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2012, Vol., No.68

  • 1.

    Das Chinabild von Christian Wolff und das von Herder

    Ahn, Sung-Chan | 2012, (68) | pp.7~50 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Im 18. Jh. erfuhr das Chinabild in Deutschland einen grossen Wandel, nämlich von der Sinophilie der Aufklärung zur Sinophobie des Sturm und Drangs, vom mustergültigen Denkmodell und philosophischen Idealstaat (bei Leibniz und Christian Wolff) zum Unbehagen in der Kultur oder sogar zur “balsamierten Mumie” (Herder), vor allem im Hinblick auf Konfuzianimus Chinas. Dieser Bildwandel entspricht ohne Zweifel dem dialektischen Übergang der Kulturgeschichte von der Propagierung der Vernunft zur Entdeckung des Gefühls und des geschichtsphilosophischen Selbstbewußtseins. Dieses negative Chinabild herrschte über den historieorientierten Denkern wie Hegel und Ranke bis zum Ende des 19. Jh., bis sich die Intellektuellen der Jahrhundertwende im Bewußtsein der Kulturkrise wieder auf die chinesische Denkweise und Weltanschauung, aber diesmal meistens im Hinblick auf Taoismus und Buddhismus, ihre Aufmeksamkeit gerichtet haben, um durch die Auseinandersetzung mit denselben die Identität ihrer eigenen Kultur wiederzugewinnen oder in denselben einen möglichen Ausweg von der geistigen Krise zu finden. Dieses verwickelte Chinabild wird bisher in vielen Fällen als Mirage interpretiert. Diese Interpretation mag zutreffen, sollte aber nicht die endgültige Beurteilung sein. Denn man versucht das Fremde zu verstehen, indem man sich eine Mirage bildet und es so dem eigenen Weltbild unterwirft. Miragebildung ist geradezu eine Rezeptionskonstante in den Prozessen des internationalen Kulturaustausches. Insoweit ist die Mirage das Produkt der eigenen Kulturzwänge und vertrauten Denkkonventionen, nämlich der Tradition im Sinne Gadamers, auf die sich das Vorverständnis des Menschen, der Verstehenshorizont, gründet. Die Aspekte des Frem- dverstehens könnten also den Horizont des Vorverständnisses in den jeweiligen Kulturperioden ans Licht bringen. Durch die kritische Annährung an die Rezeptionsgeschichte von China könnte eine Seite der deutschen Kultur- und Literaturgeschichte in einem neuen Blickwinkel beleuchtet werden. Die deutsche Kultur im 18. Jh. hat sich durch die Aneignung und Auseinandersetzung mit räumlich und zeitlich verschiedenen Kulturen entwickelt. Hierin hat China eine besondere Rolle gespielt - als ein Spieglbild, in welchem Europa sich selbst gespiegelt und dadurch seine eigene Figur festgestellt hat. Im Verlauf der Zeit hat auch das Chinabild, wie oben dargestellt, einen grossen Umbruch erfahren, und zwar deutlich entsprchend dem Wandel des Zeitgeistes und Zeitgeschmacks. So bezeugt die Rezeptionsgeschichte von China auf charakteristische Weise die jeweiligen Aspekte dieser Zeit. Die Geschichte der Aneignung einer fremden Kultur und auch die angeeignete Kultur selber gehört freilich nicht zur ursprünglichen, sondern zur aneignenden. Aber wie durch die Reaktion auf die Herausforderung des Fremden der Zustand oder der Wesenszug von Menschen wie auch einer Kultur noch deutlicher entdeckt werden kann, der ansonsten für alltägliches Bewußtsein verborgen und deshalb schwer zu konturieren ist, so kann man durch die Betrachtung der Kulturbegegnung nicht nur die Züge einer Kultur in einer gewissen Zeit, wie ihren herrschenden Geschmack, Denktendenz und Überlieferung, die zusammen unseren Verstehenshorizont bilden, sondern auch somit das hermeneutische Phänomen zutage bringen.
  • 2.

    Leibniz’s Understanding of China and his Interpretation of Chinese Philosophy - focused on Novissima Sinica and Discourse on the Natural Theology of the Chinese -

    Bai-Hyoung Park | 2012, (68) | pp.51~86 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I attempt to clarify in what way Leibniz’s understanding of Chinese culture and his theoretical and practical interest in China are expressed in his main writings on China, and in particular to bring to light how his own philosophical thinking and that interest are reflected in his interpretation of Chinese philosophy. I don’t make it the central task of this paper to scrutinize how plausible his interpretation is, but I rather focus on presenting and explaining it in connection with his philosophy. Leibniz’s Novissima Sinica and Discourse on the Natural Theology of the Chinese are his two main writings on China which inform us of his point of view and theoretical position in respect of Chinese culture and philosophy. He regards Chinese civilization as high-developed and hopes the two civilizations, Chinese and European, will exchange their cultural achievements more vividly and extensively, so that they serve each other in making further progress. While he believes the China mission is important for this purpose and he plays a role in that mission, his interpretation of Chinese philosophy shows that he thinks it is basically compatible with Christianity. Although his interpretation and plan concerning Chinese civilization was in his time not fully appreciated and influential, it is worthwhile to examine this interpretation and plan, because his fundamental ideas in it are so fruitful and balanced as to be instructive to us today as regards cultural exchanges between East and West.
  • 3.

    Some Observations on Philippe Couplet’s Understanding of Confucius Sinarum Philosophus Natura (性)

    AHN Jaewon | 2012, (68) | pp.87~120 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In general, this essay is concerned with how to understand Confucius Sinarum Philosophus sive Scientia Sinensis (=Confucius). It focused on exploring the Jesuit’s latin translation of Natura (性) in Confucius, in order to answer the following question: how did European readers understand Confucius in the 18th century. According to my reading, the concept natura (性) is used to have three meanings: (1) pure reason in terms of religio naturalis, (2) primary matter in terms of physica, and (3) providence faculty in terms of Pu-Ju (補儒) doctrine which means that “it (sc. Christianity) supplements and perfects what is wanted in our master Confucius and our philosophy and literatures.” Based on this, I have made three comparisons between the natura-concept of Confucius and that of Aquinas, Lucretius and stoic philosophers to whom Cicero and Epictetus belong. The result of my comparisons comes to a new fact that the persona moderna of the Enlightenment might be based in part on Confucius’ natura-concept and in part on Cicero’s encyclopedic idea of orator perfectus. For this, I compared Cicero’s thought of orator perfectus with Confucius’ idea of vir perfectus. As for the question of how to read Confucius, however, Zhang Si-Ping (張西平), a leading scholar in China argues in the following. First, Confucius is to be read in the perspective of Christianity. Second, Confucius is the answer to the ritual discussions in the 17thcentury. Third, Confucius is a text which takes a critical position on especially Neo-Confucianism. In brief, Zhang concludes that Confucius is a product of misreading and misunderstanding of Chinese classical texts, but a significant contribution for studying the interrelated history of China and Europe. Grosso modo, I agree with Zhang’s arguments. There are, however, three points on which I do not agree. First, Jesuit’s missionaries tried to read Chinese original texts of Confucius in the eye of Christianity. On the other hand, however, Confucius is full of termini technici of Stoic philosophy. In this regard, in my opinion, there was no need then to say about PU-JU doctrine additionally by Siu Paulus (徐光啓). Second, Zhang maintains that one has to be cautious in the interpretation of Confucius because it is a metamorphic text. I think, however, the question is how to approach this metamorphic text. For this, Zhang suggests to readers to have some basic understanding of Christianity. In my view, here should be added some profound understanding of western philosophy, particularly of Hellenistic philosophy, because the problems of metamorphosis of Confucius mostly resulted from the so-to-say abutio-problem during borrowing termini from e.g. Cicero’s terms. As for Zhang’s estimation on Confucius, finally, I am not sure whether it is a product of misreading because, according to my keen reading of the Latin original text, Confucius is actually a metamorphosis text in Ovidius’ viewpoint but a hybrid text because it allows at least three ways of interpretation. One of them is a reading with help of Chinese original text, e.g., with the Zhu Xi (朱熹) edition. The second of them is a reading through comparison with western classical texts, in order to see how they are different from each other. The last is an independent way of reading from both sides. The conclusion which results from this is that we need to regard Confucius not as a translation but as a kind of original text. Therefore, I suggest to read Confucius and to follow some free reading ways of those who did not know anyway but could not learn Chinese Characters in the 17th-18thcenturies, such as Christian Wolf.
  • 4.

    The Actual Nature of the Understanding and Enjoyment of Gososeol (古小說) as Seen through the Documentary Records of Foreigners of the Early 20th Century - focusing on the article ‘Korean Fiction’ in The Korea Review (1902) -

    Lee, Min Heui | 2012, (68) | pp.121~158 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    There are not enough extant written sources which allow us to reconstruct the reading culture of Gososeol (古小說, Korean classic novel). In such a situation, some the documents left by foreigners who wrote about the reading culture and enjoyment of Gososel works can be an important complementary source. Especially, The Korea Review (1902), which contained an article entitled ‘Korean Fiction’ by Hulbert, is a good example; Hulbert introduces in this article the history of Gososel, the unique characteristics of the works, and the enjoyment aspect and real life of old novel readers. Therefore, we can judge, from these articles, how foreigners regarded the Korean old novel 100 years ago. Hulbert was interested in Korean classic literature, studying various fields and staying in Korea for about 20 years, which is why he wrote an article such as ‘Korean Fiction’. And though the Swedish journalist Arson Grebst stayed in Korea for only 4 months, he also recorded vividly how Korean people enjoyed their old novel works at the time, and how foreigners regarded the Korean old novels. They commonly recognized that Pansori and old novels are oral narrative and recorded the perception that foreigners had about the relationship between Pansori and Gososeol enjoyment under a multi-faceted academic interest. In addition, they also observed and precisely recorded the reading scenes of storytellers and scenes of Pansori. In the article ‘Korean Fiction’, Hulbert identified the Korean-text novel, rather than the Chinese-text novel, as being located at the center of the developmental processes in the history of Korean old novels. This is opposite to the perspective of Thomas Gale, who was famously pro-Korean. Hulbert emphasized the close relationship between the novel genre, tales and folk art. It is also possible to confirm, based on the documentary evidence left by these foreigners, that the reciting of Gososeol works in the form of an oral text - such as Yojeonbeop (邀錢法) - was a general occurrence, and more popular than its reading in the form of a book text. This demonstrates that the documentary records of foreigners are important and useful material in surveying how reciting reading instead of silent reading was popular in the early 20th century.
  • 5.

    Ainu, Train, Cosmopolitan - a study on the poetic representations which show that post-colonial and post-national thinking can be crossed and replaced -

    CHO EUN JOO | 2012, (68) | pp.159~192 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Although the poetic representations such as ‘Ainu,’ ‘train,’ and ‘cosmopolitan,’ which this paper focuses on, are most commonly found in the colonialist discourse, they cannot be understood only as the gestures of resistance, including a subject’s personal objections and deviant attitudes, but they show complexity and become signification. It seems to be that these poetic representations embody postcolonial and post-national thinking. Of course, they are not the core discourse or main movements that penetrate the Japanese occupation period; however, the poetic representations are worthy of notice and analysis, though they remain in the periphery. These specific metaphors pass over the principal of the violent identification criticized by both colonialists’ nationalism and anti-colonial nationalism. These specific metaphors also conceive a community, but the community is not a group to establish a nation-state. Thus, this paper attempts to investigate the meaning of poetic representations that are not a subject within a community, but which exist beyond the principal of discrimination and exclusion. It is argued that the ‘nation’ of the Japanese occupation period cannot be always understood as (post) colonial discourse, and explained that the ‘universal’ cannot be always comprehended as (post) nationalistic discourse. These three representations show that there is a point that national and post-national thinking and colonial, anti-colonial, and post-colonial thinking can be crossed and replaced in anyway.
  • 6.

    The Film Music of “Spring in the Korean Peninsula” - an Interpretation through Film Music -

    Kyungboon Lee | 2012, (68) | pp.193~224 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The film Spring in the Korean Peninsula, made in March 1941 by Byungil Lee, is considered as “a wonder discovery” - its technical lapidary style stands out from other Korean films at ‘the time of slogan’ of the colonial period. Furthermore, the astonishing film music of Spring in the Korean Peninsula, in particular using the Leitmotiv (I call it “tragic love Leitmotiv”) functions, give obvious messages to screens which alone remain unclear. This study addresses the understudied film music exploring a new possibility of interpreting this film. As result, the dual construction of the film can be apparently exposed: the first part deals with the production of the film “Chunhyanjon” (the film in the film) by the Korean filmmaker Huh, while the love story between two women and a man (Joenghee, Ana and Yongil) composes the second one. However, according the description of music, Ana becomes the key figure among them and has the function of combining the two different parts of Spring in the Korean Peninsula - she plays the Antipodean of the filmmaker Huh.
  • 7.

    Pilgrimage imagination in the poetic space of Kim Jongsam

    Seo, Jinyoung | 2012, (68) | pp.225~252 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focuses on explaining the poet’s thought by looking at the space symbolism and aesthetic method of Kim Jongsam’s poetry. His poetry was mainly based on aesthetic principles but it was the poet’s inner world and self-consciousness that created various languages and techniques. So this paper tried to investigate the structure of the consciousness of self in the poetic space. In Kim Jongsam’s poetry, space was not just a place that exists in the background of the poetic subject but a noticeable symbol that revealed the consciousness of self. In this paper, attention was paid to two contradictory spatialities: ‘plain’, ‘wilderness’ and ‘on the earth’, which were presented as an endless space, and ‘cabins’, ‘hut’, ‘bungalow’ and ‘glass greenhouse’, which were spaces where one could reside, located higher up and outside. In the case of the former, space symbolizes a barren desolation, thirst and the shape of pain and anxiety. The space was shown using words such as ‘walks’, ‘pass’ ‘process’ which are represented by that characteristic. On the other hand, the space located in a high up and indoors place symbolizes richness and warmth, and eternity. Especially, words such as ‘fence’, ‘gate’, ‘stairs’, ‘corridors’ which are located in the middle of zone, as a borderline of the two contradictory space, present the passages from here to there. It is called a pilgrimage image in the sense that the process of life on the ground is at the same time imagined as a process of passage involving a return to the true home and the divinity. This process of passing itself was focused on in the passage, rather than the ontological transformation. The boundary conditions reveal a longing for a boundary in God beyond a liminal stage. Kim Jongsam was able to generate a prosperous poetic journey through the pilgrimage imagination. It turned guilt, anxiety, and self awareness of solitude into the qualitative passage toward the ultimate and divine.
  • 8.

    The Undecidability of Time and the Subject of the Configuration Process

    Kim Jung Hyun | 2012, (68) | pp.253~282 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to uncover the text of internal strategies and social implications as examined in relation to Kang’s poems of the 1980s. This was carried out by focusing on the two poems, 『Sound collection』and 『Wind song』. First, this paper pays attention to the ‘sounds’ and ‘songs’ that the poet focuses on, as well as the way in which they are connected to amorphous historical figures as a means of examining the worldview awareness of reality. Second, the fragmentation of subjectivity as a result of the concept of time being overthrown is also considered. The undecidability of time is a resistance against the laws of the country based on a military mentality to control the people. In questioning standardized time, the absurdity of reality is dealt with. On the other hand, through the configuration aspects of the subject, the ‘fixed’ subject required by the times is constantly in a hybrid and overlapping relationship with the other. This can be seen as a rejection of the fixed and transparent subject that contemporary reality needs. Finally, over the course of the series, this study attempts to understand the meaning of the (Kang’s) realism literary theory of this period. It is a reaction to contemporary reality through literature and a means of reconciliation through bonding with reality. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated that Kang’s poems of the 1980s, which have been less studied compared to her early poems, were consistent with the poetics of realism, forming a major branch in South Korean poetry.
  • 9.

    An examination of the different perceptions of the ‘archaeological record’

    Ilhong Ko | 2012, (68) | pp.283~318 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The various approaches used to interpret the archaeological evidence are based on different perceptions of the archaeological record. This paper aims to examine the interpretative possibilities and limitations of culture-historical archaeology and the various approaches of processual (the New Archaeology, behavioral archaeology, and Darwinian evolutionary archaeology) and post-processual archaeology (contextual archaeology, phenomenological approaches to the landscape, and a ‘structuring’ archaeology) with focus on the way in which the archaeological record is perceived. In doing so, it is hoped that a better understanding of these approaches may be obtained, as well as the acknowledgement that, in the interpretation of a common data set, the dissimilar results produced by the various approaches should be regarded as being interpretations with different points of focus, rather than as being contrasting interpretations. It is suggested that this will help lay down the foundations for a more symbiotic relationship between the various archaeological approaches currently in use within Korean archaeology.
  • 10.

    '도통' 개념의 출현과 도학적 도통 관념의 함의

    myunghee Lim | 2012, (68) | pp.319~342 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    本論文的目的是爲探討道統槪念的用法以及道學家有關道統觀念的含義. 首先,筆者提供朱熹以前出現的道統槪念的幾個用例,並提出道學家特有道統觀念的第一次用例.其次,考察朱熹在『中庸章句序』裡使用道統槪念的含義,並與同時人的其他用法進行比較.最後,提出二程以及程門弟子所建立的道統觀念的主要意義,以論證朱熹所繼承並發展的道學家特色的道統觀念的思想前提.
  • 11.

    The Theoretic Characteristic of Cultivation Involved in Kim Siseup’s Theory of ‘Human Nature is Principle’

    Eom Yeonseok | 2012, (68) | pp.343~382 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis examined Kim Siseup’s philosophy within the category of the principle and material force theory of Neo-Confucianism, and tried to elucidate the characteristic elements of his understanding of Neo-Confucianism, mainly in light of the cultivating theory, by regarding the theory of ‘human nature is principle’ as a central proposition. Kim Siseup widely accepted the theory of the Great Ultimate, principle and material force, the theory of mind and nature, and the opinion of cultivation focusing on reverence, deliberation of principle, and sincerity, all of which had been established after the North Song Dynasty. In particular, he actively adopted a theory of ‘human nature is principle’ as a core thesis which not only combines the metaphysics of Neo-Confucianism with the theory of mind and nature, but also exposes the essence of Neo-Confucianism as it is. This essay analysed the meaning of the cultivating theory involved in the theory of ‘human nature is principle’ accepted by Kim Siseup through an concrete examination of its contents. Kim Siseup’s opinion regarding the investigation of principle, which serves as its momentum, through the medium of his understanding of the Book of Changes in the process of cultivation from reverence to sincerity was considered. According to this, it can be said that the meaning and characteristics of the cultivating theory involved in the theory of ‘human nature is principle’ to which he refers to embraces the processes of reverence, sincerity and the investigation of principle through the medium of the Book of Changes. In this light, Kim Siseup’s theory of ‘human nature is principle’ can be seen to have mainly embodied, as it is, the fundamental theory of Neo-Confucianism which was built and systematized after the North Song Dynasty. In this point, the writer could evaluate that Kim Siseup considered the core question of the Great Ultimate, the principle and material force theory, the theory of mind and nature, and the cultivating theory that had been discussed within Neo-Confucianism by scholars up to Zhu xi, and that it was Kim Siseup that had consistently synthesized and intensified the Neo-Confucianism of the Joseon Dynasty before Toegae and Yulgok.
  • 12.

    La cohérence de L’évolution créatrice de Bergson ? - Examen de quelques incompatibilités à l’épreuve d’une lecture génétique du texte -

    Hwang Su Young | 2012, (68) | pp.383~420 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    L’objectif de cet article est de clarifier quelques problèmes fondamentaux que présente L’évolution créatrice d’Henri Bergson et d’examiner la cohérence de la solution bergsonienne. Ce livre propose une philosophie de la vie et une cosmologie, qui se nourrissent d’une compréhension du temps caractérisé comme durée. Il s’en suit des problèmes difficiles à résoudre, qui ont trait à la fois à l’épistémologie et à la métaphysique. Il y a d’abord la question du rapport entre intuition et intelligence, ensuite celle des relations entre conscience, vie et matière. D’où des interprétations diverses et parfois même opposées du bergsonisme. Nous ne tentons pas de donner une autre solution que celles déjà présentées par d’autres, mais d’analyser les points incompatibles dans la position même de ces problèmes et de montrer ainsi la cause et le fond de leur genèse. Nous examinerons aussi comment ces problèmes trouvent une solution à partir des deux interprétations bien connues de la philosophie bergsonienne : celles de Jankélévitch et celle de Deleuze, en s’appliquant à révéler également les malentendus ou difficultés qui naissent d’elles. C’est ainsi que nous pourrions juger, croyons-nous, la grandeur et l’actualité de la pensée bergsonienne qui gardent toute leur force aujourd’hui.
  • 13.

    Toward the Pheonmenology of Aesthetic Instinct Developed through a Dialogue with F.Schiller(1759-1805)

    Nam-In Lee | 2012, (68) | pp.421~455 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    쉴러는 『인간의 미적교육에 관하여』에서 유희본능(유희충동) 개념을 자신의 미학의 핵심 개념으로 도입한다. 이 경우 유희본능은 예술본능을 의미한다. 그런데 쉴러의 유희본능은 긍정적인 측면과 부정적인 측면을 가지고 있다. 그것은 한편으로 미학의 주요 주제들을 새롭게 조망할 수 있도록 해주는 미학의 핵심 개념으로 탈바꿈할 가능성을 가지고 있으며 다른 한편으로 나름의 문제점들도 가지고 있다. 이 논문의 목표는 쉴러의 유희본능 개념이 가지고 있는 이러한 두 가지 측면을 평가하면서 예술본능이 무엇인지 해명하고 그를 통해 예술본능의 현상학의 근본구상을 전개하는 데 있다. 이러한 목표를 위해 우리는 우선 1절에서 쉴러의 예술본능의 개념을 정리하고 2절에서 그것의 긍정적인 측면과 부정적인 측면을 해명한 후 3절에서 예술본능 개념의 몇몇 주요한 측면들을 현상학적으로 해명하면서 예술본능의 현상학의 근본 구상을 전개할 것이다.
  • 14.

    덕윤리의 르네상스(서평)

    Song Euree | 2012, (68) | pp.459~470 | number of Cited : 1
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