of ‘world,’ another type of ‘modernity,’ and another type of ‘other’-in other words, a perspective which could be critical and independent of Eurocentrism-can be articulated, with its constant mobility, disconnectivity, and negativity. The unique mechanism of translation in both linguistic and epistemological terms makes the easy assimilation of the idea of ‘world’ into the Eurocentric universality quite hard. Translation inscribes mobility and relationality on the idea of ‘world literature,’ making it tentative, insecure, incommensurable. It presents the world as hopelessly fragmented, disconnected, and doomed to fail, not only to reveal the failure of the entire system of signification of Eurocentric nationalism and universalism, but also to anticipate a birth of new terrain of ‘world literature.’
  • 6.

    “The happiest women have no history”: ‘Women’s Writing’ of the British Women Writers and George Eliot

    조선정 | 2008, (59) | pp.147~175 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The essay presents a recuperative reading of George Eliot’s The Mill on the Floss, a controversial feminist text for its heroine’s renunciation buttressed by the author’s deterministic outlook. The novel’s fatalistic drive, the essay discovers, is an illuminating outcome of Eliot’s complex engagement with the notion of women’s place in history. With her strategic appropriation of the comprehensive, indiscriminating, all-encompassing capacity of ‘History,’ Eliot regards it as a sort of ultimate horizon to which every single life and every single meaning must surrender itself. History requires her female characters to be absorbed eventually into the stream of time, which is poetically metaphorized in the novel through the overwhelming image of the Floss river. The essay begins with a dialogue with Virginia Woolf’s thoughtprovoking idea of ‘integrity’ of women’s writing; Woolf’s thesis that women writers should transcend their sexuality in order to command artistic control over their writing resonates with Eliot’s deeply sensitive treatment of distance from female characters she creates. Then the essay analyzes how Eliot formulates realism as an important and enabling principle to embody the vision of History. Eliot’s devotion to detached and realistic representation of women’s lives, a quintessential hallmark of her writing, signifies her desire to position herself as a decent figure of letters distinguished from ‘lady novelists’ whose writing can be easily branded as simply female writing. And the essay goes on to argue that Eliot, in her stark refusal to write ‘as a woman,’ explores women’s writing that cannot be reduced to some type of gender-specific mode of writing which is customary and definable. To sum up, in The Mill on the Floss, Eliot attempts to ‘place’ women ‘in’ History, paradoxically enough, by erasing women from so-called natural history; such a poignant paradox of women’s writing is well captured in one of the most impressive quotes from the novel, “The happiest women have no history.”
  • 7.

    A Study on the Personnel Appointments of Qing Imperial Envoys to Korea: Reconsidering Korea’s Position in the World Order under Qing Hegemony

    구범진 | 2008, (59) | pp.179~228 | number of Cited : 27
    Abstract PDF
    Since Manchu army broke through the Shanhai pass 山海關and the Qing court moved its capital to Beijing, hundreds of Qing officials, as imperial envoys with either political or ritual missions, visited Seoul, Korea. In this paper, it has been revealed that Qing emperors selected their envoys to Korea exclusively from bannermen 旗人officials of higher ranks, or rank 3 and above. In other words, Han Chinese 漢人officials were systematically and consistently excluded from the diplomatic missions to Korea. In stark contrast, Qing imperial envoys to Liuqiu 琉球and Vietnam 安南/越南were chosen from officials of lower ranks, or rank 5 and below, and Qing emperors did not care whether they were bannermen or Han Chinese. According to Mark Mancall, Qing tributary states could be classified into two groups, or “the southeastern crescent” group and “the northwestern crescent” one. The countries of sedentary agricultural economy belonged to the former, while those of nomadic economy to the latter. In this dichotomy, Korea is considered as a member of the first group along with Liuqiu and Vietnam. Having discovered the difference between the appointment pool of Qing imperial envoys to Korea and that of Liuqiu and Vietnam, I think it necessary to reconsider Korea's membership in “the southeastern crescent” group and to give a second thought to the Qing view of the world as has been advocated by Mancall. Korea had much in common with the northwestern societies, such as Mongol tribes. Korea, along with the nomadic societies in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, accepted Qing hegemony and joined the Qing tribute system by Qing military force before Manchu conquest of Ming China, while Liuqiu and Vietnam, former Ming tributary countries, came to be included, not by force but in their volition, in the list of Qing tributary states, as a corollary of Manchu conquest of Ming China. Diplomatic mission to Korea was not regarded as business of Han Chinese but that of bannermen, as was the case with the Qing adminstration of Mongol nomadic tribes, while Han Chinese officials were allowed to participate in the missions to Liuqiu and Vietnam without discrimination against them. Taking into account these facts, I argue the organizing principle that governed the Qing tribute system was the time when the society in question was incorporated into the Qing hegemonic world order, not the ecological system where it belonged, on which Mancall put primary importance.
  • 8.

  • 9.

    “Our Halcyon Days”: Caroline Pacifism and the Works of Thomas Carew

    KIM, YOUN KYUNG | 2008, (59) | pp.265~302 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Though in the past many literary critics have criticized Caroline literature as idle gentlemen’s flippant entertainment, or worse, shameless flattery, mostly referring to historical studies that criticizes Charles I’s dysfunctional reign, some recent historiographies describe the period as culturally rich and economically stable. When we reconsider the period, Cavalier poetry, and in particular, Thomas Carew’s works can be reevaluated aga in. This article examines two representative pieces of Carew’s political literature in the 1630s, “In Answer of an Elegiacall Letter Upon the death of the King of Sweden from Aurelian Townshend” and Coelum Britannicum, and argues that Carew’s vindication of Caroline pacifism in these works shows the poet’s consistent aesthetic vision and his conviction in the superiority of England over Europe in the period. In the elegy, being asked to mourn the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphs, the great Protestant hero who died in 1632, Carew reassesses the king’s military achievements, comparing them with peaceful lives and entertainments at the English court. After pointing out that blind glorification of Adolphs’ numerous battles misses the dismal state of Europe that was left after his death, Carew carefully distinguishes the state of England from that of Europe. Additionally, the poet proposes a morally superior, aesthetically attractive, and practically less disastrous world of pastoral that Caroline literature and culture frequently created, and he also persuades his addressees, including Townshend, to enjoy the peaceful state of their own country. Utilizing effectively various literary and theatrical conventions of masque, a representative genre of court entertainments, and particularly using two complementary voices of Momus and Mercury, in Coelum Britannicum Carew positions an idealized version of Caroline England as the climatic point in historical and cultural progress. While as a court poet Carew does not neglect to praise the royal couple in this piece, his vision of a morally reformed and aesthetically refined world at the end of the masque makes this work as a masterpiece of the genre and testifies Carew’s artistic maneuver.
  • 10.

    The diversity of the Korean New Novel by accepting Japanese Political Novels- Comparing Koo Yeon-hak’s Seoljoongmae with Suehiro tetcho’s Setchubai

    노연숙 | 2008, (59) | pp.303~342 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis is to compare the difference of Suehiro tetcho’s Setchubai( ฀฀雪 中梅฀฀) and its adapted version, Koo Yeon-hak’s Seoljoongmae( ฀฀설중매฀฀) and to reexamine the characteristics of the latter. Setchubai, the original text is one of the Japnanese Three Political Novels including Kajin no kigu( ฀฀가 인지기우฀฀) and Keikoku bidan( ฀฀經國美談฀฀). Especially, Setchubai kept up with Jiyu minken undo(the movement for the protection of civil rights in Japan). The statement that there was a Setchubai’s era in the Japanese political history is still valid because there was actually the era that Literature and Politics were naturally combined. This inevitability was demanded in the other oriental countries: China, Korea. Setchubai was adapted in China in 1903 and in Korea in 1908. In China at that time, the political narrative was high-positioned thanks to Liang Chitsao’s assertion of the usefulness of novels. On the other hand, in Korea, a novel was regarded as a guide to the civilization or an enlightenment text, not the political narrative. The adapted version, Seoljoongmae had a name of ‘a political novel’. It was one of the Korean Three Political Novels including Yi In-jik’s Eunsegae (฀฀은세계฀฀: the Silver World) and Yi Hae-jo’s Jayoojong(฀฀자유종฀฀: the Freedom Bell). Especially, Seoljoonmae has a story that the hero performs political actions while the other two don’t. As it were, Seoljoongmae is a political narrative that reflects the Korean political realities at that time rather than the New Novel that has an insignificant politics or the political novel that is deformed and imperfect. Because Koo Yeon-hak’s Seoljoongmae brought a hero who was to perform the political actions in 1890’s situation when Dongnip hyupoe(독립협회: the Independence Association) was leading various activities positively. In this work, the hero and the heroine want to reach to the ideal nation beyond the happy home. Seoljoongmae shows that it’s the most important to get the spouse with whom they can take part in accomplishing the national business. The love narrative accepts the modern politics and thus it is transformed into the political narrative where the marriage means the coupling with the spouse who can develop the national business. The adaption, Seoljoongmae has the same story and plot of the original, Setchubai. In addition, the marriage in these work has the same meaning as it represents the attainment of the ideal politics though the former didn’t show it as definitely as the latter. This difference made the emergence of the Korean political narrative possible because Koo Yeon-hak, the writer of Seoljoongmae accepted the political realities in Korea while adapting Suehiro tetcho’s Setchubai.
  • 11.

    Subjects on the perception and double meanings of writing in Yi-sang’s novel,“Donghae(童骸, Child’s Remains)”

    Song Minho | 2008, (59) | pp.343~374 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Yi-sang attaches greater importance to the sense of touch than to the sense of sight in his work, “Donghae”. It is thought of as an attempt to resist the vision model of modernity, formed since Descartes. Shifted from ‘Eternal Time’ to the part of consciousness, ‘I’(in this novel) go into finding the objects in external world with the tactual sensation and look upon the objects under his eyes as linguistic sign. Because of the ambiguous attribute of linguistic sign itself, ‘I’, however, ain’t close to the nature of the object. The uncertain condition of things is meant pleasure to me on the contrary. In fact, the ambiguity has a relationship with the part of unconsciousness, the fantastic world to me. In his novel, Yi-sang makes ‘I’ come and go in the provinces of reality and fantasy through arrangement of the sign, “knife”. One day awaking and taking to look ‘a woman with knife’, ‘I’ ask her the question, “Are you a killer?”. His question in this way is that much relevant and probable, because he haven’t moved to consciousness. He is still left in the world of fantasy or moving picture. But peeling a citrus with her knife, she, named ‘Yim’, does against his expectation. ‘knife’-‘citrus’ chain plays an important part to him to get more realistic sense out of ambiguous condition. Through that chain, ‘I’ become a realistic man with the sense of marriage. Text in novel is also changed to have realistic tendency after that. Being extremely realistic, however, ‘I’ am sunk in self-hatred and let his lover, ‘Yim’ go to his friend, Yun. When ‘I’ in despair go to movie with another friend of his, T, T gives him a knife. ‘I’ am troubled with whether he have to kill ‘Yun’ or ‘Yim’ or himself with the knife. But T gives a citrus to him, too. ‘knife’-‘citrus’ chain in this part, does the opposite funtion with that former chain. It lets him know emotional, nonrealistic part of world like friendship. In brief, there are two communication failures in “Dong-Hae”, occurs from the difference of knife/death and knife/citrus. But it is not only failure itself. In dialogue, it makes him(‘I’) face the interactive circumstances out of the cognitive world he constructed before. The first linguistic failure makes him(‘I’) being realistic out of childish dream. ‘Dong-Hae’ is, in a kind, a laboratory work with only a linguistic variable given. The second failure in just the end of the work, makes him, a realistic adult, enter into another world, which is emotional, fantastic and friendly.
  • 12.

    Retrospect and Prospect in Scottish Study of Religions: Tension of Phenomenology, Reductionism, and Cultural Studies

    안신 | 2008, (59) | pp.375~407 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This essay explores three types of religious studies (RS) by examining current academic trends and key faculty members of the departments of religious studies in four major Scottish Universities: Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Glasgow, and Stirling. First, mentioning the tension between RS and theology, I analyze two contrasting historiographies of the British Academy and the British Association of Study of Religions. The former locates RS at the margin of theological studies, whereas the latter emphasizes the autonomous status of RS. Second, I summarize the past contributions of Scottish RS scholars such as F. McLennan, W. R. Smith, J. Frazer, A. Lang, J. Legge, J. N. Farquhr, W. M. Watt, and D. B. MacDonald. It should be noted that it was not in Scotland but outside Scotland that they played an important role in making creative ideas for RS. Third, the RS in Edinburgh started from its theological faculty and evolved into a major field under the College of Humanities and Social Sciences. Religionism and globalism are two main characteristics of the RS in Edinburgh, which applies phenomenological and theological approaches to the study of religion. After the closure in the late 1980s, the renewed RS in Aberdeen and Glasgow uses the reductive approaches to the study of religion, including social science and theology. Without th influence of confessing theology, the RS in Stirling debunks the Western concept of religion and proposes the contextual and cultural studies based on field works. In conclusion, these three types of RS in Scotland will develope better models for the study of religious phenomena on their own terms.
  • 13.

    A Comparison of Wollheim and Walton on the Theory of Depiction: Centering around “seeing-as” and “seeing-in”

    오종환 | 2008, (59) | pp.409~450 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper Wollheim’s and Walton’s theory of pictorial representation are scrutinized and compared with each other. Wollheim holds that the perception of pictorial representation can be explained through seeing-in, a special visual capacity contrasted with seeing-as, which is a development of ordinary vision of “straightforward perception.” The characteristic features of seeing-in are as follows: 1) with seeing-in we may see not only objects but also states of affairs, while with seeing-as we can see only objects, 2) there is the requirement of localization to seeing-as, while it is contingent to seeing-in, 3) seeing-in can see both the medium and the represented, while seeing-as cannot. The last feature is called “twofold- ness.” And this feature is crucial for us to see representations as representations. For example, trompe l’oeil painting is not a representation, since we cannot see it as a picture. Walton explains the pictorial representation as imagining seeing. He distinguishes depiction from description. In the case of pictorial depiction the perception of the represented is one and the same as that of the medium, while in the case of description this does not hold. According to Walton, to see an object in the picture is to see the relevant portion of the canvas through the imagination. while Wollheim holds that we can actually see the represented through seeing-in. Since, for Wollheim, seeing-in is a special visual capacity, which is different from ordinary seeing, pictures can represent several things which ordinary vision cannot see, for example states of affairs and universals. Walton objects to such a claim that we imagine seeing ordinary particular objects in the picture. On the basic claims of the two scholars and the related several topics, we examine the views of Alec Hyslop, Jerrold Levinson, and Susan Feagin. Basically Wollheim’s theory of pictorial representation is perceptual, while that of Walton’s is imagining. But both need a complementary explanation of how the configurational can make it possible or constitute the recognitional aspect of the experience of pictorial representation.
  • 14.

    Performative Force of Public Scripture Reading in Korean Protestantism: Comparative Analysis of Religious Scripture Reading Ritual

    Yoo, Yohan | 2008, (59) | pp.451~481 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Public scripture reading rituals, such as the Bible study meeting of early Korean Protestantism and contemporary protestant retreats for reading through the Bible, should be analyzed from a comparative perspective. This analysis provides a vivid illustration of the social function of the performative dimension of scriptures, but it also suggests the need to further define the meaning of “performative.” As to the first point, the particular ways in which the Bible was read in the Korean context contributed to the growing number of converts to Christianity. Most scholars agree that the Bible study meeting played a central role in the rapid growth of the early Korean Protestantism. The Bible study meeting, of which central feature was public scripture reading, promoted a fourfold increase in church membership in Korea between 1903 and 1907. Bible readings in the context of study groups in early Korean Protestantism facilitated the absorption of Christianity into Korean culture by building on traditional religious practices and by offering a way for native Koreans to take the lead in the growth of the new religion. Second, these scripture readings were performative in the way defined by J. L. Austin’s theory of performative speech and elaborated by Roy Rappaport’s description of the indexical function of ritual, because they affected Koreans’ conversions into Christianity and strengthened their Christian faith. Austin’s necessary conditions of performative utterances were satisfied through ritualization of the activity of reading and ritualization of the Bible itself.
  • 15.

    On Hyeol (穴) of Hyeolgu-gun (穴口郡) in the Gogureoic Toponym: From the Genealogical Perspective Relating Goguryeoic to Altaic Languages

    임홍빈 | 2008, (59) | pp.483~519 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper attempts to reconstruct the correct form and meaning of the word ‘kappi (甲比)’ that corresponds to hyeol (穴) in the Goguryeoic toponym Hyeolgu-gun (穴口郡)which appears in Samguksagi (฀฀三國史記฀฀).Acouple of hypotheses have been put forth on ‘kappi (甲比)’. Yang (1942/1965) and Shin (1958) simply said that the word represented the middle Korean word form /kumu/ or /kum/, not to mention the peculiarity involved in the toponym. Lee (1968) made it clear that the word in question represented the Goguryeoic language, referring to ‘ravine’, ‘gorge’, etc. However, it is emphasized that the Chinese letter hyeol (穴) should be read as given. It is undeniable that the letter itself refers to ‘hole’, not to ‘ravine’, ‘gorge’ or ‘river’. It is natural to see that the word ‘kappi (甲比)’ corresponding to hyeol (穴) refers to ‘hole’ in the toponym. The problemis that it is infelicitous to apply the same word to Ganghwa (江華) island, which is located in front of Gyeonggi-bay (京畿灣) in Korean peninsular. Examining the correspondence relations holding between the previous toponyms and the later or revised ones that appear in Volume 34-37 of Samguksagi, this paper reconstructs the word form/*kapi/ that refers to ‘hole’, whichwas applied to a ferry point. The original meaning of /*kapi/ referring to ‘hole’ shows some metaphorical extension in toponym. The correspondence between the second consonant /*p/ of /*kapi/ and the second one /m/ of /kumu/ iswell attested in the comparative linguistics between Goguryeoic and Old Japanese. This paper claims that these kinds of correspondences can be captured by Abstract Reconstructed Form(ARF) like ‘*KVXW’, in which *K stands for the initial consonant, *V the first vowel, *X the second consonant, and *W the second vowel. It can be said that the Goguryeoic /*kapi/ shows the predecessor form of the middle Korean form /kumu/ ‘hole’. The Altaic lexical entries representing the semantic category ‘hole’ in Starostin et al. (2003) are the forms like * kŏb́ ú, * kúmi, and * àƞa. Starostin et al. (2003) lists these entries separately in the lexicon.However, this paper claims that the three forms stemfrom the same root. The form* kŏb́ úis very similar to Goguryeoic /*kapi/ ‘hole’, the form* kúmi is very similar to theMiddle Korean /kumu/ ‘id.’, and the form* àƞa is very similar to Japanese /ana/ ‘id.’ As far as these three forms can be listed under the same heading, the languages like Mongolian, Tungusic, Turkic andKoreanic with Japonic can be claimed to form an unquestionable language family called Altaic, although the Altaic hypothesis is under severe attack fromthe anti-Altaists like J. Janhunen and A. Vovin etc.
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