This paper aims to consider the issue of childbirth from an archaeologicalperspective. Firstly, it places the archaeological study of childbirthwithin a wider intellectual context and examines how childbirth came tobe established as a valid research topic in association with the developmentof gender archaeology. Secondly, anthropological studies of childbirthare reviewed in order to illustrate how a consideration of the topiccan offer further insights on a given social system. Thirdly, in order toillustrate that the archaeological study of childbirth is indeed empiricallypossible, three categories of archaeological material relevant to childbirthin the past are examined. They are 1) childbirth images, 2) material cultureassociated with childbirth practices, and 3) mother and full-term fetusskeletons. An examination of childbirth images (in particular their productionand consumption contexts) was able to shed light on past socialmeanings associated with childbirth. An examination of the material remainsof childbirth practices that can be identified in the archaeologicalrecord resulted in a check-list of sorts that the archaeologist could use to identify childbirth practices when excavating in the field. Finally, the surprisinglack of mother and full-term fetus skeletons found in the archaeologicalrecord was used as evidence to suggest that, contrary to patriarchicalideas regarding the biological role of women, pregnancy and inparticular childbirth in the past may not have necessarily have been awidely experienced phenomenon as previously presumed.
Antenatal training (胎敎), which had been discussed since ancient timesin China, began to be introduced in earnest from the Joseon Dynastyperiod. In the process of medical book compilation led by Sejong, thecontents of antenatal training presented in the Fùrén dàquán liángfāng (婦人大全良方), which was written by Chén zì-míng (陳自明) in the SungDynasty period of China, was established as the core of antenatal training.
At that time, although there was on one hand an original medicinal intentto introduce the newest medical theories which could be applied, also reflectedin this endeavor is the intention of Sejong who wantedneo-Confucian norms to take root in Joseon. However, since studies of thequality of disposition were not yet actively carried out, discussion on antenataltraining remained within the medical dimension.
As the adaptation of the social norms of neo-Confucianism came to beaccelerated in the 16th century through the rediscovery of Sohak (小學),it was necessary to give meanings to antenatal training discussed in Sohak from the viewpoint of neo-Confucianism. In addition, Lee Ee (李珥) attemptedto present discussions on antenatal training as a grounds for statecraftstudies in terms of social enlightenment. However, a change also appearedin Dongeuibogam (東醫寶鑑) which emphasized the abstinence ofthe father based on medical grounds ― a theory which had been centralto medicine since the four famous physicians (四大醫家) of theGeum-Yuan Dynasty period.
Taegyoshingi, a hanja text written by the female author Sajugang Lee(1738~1821), is a theoretical treatise and manual that deals with ‘taegyo’,a set of traditional beliefs and regulations regarding prenatal development.
The title can be read as ‘a new record (shingi) on taegyo’. Previous studieshave approached this text from a medical perspective or have tendedto focus on its underlying Confucian beliefs. However, the aim of this paperis to examine the ideas pertaining to biology and genetics that can befound in Taegyoshingi. Through such an approach, it is demonstrated thatforming the core of taegyo theory is the notion that the ‘tae’ (fetus) is aphysical entity which has its own nature, and that the surrounding environmentand the act of nurturing can bring about its transformation.
Sajugang Lee’s discussion on the importance of nurturing the fetus (inother words, the surrounding environment) was based on the assumptionthat ‘the fetus is subject to change’. The nature-nurture debate which has taken place during the past century has now evolved to the stage that thecentral discussion is no longer on whether it is the environment or geneticfactors that determine an individual’s characteristics; now the discussiontends to focus on the issue of how the two factors are interrelated, as wellas the flexibility/unmalleability of human nature. In other words, it involvesa renegotiation of the relationship between nature and nurture, anew perspective that can also be observed in Taegyoshingi.
Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, Or The Modern Prometheus is a depictionof a haunting nightmare of Western civilization since the dawn of themodern industrial society. This paper will be reading the novel, focusedon its subtitle, “The Modern Prometheus.”Invoking the myth of Prometheus who was taken for the symbol for theunvanquished human willpower and the overreaching pursuit beyond thehuman limitations by Romantic poets, Shelley asks us what the ModernPrometheus should be. By assigning to a man the job of creating life withthe supreme knowledge while to herself that of giving birth to a book insteadof a child, Shelley subverts the established gender roles. As a resultVictor Frankenstein ended up creating a monstrous creature who eventuallydestroyed its creator and itself, while Shelley succeeded in writingthe novel, Frankenstein, which Paul Youngquist calls “a Vindication to theImagination of Women,” a sequel to her mother, Mary Wollstonecraft’s“The Vindication to the Right of Women.”The novel is about giving birth, which is a power unique to the womanand the core of nature’s secret and the goal of Frankenstein’s aspiration.
In this nightmarish story, Shelley tries to demolish and deconstruct the binaryoppositions between masculine and feminine, life and death, and civilizationand nature. The birth of the monster is the first step to our recognitionof the problems involving the exploitation of the nature in the nameof science and civilization.
Mysticism is a concept which has provoked much controversy in thehistory of religion. Since the beginning of the full-scale meeting of theEast and the West, the term was been regarded as the most important toolfor understanding human religiosity. At the same time, mysticism has beencriticized as ‘devil worship’ or ‘heresy.’ Mysticism is composed of‘mystical experience’, ‘mystical practice’ and ‘mystical thought.’ In Korea,this concept raised many misunderstandings, which is in fact not a uniquesituation.
More specifically, the misunderstandings are as follows. First,Mysticism is a form of non-rationalism or anti-rationalism. Second,Mysticism is merely supernaturalism. Third, mysticism means heresy orbad religion. Fourth, the term mysticism hides certain biases containedwithin. Fifth, mysticism has same meaning as secrecy.
These misconceptions have been derived from the Western historicalcontext. Nevertheless, mysticism can function as a mirror that reflects our identity as it contains multi-dimensional aspects of religion. Furthermore,the mystical features of various religions can act as a bridge in a multi-religioussociety such as Korea. Hence it can be said that the term motivatesinter-faith dialogue.
This paper attempts to define and establish the cognitive structure ofangst through Heidegger’s concept of angst and the Buddhist Vijñapti-matraconcept of Four Aspects of Theory of Cognition. Angst is a fundamentalphenomenon that arises from nihilism (das Nichten). This fundamentalfeeling reveals to the being that he exists not only next to but alsowithin the world in which he lives. Buddhism manifests the overall structurethrough raising questions such as “Is the subject perceived objectively?”This is the Buddhist Vijñapti-matra’s reflection on its perceptionof obsession and pain. In an ontological aspect, these two theories arethe structural analysis that attempt to reveal the overall phenomenon.
First of all, the Buddhist Vijñapti-matra concept of Four Aspects ofTheory of Cognition is applied as the initial stage in which angst is perceivedby the being. The conclusion drawn is as follows: the feeling ofangst (mental phenomena) à perceiving oneself to be anxious (discrimina-ting such phenomena)à questioning why one is feeling angst (the powerthat discriminates) à perceiving oneself that is questioning the why (theproof or assurance of that power). Second, the paper examines the conditionof the inauthentic being that experiences angst and investigates themeaninglessness of the routines of everyday life that emerges fromnihilism. Through such exploration of futile delusions, the paper strives toreveal the inauthentic process that occurs within the epistemological structureof angst. Third, the paper examines the effect on the development ofangst when there is a change in the method of perception from cognitionto in-depth awareness.
The purpose of this article is to explore, through the analysis of severalessays on the experience of Sung-Choen (成川) by Lee-Sang, how an artistof modernism accepts the value of his nationality or local culture. Thefirst essay on Sung-Choen by Lee-Sang is San-Chon-Wyo-Jung (山村餘情) which means the reminders of feelings after traveling the mountainvillage. In that essay, Lee-Sang described the landscape of Sung-Choenvividly using sensational and urbane metaphors. In it, Sung-Choen meansnature or the rural area. Lee-Sang used paradox and irony in The fatigue(倦怠), which is the second important essay on his experience ofSung-Choen, in order to express the depression of his inner mind throughthe descriptions of Sung-Choen. Lee-Sang’s posthumous essays onSung-Choen reveal many symptoms which indicate that Lee-Sang musthave realized the value of Sung-Choen, not only as his homeland and asymbol of Korean culture and Korean-ness, but also as a symbol of humblelives. There were two major causes of this. Firstly, there was the wor-sening of his condition of pulmonary tuberculosis. Secondly, he had feltdeeply disillusioned about imitating modernity after visiting Tokyo. Hecame to realize that Tokyo was just a copy of London or New York, andSeoul a copy of Tokyo. So he had a new understanding of the meaningof Sung-Choen as his birthland and local culture.
In the 「Dapseolinguiseo」(答薛仁貴書) included in the Samguk-Sagi(三國史記) a secret agreement between Kim Chun Chu (金春秋) andTang Tai-tsung (太宗) is mentioned. Korean scholars make use of thedocument to validate Silla's occupation of Baekjae (百濟) territory and todemonstrate that the cause of the Silla-Tang war was a breach of theagreement by Tang.
However, Chinese scholars maintain that the secret agreement is not recordedin their history books and that the document was fabricated byKing Mun-Mu (文武王) in order to defend himself.
I have examined the Gu-Tang-Seo (舊唐書) and have found historicalrecords which support the authenticity of the secret agreement. Namely,it is certainly clear that the Baekjae Restoration Army (百濟復興軍) recognizedthe existence of a secret agreement in A.D. 661 at the latest ―this fact is evident in the negotiations which took place between aBaekjae envoy sent by Dochim (道琛) and Yu-ingue (劉仁軌) the Tanggeneral.
There is an opinion that the date of entry into Tang by Kim Chun Chuwas A.D 647. But it is unreasonable to assume that the date of entry intoTang was A.D 647. This is due to the fact that Tang Tai-tsung gave theepigraph of On-Tang (溫湯) and the new Chin-Su (晉書) to Kim ChunChu in A.D 648.
Therefore, I regard it as undeniable fact that there was a secret agreementbetween Silla and Tang after Kim Chun Chu entered into Tang inDecember, A.D 648.
The main assertion of this paper is that the study on the classificationof the word, parts of speech, and sentence constituents are distinctivelymade on the basis of the co-relation of the word, parts of speech, and sentenceconstituents. In previous studies, there have been three problems: (1)the inappropriate arrangement of the domain of topic concerned with thesegrammatical units, (2) the mixing of the terminology, and (3) confusionsurrounding definition and classification criteria. In this study, the word isconsidered only as the pure ‘word’ and not ‘- word’ which correspondsto ‘parts of speech’ or ‘sentence constituents’. The general definition ofsentence constituents as ‘expressing the grammatical relation with othersentence constituents’ is revised as ‘expressing the grammatical relationwith other part of speech’; the former definition corresponds to the classificationcriteria which must be on the basis of sentence constituents, thepredicates. The ‘function’, which acts as the classification criteria of parts of speech, overlaps with the grammatical function of sentence constituents.
This is connected with the ‘pumsatongyong’, so ‘pumsatongyong’ from theviewpoint of parts of speech is reduced to ‘the specific part of speech occursas the various kinds of function of sentence constituents in the actualsentence’.
An Education, Lynn Barber’s critically acclaimed memoir of 2009,stands in the continuum of Bildungsroman. Set in London of 1961, it isconcerned with a schoolgirl’s affair with an older duplicitous suitor, whichleads her to a severe sense of disillusionment. This coming-of-age storyhas been brought onto screen by Lone Scherfig. A BBC Films product,adroitly scripted by Nick Hornby, the film extends Barber’s personal accountinto a heritage piece which explores a wider trend of the memoir’ssetting or London of the 1960s. The era itself is the main subject of thefilm, which brilliantly captures the socio-cultural cachet of the SwingingSixties, the quintessential decade of political idealism and counter-culturemovement. The main character Jenny, a larger-than-life figure, emblematizesthe sixties’ ethos. As a borderline character who embodies suchcontradictory qualities as aspiration/apprehension, naïveté/knowingness andvulnerability/strength, she evokes the world in the liminal state shiftingfrom the bleak postwar fifties to the highly charged utopian sixties. In this manner, the original text has been recreated into a defining film on theearly 1960s with its period feel braced by superb costume, music and productiondesign.
This study was to explore the perspectives and experiences of hospitalnurses regarding nurse-physician communication. To achieve this, thisstudy was used the analysis of text linguistics such as a ‘illocutionary hierarchy’and ‘macro structures and rules’ in the process of qualitativeresearch. Methodology of text linguistics would be able to overcome theproblems and limitations of the analysis accuracy and validity of qualitativeresearch. Furthermore, research results of text linguistics accumulatedover the years could be applied to actual fields.
Semistructured interviews were held with ten nurses who were workingin urban hospitals. During the data analysis, six main themes emerged:general aspects of nurses-physicians communication; system of nursesphysicianscommunication; relationship of nurses-physicians ; types andpatterns of nurses’ communication; results of nurses-physicians communication;problem-solving of nurses-physicians communication. The six categoriesanalyzed are related to each other. The categories of ‘system ofnurses-physicians communication’ and ‘relationship of nurses-physicians’describe the situational conditions, ‘overall aspects of nurses-physicianscommunication’ and ‘types and patterns of nurses’ communication’. Theaspect of nurses-physicians’ communication become a cause of ‘results(positive and negative influence)of nurses-physicians communication’, andthe results of nurses-physicians communication influences on the‘problem-solving of nurses-physicians communication’.
The results of this study provide deep understanding of nurses’ perspectivesand try to address the problematic areas of nurses-physicianscommunication if they are improving the quality of nursing care that isexpected.