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2011, Vol., No.65

  • 1.

    Identiteˊ et Imagination politiques chez Albert Memmi et Achille Mbembe

    LEE, Young Mock | 2011, (65) | pp.3~24 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Le propos de cette eˊ tude consistait à eˊ tablir des rapports entre l’ identiteˊpolitique et l’ imagination politique dans les textes principaux des deux représentants respectifs de la pensée coloniale et de la pensée postcoloniale:Albert Memmi et Achille Mbembe. Nous avons supposé que les différences de deux pensées - rôle déterminant des facteurs socio-économiques dans le système colonial dans la pensée coloniale et mise en valeur du culturel dans la pensée postcoloniale - produiraient les spécificités des deux discours. Mais une fois constatée la primauté du culturel communément admise dans ces deux auteurs, nous sommes amené plutôt à nous intéresser à la facture même de leurs discours qu’ aux contenus conceptuels et idéels de ceux-ci. Nous avons dégagé chez Memmi une « logique implacable de la nécessité coloniale» et chez Mbembe une « pensée de l’enchevêtrement et de la concaténation» qui consiste à l’ approchement graduel au fait à travers un mouvement continu de mises au point successives. Ces démarches de la pensée représentent leurs efforts intellectuels qui visent à une élaboration d’ un savoir inédit et original àl’ écart de, et par rapport à, l’ universalisme rationnel de l’ Occident remis en cause.
  • 2.

    Vergangenheitsbewältigung der DDR-Geschichte -Monika Marons Stille Zeile Sechs

    이재원 | 2011, (65) | pp.25~49 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Die DDR als Staat und politisches System ist ein Kapitel der Geschichte geworden, trotzdem spielt die DDR als literarisches Thema noch eine wichtige Rolle in der deutschen Literatur. Monika Marons Roman Stille Zeile sechs(1991) setzt sich kritisch mit dem diktatorischen System der DDR in den 1980er Jahren auseinander. Der vorliegende Aufsatz untersucht den Text als einen Versuch der Vergangenheitsbewältigung der DDR-Zeit. Der Roman beginnt mit der Beerdigung des ehemals hohen Parteifunktionärs,Herbert Beerenbaum. Dieser hatte vor, seine Memoiren zu verfassen und die Ich-Erzählerin Rosalind Polkowski wurde für ihn als Schreibkraft tätig,da seine rechte Hand gelähmt war. Beerenbaum ist ein Vertreter der Gründerväter-Generation, die einmal als Antifaschisten gegen die Nazis gekämpft, aber später die Diktatur in der DDR aufgebaut hatten. Seine Generation rechtfertigte ihre Tat aufgrund ihres Opferstatus gegenüber den Nazis. Rosalind will nichts tun, um nicht schuldig zu werden. Sie glaubt, dass man sich noch viel schuldiger macht, wenn man sich aktiv beteiligt. Aber im Laufe des Schreibprozesses gerät sie zunehmend in einen Konflikt, da der von Beerenbaum diktierte Inhalt nichts als die Rechtfertigung und Verschleierung seiner Schuld darstellt. Sie fühlte sich als Mittäterin, da sie nichts gegen ihn unternimmt. Schließlich entscheidet sie sich, Handelnde und Schuldige zu sein, statt Opfer und Siegerin. Sie erhebt Anklage gegen Beerenbaum und der kranke Alte erleidet einen Herzanfall, an dem er einige Tage später stirbt. Die erste Generation der DDR, zu der Beerenbaum gehört, zwang allen Nachgeworenen ihre Erinnerung als verbindliche Geschichte der DDR auf. In diesem Sinne ist dieser Roman auch ein Versuch, diese verfälschte Geschichte zu entlarven. Heute, wo die Beerenbaums tot sind, obliegt die Aufgabe, die Geschichte der DDR neu zu schreiben, der dritten Generation, für die Rosalind steht. Diese Generation braucht diese Selbstreflexion, um eine Perspektive für die Zukunft zu gewinnen.
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  • 4.

    Merleau-Ponty’s Theory of the Other as a Radicalization of Husserl’s Theory of the Other

    Jon-Ju Lee | 2011, (65) | pp.85~132 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    It was the theory of the Other as an overcoming out of solipsism that Husserl had reflected on and defended, more than any of the other theories of phenomenology. Nevertheless it is also his theory of the Other that has been criticized most often among Husserl’ s phenomenology. But Merleau-Ponty’ s theory of the Other is different from Heidegger’ s, Sartre’ s and Levinas’ , for while these are merely denials of Husserl’ s theory of the Other, his is a radicalization of Husserl’ s theory of the Other in the respect of the genetic phenomenology. Above all, seeing the ideal of Husserl’ s phenomenology, not from the perspective of static foundation,but from that of genetic foundation, Merleau-Ponty changed radically the method of phenomenological reflection and the intentionality of consciousness into the radical reflection and the intentionality of body respectively. On the grounds of these radical methods and states, first he criticized the paradox which the approach of reflective analysis causes in terms of the validity-foundation of perception of the Other, and he tries to get over the paradox through coexistence between I and the Other by intergrating the consciousness and body in the pre-personal world. He goes on discovering the limit of solipsism rather again in the appresentive experience which Husserl introduced in order to get over the solipsism in terms of the validity-foundation of judgement of the Other, and he tries to discover the meaning of solipsism in freedom, communication and death through the radical reflection. First the freedom of solipsism means only that thrown in the world. Second, solipsism never means the communication gap, but the suspension of communication. Third, for the solipsists, death and other means things that cannot be experienced, but for Merleau-Ponty they means the destiny that we have to put up with. Finally we have the tasks to reconstruct Merleau-Ponty’ s theory of the Other on the basis of the achievements of study of Husserl’ s posthumous manuscripts and the achievements of development-psychology on child’ s ability of understanding of other’ mind.
  • 5.

    Physical Necessity of a Law of Nature -problems in Armstrong’s system of theories

    HeeJeong Kim | 2011, (65) | pp.133~157 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Armstrong’s view on a law of nature stands between regularity theory and metaphysical necessity theory. He maintains that a law of nature is necessary on the one hand, and contingent on the other hand. He holds that a law of nature is necessary in the sense that it is beyond regularity. It is meant by ‘contingent’ that it does not hold in all possible worlds. A law of nature in our world may not hold in other possible worlds. In other words, he is defending that a law of nature has a physical necessity. The necessity of a law of nature is said to be required, since there are at least three main difficulties. The view on physical necessity is maintained with Armstrong’s categoricalism on the nature of properties. According to it, properties do not have modality as such, which is externally attributed by a law of nature. I argue, in this paper, that there are problems in his defending of the physical necessity of a law of nature in his system, which ranges over his categoricalism, quidditism, actualism and combinatorialism. My criticism on physical necessitarianism is different from others’ in that it considers the whole system of Armstrong’s views on relevant topics. In the first part, I present what physical necessity means in Armstrong’s theory of laws. In the second part, I point out two main problems of his physical necessitarianism in considering his views on the relevant topic such as the nature of properties, the criterion of existence and possible worlds. In 2.1,I reformulate his arguments and argue that they fail mainly because of his categoricalism. He tries to defend the physical necessity of laws by means of universals. I show that his arguments are circular. In 2.2, I show that he has problems in admitting the physical necessity as primitive. I argue that the view on the physical necessity is not coherent with his views on possible worlds, as well as those on the criterion of existence and the nature of properties.
  • 6.

    An Examination of V. Gordon Childe’s Understanding of the Historical Process

    고일홍 | 2011, (65) | pp.159~188 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    V. Gordon Childe’s understanding of how human history unfolded was based on certain ideas regarding the historical process. However, the dissemination of these ideas amongst the wider public has been accompanied by a misunderstanding of the original intentions and messages contained within. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to rectify this unfortunate situation by providing a detailed discussion on Childe’s perception of the historical process. In order to do so, a brief examination of his two revolutions - the Neolithic and Urban - is first carried out since an incomplete understanding of these two concepts is thought to have contributed to the inaccurate interpretation of Childe’s original ideas on human history. These ideas are then considered in the following section and three key points are noted. First, Childe's interpretation of human history was based, above all, on a socio-economic perspective. Second,Childe had belief in the progress of humankind, but progress was not taken to mean social and economic ‘development’ in the social evolutionary sense. Third, the process of social and economic change, which determined the outcome of human history, was dialectical rather than directional.
  • 7.

    Religious Arts in the Early Classical Period in Southeast Asia

    Heejung Kang | 2011, (65) | pp.189~219 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The religious sculptures in Southeast Asia deserve special attention as they best represent the multi-cultural aspect of the area. This paper shows the Indian influence of the visual arts in Southeast Asia during the early classical period. The arts of India were transmitted to Southeast Asia via the maritime route. It is possible to assure by comparing their artistic styles. The maritime trades of the intellectual and material resources activated migration from India to Southeast Asia. It resulted in the sudden and brilliant development of the first stage of Southeast Asian Art history. In the initial stages of arts in Southeast Asia, the Buddhist and Hindu images show close association to the styles of Central and Southern India. The influence of the visual arts during this period spread beyond the confines of India. It extended to Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. The religious arts of India and Sri Lanka were most likely transmitted to Southeast Asia via the maritime route of the Ganges and the Krishna River to the Bay of Bengal. It then set the foundations for the earliest production of religious sculptures in Southeast Asia. The traders from India, at the time, probably passed through the two maritime routes. One route was from central India, using the coastal area to the Kra Isthmus. The other route was from South India via Sri Lanka. These two maritime routes seemed to have had easier access into Southeast Asia than overland Himalayan routes. The maritime trades of the intellectual and material resources activated migration from India to Southeast Asia. The trades and migrations resulted in the sudden and brilliant development of the first stage of Southeast Asian history. In the initial stages of religious arts development in Southeast Asia, the Buddhist and Hindu images show close association to the styles of Central and Southern India. These arts demonstrate the diffusion of Indian religious arts into Southeast Asia through the various maritime route channels. Accepting the diversified art,as soon as they acquired the techniques and ideas for their own religions,the artisans in Southeast Asia began creating their own masterpieces.
  • 8.

    장가산한간 <이년율령>의 출토위치와 편련 - 서사 과정의 복원을 겸하여

    KIM, BYUNGJOON | 2011, (65) | pp.221~266 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    本文欲经过文本分析来复原张家山二七四号墓出土的≪ 二年律令≫ 。这次本文运用的方法是把张家山汉简整理小组所公开的≪ 出土位置示意图≫与内容上整理好的≪ 释读本≫ 来进行比较分析。结果,我能发现几点: (1) 虽内容上归属于同一条,出土位置互相远离 (2) 虽内容上属于同一律令,排列顺序混乱 (3) 每个律令不在一起,与其他律令混在一起 (4) 律令的相互顺序也不一致。从具体的出土位置上来看,这种散乱的排列状态绝对不可能只是由于编连绳子的断裂、或是从外部的冲击而发生的。此外,≪ 二年律令≫ 有更多的错误。比如,(5) 有些简缺了,只有前部或后部留下了 (6)有时,不同律文写在同一个条里 (7) 有不少的误字,而且有些句子遗漏了。总之, 在张家山二七四号墓埋葬≪ 二年律令≫ 时,这些卷本来就不是完整的。不过,墓主生前使用过的律令绝对不可能这么不完整。因此,张家山二七四号墓出土的≪ 二年律令≫ 应是根据墓主的遗嘱让专家抄写正本的一部分。后汉时期的周磬是属于比较明显的例子。同时,≪ 二年律令≫ 上出现的句读符号也能够证明这个事情。句读符号原来是读者阅读的时候根据自己的原则进行标记的。所以,句读符号应该标记在文字和文字之间,也就是说文字和符号的间距缜密。但是,≪ 二年律令≫ 上不少的符号是好像文字似的标记的。结果,符号和文字之间距是像其他文字和文字之间距差不多的。像这样抄写专家, 其中之一就是具律题目简出现过的人名、郑女欠。前面所说的第二种错误(5, 6, 7)很可能都是这时发生的。编联过程可分为两个方式。第一,先把空简编联后抄写。第二,先抄写后编联。张家山≪ 二年律令≫ 上都出现了這两种方式。 当然,先抄写后编联,意味着要将每简一一排列,这需要十分注意。先编联时也一般以几简为单位作成的,不是以律名为单位。仔细看≪ 二年律令≫ 的话,能看出来每律上第一种和第二种方式都混在一起。前面所说的第一种错误(1, 2, 3, 4)可能在这种编联时所发生。总之, 张家山二七四号墓出土的≪ 二年律令≫ 并不是西汉初期实际上实行过的完整本,也不是二七四号墓主生前亲自使用过的原本。为了专门埋葬,墓主或遗属令专家抄写正本的一部分后把它编联的。虽然不能排除将原本埋葬的其他可能,我们要注意的是, 至少张家山≪ 二年律令≫ 在经过抄写和编联的过程中已经含有许多的错简和错字等问题。如此我们才能够重新確認≪ 二年律令≫ 的基本前提,即≪ 二年律令≫ 的编联、篇章或顺序是基于律令上的内容逻辑决定的,将来我们才免得白费心思。
  • 9.

    A Study on the Learning of Human Nature and Mandate in Xue Hui’s Variorum Laozi

    Kim, Kyung-Hee | 2011, (65) | pp.267~303 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    It was in the Ming Dynasty that most of the commentaries on the Laozi were written in China. Among these commentators, there were many Neo-Confucian scholars. Several Neo-Confucian commentators tried to comment favorably on the Laozi, breaking from the view that Laozi was heresy. Xue Hui(薛蕙) was the first commentator in the Ming Dynasty that interpreted the Laozi from a Confucian viewpoint, and his Variorum Laozi (老子集解) became an exemplary commentary to subsequent Neo-Confucians who tried to embrace positively Laozi’s thought. This paper studies the way that Xue Hui connected Laozi’s thought with ‘the learning of human nature and mandate’(性命之學) of Neo-Confucianism. The Song Neo-Confucians sought to ‘return to human nature’(復性). Xue Hui argued that Laozi had the same purpose. According to him, Laozi’s Dao is identifiable as the principle of human nature that is rooted in cosmological substance. However, most Neo-Confucians, including Chu Hsi, criticised Laozi for neglecting the aspect of ‘being’ of Dao and the activity of mind. To refute such criticism, Xue Hui explained ‘non-being’(無) as the substance(體) of Dao and ‘being’(有) as the function(用) of it,and regarded the two aspects as inseparable. His theory of substance and function is based on Cheng Yi’s idea that “substance and functions come from the same source, and there is no gap between the manifest and the hidden.” Even though the two aspects of Dao are inseparable, Xue Hui stressed the importance of non-being and substance, and thus demanded the self-cultivation of ‘emptiness and tranquility’(虛靜). Furthermore, he thought that the relation between Laozi’s Dao and Confucian moral norms was that of substantial quality(質) and ornamental accomplishments(文),but Laozi emphasized the importance of the former to prevent the latter from destroying it. He insisted that Laozi’s thought should not be misunderstood as lacking ethical concerns.
  • 10.

    도연명 시에 나타난 ‘술’의 의미

    송용준 | 2011, (65) | pp.305~329 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    陶渊明是晋宋交替时期活跃在诗坛上的大诗人,在他的诗歌里频频出现有关酒的诗句。陶渊明在他的诗歌里把酒的象征意义加以扩展与深化,使酒不仅成为表现诗人思想感情的手段,而且象征了诗人的人生观和世界观。此后,酒在后人的诗歌中其意义不断丰富,不断加深。这应该归功于陶渊明。在中国文学史上,陶渊明第一次拓宽了酒的含义,升华了酒的价值,直接或间接地影响了包括李白在内的中国古代无数诗人。因而,才能够使我们今天吟诵中国古代诗歌的时候,感触更加丰富,渲染更加深刻。酒在陶渊明的诗歌中所表现的意义具体分析如下:一 酒是抚慰辛勤劳作后的饥饿与疲倦的饮料。二 酒是讴歌田园生活的悠闲与快乐的手段。三 酒是摆脱暗淡的现实与烦恼的手段。四 酒是挣脱死亡给予的忧愁与恐怖的力量。五 酒是沟通邻里,实现心连心的通路。六 酒是获得精神自由,达到物我相忘境界的拐杖。七 酒是最理解自己的知己,也是人生路上的同伴。八 酒是保持“固穷节”意志的精神支柱。九 酒是挥弃胸中忧愤的象征,表现了为解脱愤怒而写作的心情。
  • 11.

    고운(顧雲)이 최치원에게 준 송별시 「고운편」에 대한 진위 고증 -「고운편」과 최치원의 재입당 시기에 대한 한중 연구사를 겸하여

    이황진 | 2011, (65) | pp.331~352 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    据传, ≪ 孤云篇≫ 是崔致返回新罗之时, 他的挚友顾云为他所作的赠别诗。这首诗收录在李仁老的≪ 破闲集≫ 中,并流传至今。一直以来,对于这首诗为顾云所作这一点, 中韩学界深信不疑, 也未提出过任何异议。但是, 综合分析中韩学者对≪ 孤云篇≫ 的具体解析以及他们对崔致远再入唐的时间的看法, 就不难发现这首诗存在是伪作的可能性。即, 不少研究者将≪ 孤云篇≫ 作为依据, 认定崔致远再入唐的时间是在顾云生前(894年), 但另一方面, 在对崔致远的再入唐时间进行考证的研究者中, 有不少人认为是在顾云死后, 因此≪ 孤云篇≫ 究竟是否果真出自于顾云之手, 在作品的真伪问题上仍存在不少疑点。而且最能说明问题的是, 顾云(851~894)的≪ 孤云篇≫ 是截取了于武陵(788~852)的五言律诗≪ 孤云≫的颔联和尾联, 经过拼凑和再编辑而成的一首五言绝句诗, 由这一点可证实该诗为一篇伪作。简而言之, ≪ 孤云篇≫ 并非顾云所作, 只不过是盗用崔致远的挚友顾云的名字, 将于武陵的作品≪ 孤云≫ 进行再编辑而成的一篇伪作, 顾云送崔致远的所谓赠别诗≪ 孤云篇≫ 从一开始就是子虚乌有。因此, 不能将李仁老≪ 破闲集≫ 中所载的≪ 孤云篇≫ 作为考证崔致远再如入唐的这一事实及其时间的线索或根据, 亦不能当作考究,论证崔致远生平的任何根据。
  • 12.

    Love Conflict in the Hajinyangmunnok and the Self-censorship of the Female Reader

    Lee, Kyungha | 2011, (65) | pp.353~383 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to re-examine the characteristics of the main male and female character of the Hajinyangmunnok. It also attempts to re-asses the meaning of the conflict surrounding their love. Previous studies on Korean heroine novels have tended to focus on the heroic actions and internal anguish of the main female character. However, it is argued that, in the case of the Hajinyangmunnok, the main focus of the story is the love struggle between the two main characters. Therefore, Hajinyangmunnok should be regarded, above all, as a romance novel. The fact that it is the hero character that is ‘willing to do everything to obtain the love of one woman’ is also pointed out. It should be stressed that this type of character is rare in Korean novels of the Joseon period. Based on an examination of the above, it is argued that the love conflict which appears in Hajinyangmunnok should be approached as a kind of self-censorship by upper class females who represented the main readership of the novel. Since upper class females were the most sexually oppressed group of the late Joseon period, it is maintained that the authors and readers of the romance novels had to regulate expressions regarding love according to the universally accepted limits of the time. In this context, the love conflict between the male and female character can be regarded as representing the conflict between love-lust and sexual morality which existed within the mind of the upper class female reader.
  • 13.

    이상의 <지주회시(鼅鼄會豕)>연구

    Kim Mee Young | 2011, (65) | pp.385~418 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to reveal the specialities of the Ji-Ju-Whoe-Shi (鼅鼄會豕) written by Lee Sang (李箱) in 1936. The meaning of the title “Ji-Ju-Whoe-Shi” (鼅鼄會豕) is of two spiders that met a pig, and is symbolic of the life-and-death struggle of the mid 1930’s in Seoul. The main assumption of this article is that the Ji-Ju-Whoe-Shi (鼅鼄會豕) is a kind of love story and novel about the surplus person as a main character. Also, the Ji-Ju-Whoe-Shi (鼅鼄會豕) written by Lee Sang (李箱)in 1936 is a novel of the mode of life in the mid 1930’s in Seoul. Lee Sang used the animals as symbols. The spider means a thin person and the pig symbolizes a fat person. Spiders need the blood of other insects to live. The pig symbols a greedy and worldly person. On the other hand, the Ji-Ju-Whoe-Shi (鼅鼄會豕) shows us that the various experimentations of the formative arts, such as architecture or painting, can be applicable to the writing of novels. For example, Lee Sang represented the point of view like Picasso’s cubist paintings. And the composition of time is also based on the technique of collage of cubist paintings. The construction of the Ji-Ju-Whoe-Shi (鼅鼄會豕) is based on a triangle of circulations of spiders and pigs as a life-and-death struggle. Those characters allowed the novels written by Lee Sang to be so modern.
  • 14.

    The Relocation of Time and Space and the Unanchored Gender

    Kim Jung Hyun | 2011, (65) | pp.419~448 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This discussion is based on the film ‘insect-woman’, which was directed by Kim Ki Young in 1974, and it aims to examine various aspects of females to find traces of the ideology throughout the movie. The main character, Myoung-Ja, takes care of her family since her father’s death. Myoung-Ja is forced to work as a prostitute by her mother. It is her mother who contributes to form the woman character that can be traded as exchange value. The money shows power relations and their hierarchy among women (Mother-Myoung-Ja, Madame-Myoung-Ja, lawful wife-Myoung-Ja). Money for the handover of purity is confirmed by money-power from the mother to another woman named Madame, which makes Myoung-Ja’s submission. Her body becomes a kind of exchange value by the best value, money. In such transactions, women‘s purity is meaningless. In other words, ‘purity’, as fixed-signified in masculinity ideology, does not mean anything in this narrative. ‘The’ purity is only ‘a’ signifier. Time can be traded as the exchange value between the lawful wife, Mrs. O, and the mistress, Myung-Ja. Clearly, the film shows different images of genders, sexuality and brings the body as the exchange value. Therefore, boundaries between masculinity or femininity (male or female sexual characteristics) are blurred, even relocated, and women also form internal power-relations that reveal the value of the material. In the movie, the lawful wife (Mrs. O) and mistress (Myoung-Ja)maintain the husband’s health. While Mrs. O supports her husband financially, she ‘hires’ Myung-Ja to give sexual pleasure to her husband and to take care of his body. The lawful wife insists that the management of husband’s body, so called “presence-technology” should be needed to write ‘the record’ by women. But in fact, ‘the record’ should be based on actions of ‘the subject’. If so, why do other people take care of him? In conclusion, their husband produces illusions in the women’s mind and there is no reality. In the first place, masculinity is nothing. In short, <Insect-Woman> in terms of gender as exchange value,indicates that there is no clear boundary between male and female. Lawful wife (Mrs. O) has the Phallus-femininity and money-power. Particularly,she wants to ‘keep the family’. On the other hand, Myong-Ja wants to ‘create the family’, and this is the main difference between Myung-Ja and Mrs. O. The contradictory desire patterns (keep the family: create the family) show the many variations of Mrs. O and Myong-Ja’s relationship. A guardian of the two female figures showed that Phallus is not the sublime but merely an illusion. This movie shows the construction of a new moral as their position by replacing the male to the female. It is not ‘the other women’ but ‘the other men.’After all the events, this movie concludes all the things happened because of one woman. In other words, the voices of men are indelible. As a personal focus on Myong-Ja (or Mrs. O), fiction of masculinity, or a special issue of Giant Phallus illusion was reduced to a private problem. This is the biggest limitation.
  • 15.

    A Preliminary Essay for the Establishment of 'Concept' and 'Category in Studies on the Comic in Korean Literature

    이도연 | 2011, (65) | pp.449~472 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The ultimate goal of this study is to define the principle of comedy and to deepen the debate by describing the lineage of Korean comic novels and by considering aspects of their development. The concept of ‘comic’is derived from the word ‘comedy’ which is a sub-genre of drama,contrasting concepts of tragedy. On the other hand, the definition of terms and concepts should be general and flexible in order to obtain agreement among its users in the level of compliance and universal validity. I would like to define ‘the comic’ in this paper as comic qualities which ‘cause laughter to the subject.’ I do not define the comic as the subjective and objective at the level of micro-layers but as ‘the interaction of subjects and object’ at the level of comprehension. According to this view, the comic can be redefined as “properties and qualities that cause the subject laughter in the interaction between subject and object.” As a subcategory of ‘the comic’, the concepts of satire and humor, irony, and their mutual relationships between the concepts are as follows. In the relation of subject(X) and object(Y), the structure of satire is defined as that in which ‘X criticizes Y’, and the humorous as that in which ‘X reconcilies with Y.’ In contrast, irony is defined as tension and the reflective sense of distance. Based on the relationship between subject and object, satire and humor are in the opposing position, and the concept of irony can be grasped as the flexible, intermediate form that flows between the two extremes. And paradox, cynicism, wit, ridicule, sarcasm, etc. can be understood as the sub-concept dependent on three basic categories and concrete ways to be mobilized when three individual forms are realized through actual literary texts.
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