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2009, Vol., No.61

  • 1.

    Darwinian Humanities and the Evolution of Humanities

    장대익 | 2009, (61) | pp.3~47 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    We live in the era of biology. We have heard of ‘obesity genes’, ‘homosexuality genes’ from daily news papers almost every week. Such terms as Stem cell and GMO are no longer biological jargons. If contemporary science and technology have changed our lives for the past centuries, biology has been a center of the stage. Interesting enough, biology has changed not only our lives but also our thinking. Rapid development of reproductive technologies made us revisit our received view of the birth, genetic engineering led to safety problems of GM foods, and news of homosexuality genes evoked nature vs nurture debates again. Besides, recent development of neurosciences makes us think seriously if the brain is me. For the past two centuries, we have undertook three important revolutions: Darwinian, molecular, and cognitive revolution. They have changed our thinking of our selves dramatically. So it is valuable to discuss the humanistic meaning, issues and implications of the three revolutions. In this review paper, among the three I focus on the Darwinian revolution and its implications for humanities. Firstly, I discuss philosophical implications of Darwinian theory, reviewing its anti-essentialistic metaphysics and ethical ramifications. Secondly, I review Darwinian approaches to understanding of the human mind (especially for inference, emotion, and social cognition) and compare them with traditional conceptions of mind. Thirdly, I review two major theories of language evolution critically in order to explore the influence of Darwinian revolution on linguistics. Finally I argue for evolutionary theories of culture which has been hardly discussed in Darwinian senses. Through these discussions, I reveal that we can have interesting Darwinian views of ontology, morality, inference, emotion, social cognition, language, and even culture. So this paper can be a primitive review of ‘Darwinian Humanities’ The Darwinian Humanities conflict with traditional ones in some cases, while they can do a complementary cooperation in others.
  • 2.

    Between Genes and Morality: Centering around Altruism

    Sangmo Jung | 2009, (61) | pp.49~81 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Edward Wilson argues that the core of morality be altruism and that altruism derive from the genes inscribed in the evolutionary altruism such as kin and reciprocal altruism. If this argument means that morality comes out from the disposition of behavior caused by the human brain and that the human brain comes out from genetic information of genes, then nobody would deny it. However, if the argument means that the brain produces only the disposition of behavior that meets selection and evolution within the frame work of information inscribed in genes, it would be a jump of logic. Although the human brain is the result of evolution, evolution has allowed it to have the emergent freedom of mind. In consequence, if one departs from genes and goes toward morality through the pathway of sociobiology, he cannot reach the destination. In this paper, I will show this point of view with several arguments concerning evolutionary altruism. As a preliminary discussion, I will get rid of the semantical obscurity around the concept of altruism, and then I will bring into relief the fact that both the way from genes to mind and the way from mind to morality do not exist. Finally, I will argue that the developmental system theory support the fact well.
  • 3.

    The Logic of Thinking of the Constitution of Society from the Perspective of Materialist Theory - Contributions and Limits of a Sociobiological Approach to the Genesis of the Social

    정호근 | 2009, (61) | pp.83~130 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    A theory of the constitution of society that explains its formation of society answers the question, “How is social order possible?” In this paper, I propose a theory of the constitution of society that is both a materialist and genetic one. While materialism attempts to explain that society is constituted from nature and not from the mind, a genetic theory states that only when the process of society’s genesis is logically reconstructed from its beginning, can what presently exists be genuinely explained. The materialist theory of the constitution of society provides a theoretical basis for radically transforming the traditional understanding of human beings and the world. Examining sociobiological approaches are important for our discussion since they relate to what the materialist theory of the constitution of society essentially requires. Yet, many in the field of sociobiology lack clear awareness of this particular relation. We should not overlook, however, several difficulties that the sociobiological approach presents. The fundamental problem that underlies these difficulties is what I refer to as ‘the logic of thinking.’ The constitution of society should be explained in terms of the logic of difference based on structural and developmental logic - not in terms of the traditional logic of identity. The transformation from the mind-priority-scheme into the nature-priority-scheme entails the transformation of the logic of thinking as such. Moreover, when sociobiology claims totality in that it should and can explain all the areas of the social, it faces the potential critique of biological reductionism. Hence by doing this, sociobiology falls in danger of annulling its contributions to the theory of the constitution of society as well as its legitimate claim that the explanation of the social should begin from the biological basis. Unlike the expectations of sociobiologists, the social cannot solely be constituted from a biological basis. Rather, it should be explained in a comprehensive framework; namely, a materialist theory of the constitution of society which involves not only the uniqueness of the socio-cultural evolution but the relationship between the biological and the socio-cultural. Only when what sociobiology claims is limited in this way, can its contributions to a grasp of the social be properly appreciated.
  • 4.

    Ce qu’implique le développement de la biologie pour la science humaine

    조현수 | 2009, (61) | pp.131~162 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    La science humaine se pose principallement, croyons-nous, d’éclairer la <nature humaine>. Elle pouvait, pendant longtemps, jouir de son statut indépendant à l’egard de la science naturelle, puisque la nature humaine paraissait tellement différente de celle des autres êtres du monde qu’il parassait qu’il faudrait employer, pour la saisir adéquatement, une logique de recherche autre que celle de la science naturelle. Mais, la science moderne, au fur et à mesure de son développement, menace de plus en plus cette indépendance de la science humaine à l’egard de la science naturelle. La science moderne se fonde sur le postulat de l’objectivité de la Nature. Elle est née au moment où Descartes et Galilée établissaient le principe d’inertie, qui implique le refus systématique de considérer comme pouvant conduire à une connaissance <vraie> toute interprétation des phénomènes donnée en termes de causes finales, c’està- dire de <projet> : la Nature est, selon ce principe, seulement <objective>, non pas <projective>. Ainsi, ce principe ne fondait pas seulement la mécanique, mais l’épistémologie de la science moderne : on pose le postulat de l’objectivité de la Nature comme condition nécessaire de toute vérité dans la connaissance. La connaissance <vraie>, c’est-à-dire objective, est celle qui s’obtient en admettant que le postulat de l’objectivité de la Nature est la seule source de la vérité, alors que la connaissance qui fait appel à une certaine cause finale n’est qu’une inteprétation purement subjective, c’est-à-dire <anthropomorphique>, du monde. Or il semble que la biologie moderne, tout en restant fidèle à cette épistémologie de la science moderne, c’est-à-dire en n’employant qu’une méthode d’explication mécanistique, réussit à expliquer les phénomènes vitaux qui, pendant longtemps, même jusqu’à presque 200 ans plus tard après la formulation explicite par Descartes et Galilée du principe de l’inertie, étaient censés transcender l’explication mécanistique, qui semblaient ainsi demander, pour être appréhendés adéquatement, une autre manière d’explication, différente de celle qui s’appuye sur le postulat de l’objectivité de la Nature. A parler brièvement, le développement de la biologie moderne lui fait maintenir que l’explication mécanistique, qui est seule à être compatible avec l’objectivité de la Nature, peut s’étendre aux phénomènes vitaux, y compris la nature humaine. C’est peut-être ainsi qu’on vient à l’idée d’Unification du Savoir, idée qui, dans la plupart des cas, prétend assimiler la science humaine à la science naturelle, en refusant de lui admettre aucune rôle indépendant : on entend souvent cette idée parler que si l’on arrive à avoir toutes les connaissances physiques et chimiques et biologique, la science humaine n’aurait plus rien à proprement dire. Nous voulons, dans cet écrit, montrer pourquoi cette idée d’Unification du Savoir est inacceptable, et pourquoi et comment la science humaine peut entretenir son indépendance malgré le brillant développement récent de la science naturelle.
  • 5.

    An Essay on the Specialities of Fantastics & Prospective in Korean Novels with Results of Analyzing the novels Written by Lee Ze Ha

    Kim Mee Young | 2009, (61) | pp.165~196 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Recently, fantasy in the all kinds of cultural products has been increased. Digital technology & ultramodern science are developed faster and faster, fantasies are important more and more. Basically the power of cultural creativities are built on the mimesis and the fantasy. Literature has been is driven too. Now a days, realism based on traditional mimesis had broken down in Korean modern literature. The meanings and functions of the fantastics are embossed in literature and culture. Lee ze ha’s novels are based on the fantasy. He is a painter and novelist. The pictorial images which are like surrealistic paintings discovered very frequently in his literature works. First of all, his master pieces of 60’s are discovered fantastic images more than 80’s. His fantastic images are not moving but fixing thing. So that those are not imposed time, only has the space. Those are not similar to the marvelous or the uncanny Tzvetan Todorov said. Those could be appropriate the hallucination or the phantasm. Korean fantasies in literature are different from the style of western’s. Because Korean cultural had been established upon the confucianism that was focused on the actuality not the other worlds like a Frankenstein by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley or Doctor Faustus written by Wolfgang von Goethe. In Korean fantasy has not shown us the real foreign worlds or existences. Korean fantasy has ghost that disappear after settled some problems with the other human being who has a lasting regret. In the future Korean literature should be accepted factors of the fantastics more and more. Fantasy is not opposite to the realism. Those are constructed literature together. Korean modern novels had received the pictorial fantasy already, seems like Lee ze ha’s novels. But our novelists should have to try accepting the cinematic fantasy which’s improving the movement of fantasy.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Limitations as ‘Narrative of Revolution’ of Hwang, Seok-Young’s Jang Gil San

    김은경 | 2009, (61) | pp.197~224 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This essay aims to investigate the Limitations as ‘Narrative of Revolution’ of Hwang, Seok-Young’s Jang Gil San. Earlier Studies assert the characters of Jang Gil San are characterized by class dichotomy of the nobility and the people. This essay finds that reformative characters coexist with non-reformative characters in each class of the upper, the middle, the lower. This finding on the ambilaterality of classes is different from the assertion of earlier studies. This essay pay attention to the way of living and the inclination of consciousness of the reformative characters and the non-reformative characters, so that this essay find the limitations as ‘Narrative of Revolution’ of Jang Gil San. This point of view is different form the earlier studies focusing on the band of Jang Gil San. The antagonists of Jang Gil San are comprised the non-reformative characters of the middle class and the lower class. They heap up riches by conspiring with illegal act of the ruling class, and then raise their social position to the upper class by buying the ‘Yangban’―the upper social status of Joseon. The way of living of the non-reformative characters like this shows the Conservativeness of their Worldly Ideology following the reality of the age of SukJong collapsed the order of social status. They do not try to form a new class based on their riches like the Bourgeoisie leading the Revolution in the west. On the Contrary, The ideology of the reformative characters are religious. The reformative characters are categorized into three groups of the Jang Gil San band, Buddhists and ‘Gumgae’. The idea supporting these three groups spiritually is the faith of ‘Mireuk(彌勒)’. This essay discuss on the Treasons(逆謀) leaded by the Buddhists and the ‘Gumgae’ comparing with Reformation Platform of Jang Gil San. The Treasons attempted twice aims to actualize the Idea of ‘Mireuk(彌勒)’ which pursues the Utopia realized the equality of all the People. So, the aim of the Treasons is progressive. But The Treasons raise limitations that depend on the religious transcendence and pass over the importance of realistic foundation in the ways of execution. These limitations are presented from the point of view of Jang Gil San’s band. The Reformation Platform of Jang Gil San is also based on the Idea of ‘Mireuk(彌勒)’. But they focus on the Economic Foundation and consider the people as subject of revolution. These policy lines of Jang Gil San are more progressive than the lines of Buddhists and the ‘Gumgae’. The band of Jang Gil San act out the policy in the borderland between mundane world and unworldliness. They resist the corruption and illegality of the ruling by the illegality. Accordingly, they also have limitations which could not overcome the position of ‘the boundary men[非僧非俗]’ and form a new social stratum.
  • 7.

    The telos of the State: Self-sufficiency, Happiness, and ta prosēkonta

    Hyekyong Kim | 2009, (61) | pp.225~251 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    When Socrates leads the discussion about the beginning of a (theoretical) city in Republic, self-insufficiency and various needs which individuals undergo are the founding reasons of that establishment. So, it might seem natural to take that the very self-sufficiency would be the task and aim of his city. In this paper I’ve reexamined the thesis that the self-sufficiency was the real ideal, telos of Plato’s state. Aristotle’s interpretation and critic on that point have been reconsidered. One may also argue that the division of labor, the running principle Plato has advocated, serves his city only as a tool for the efficiency. But the division of labor is not a “simple” tool to utilize the fulfillment of necessities. It was a intentional efficiency to the aim of the state from the very beginning. Happiness (eudaimonia), not self-sufficiency is the proper aim of Plato’s state. But Socrates himself had met some serious challenges in the course of immediate dialogue. That is, he has not allowed his guardians the happiness they deserve. The success of defense (apologia) against that challenge mainly depends on the clarification, or reorientation of ‘happiness’ and the interpretation of the concept of ‘what are appropriates (ta prosēkonta)’.
  • 8.

    From Historical Adventure to Historical Responsibility ― Focusing on Hans Jonas’ Response to Postmodern Challenge ―

    소병철 | 2009, (61) | pp.253~275 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    There are two different philosophical responses to the terrible historical tragedies caused by the historical adventures of modernity. The one is so-called postmodern or posthistorical pluralism, and the other is the new orientation of modernity like Hans Jonas’ ecological ethics. In this paper, I will demonstrate that the latter is a more rational response than the former. Philosophical postmodernism and its discourse on posthistoire are the attempts to radicalize western self-criticism over the self-contradictory dynamics of modernity. Therefore, it is, in effect, a new rudder of modernity, putting a brake on its easygoing self-satisfaction. Like this, modernity can keep its own life and health only by making the renewed cycles of normative self-diagnosis and self-healing. And this is an evidence that the picture of modernity is not a monochrome but a polychrome, and a unfinished one which is being drawn by the plural human reasons up to the present. Here postmodern human reason is no less free and dynamic than modern one. For postmodernity is a critical mind originating from modernity itself. Discourse on posthistoire is the most radical part of that criticism of modernity. For the failure of utopian historical philosophy like Marxism is the clearest indication of the ‘dialectic of enlightenment’ which made modern civilized men feel fear for the first time. But this experience provides us an opportunity to turn the postmodern nihility which radical criticism of modernity left behind itself into a horizon of the creative thought experiment. For in the presence of us ‘what we ought to do’ and ‘what we ought not to do’ are still. Just here we come to rediscover Jonas’ affirmation of the new historical responsibility which has been ignored by the postmodernist rhetoric of ‘end of history.’ This affirmation is the effect of prudent hope indebted to postmodern fear. In short, we have learned ‘historical responsibility’ from the failure of ‘historical adventure.’ Only through this transition from ‘adventure’ to ‘responsibility’ postmodernity will come to be judged to be a philosophical heuristic which has succeeded in enlightening modernity.
  • 9.

    Globalisierung der Kultur gespiegelt in Harry Potter

    Yi, Hong-Kyung | 2009, (61) | pp.277~299 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Das neue Phänomen der Globalisierung tritt seit den 1990er Jahren in den Vordergrund. Das kulturübergreifende Harry Potter-Fieber lässt sich als ein Indiz für die Globalisierung der Kultur lesen. Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt die Globalisierung der Kultur dar, gespiegelt in Harry Potter. Erstens analysiert sie die Globaliserung von Harry Potter. Zweitens wird die Glokalisierung der Kultur betrachtet. Die Arbeit stellt dar, wie die nationalen unterschiedlichen Gestaltungen von Harry Potter als Buchillustration einen Hang zur Lokalisierung zeigen. Drittens werden Risiken der kulturellen Globalisierung vorgestellt. Seitdem AOL Time Warner Entertainment alle Rechte zur weltweiten Vermarktung der Harry Potter-Reihe besitzt und die Verfilmung und das Merchandising betrieben hat, ist Harry Potter zum geschützten Markennamen avanciert. Während das amerikanische Design die verschiedenen nationalen Potter- Versionen zu verdrängen versucht, stellt ein großer amerikanischer Konzern die Glokalisierung der Kultur in Frage, die kulturelle Differenzen nicht einebnete, sondern auf kreative Weise bestehen ließ. Angesichts der weltweiten Vermarktung der Harry Potter-Reihe und damit zusammenhängende Tendenzen globaler Vereinheitlichung regen sich Angst vor der Nivellierung, Kommerzialisierung und Amerikanisierung der Kultur. Aber die Globaliserung der amerikanischen Kulturwaren lässt sich nicht der Globaliserung der Kultur gleichsetzen. Trotz aller unangenehmen Begleiterscheinungen kann die Kulturindustrie die Kultur nicht vollständig homogenisieren. Denn Globalisierungs-und Glokalisierungsprozesse beeinflussen sich gegenseitig.
  • 10.

    Critical Thinking and Female Values

    Choi Hoon | 2009, (61) | pp.301~324 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    If critical thinking is unfair to women, it should not be an educational ideal. First, this paper considers the claims by Gilligan, Tannen, Nye, and McClintock that critical thinking seeks after male values such as logic, form and abstraction. I argue that it is possible to impart critical thinking with female values such as love and cooperation in addition and that such critical thinking must be educated. Critical Thinking is needed when we interpret charitably an argument as well as we find fault with it. Female values work importantly in such processes.
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