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2014, Vol.71, No.2

  • 1.

    The Problem of ‘Good Will’ and ‘Freedom’ in Kant

    Paek Chong-Hyon | 2014, 71(2) | pp.11~42 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    If we mean by ‘will’ a faculty of desire to find an inner determiningground of an action merely within reason, it would be to mean that sucha will is free in itself, pure, and absolutely good without respect tocontext. So construed, to say that a man acts according to his will is tosay that he acts freely, and is in turn to say that he acts ‘purely’ and‘virtuously’ in obedience to what his reason commands only. This showsthat a will is in essence a ‘free’ and ‘good’ will. Considering that humans as rational animals are, however, supposed tohave ‘passions’ based on their animality as well as a ‘good will’ that originatesfrom their reason, a free will should be defined as an ability ofone’s mind in which he is constrained to subordinate his will, regardlessof any kind of external conditions like passions, to the necessity of thelaw of practical reason. Here Kant explains ‘the freedom of a will’ interms of ‘the autonomy of pure practical reason’, thereby seeing freedomas a human power to subordinate itself to self legislative laws, i.e., autonomy,and by doing so, he proceeds to open a new horizon for understanding the concept of freedom. Kant continues that humans so defined can belong to the two (naturaland moral) worlds at the same time due to their dual (animality and rationality)nature, and therefore are under the influence of the causalitiesof nature and freedom at the same time. And this kind of dual nature ofa human being is the ground for human personality.
  • 2.

    Schelling's Concept of Freedom and Possibility of Evil

    SUNG-WOO SON | 2014, 71(2) | pp.43~76 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Schellings Abhandlung, Philosophische Untersuchungen über das Wesender menschlichen Freiheit und die damit zusammenhängenden Gegenstände(1809), richtet gegen die Kritik, seine Identitätsphilosophie sei bloß einPantheismus, der keinen Platz für menschliche Freiheit anbiete. Er versuchtnun hier ein System zu begründen, in welchem Geist und Natur in Gottvereinbart sind. In diesem System ist auch die Freiheit der Menschen begründet,weshalb das System und die Freiheit nicht unkompatible sein sollen. Schelling deutet Freihiet als das Vermögen, das nicht nur das Gute zu begehrenund tun, sondern auch das Böse. Damit erreicht Schellings Theorieihren eigentümlichen Höhepunkt in der Philosophiegeschichte, die bisherdas Problem des Bösen vernachläßgt hat. Das Böse ist nun als ein positiverBegriff sogar notwendig für die Möglichkeit der Freiheit. Dank dieserZwiefältigkeit sowohl zum Guten, als auch zum Bösen eigentlich ist derMensch frei, obwohl er als ein Geschöpf vom Gott im ganzen System notwendigverbunden ist. Die hier vorliegende Arbeit möchte untersuchen, wie der Freiheitsbegriffbei Schelling als Möglichkeit zum Bösen bestimmt wird, und ob dieseBestimmung gerechtfertigt werden kann. Zu diesem Zweck muss zuerst dasin Freiheitsschrift erläuterte System analysiert und rekonstruiert werden. Erstdanach wird es sichtbar, ob und wie Schellings Philosophie eine überzeugendeErklärung über die Freiheit und das Böse anbiete. Zugleich aber wird esdeutlich, dass in Schellings Theorie die Verantwortlichkeit des Menschen,die den eigentlichen Kern der Moral bildet, nicht beim Menschen selbst,sondern im System zu suchen ist.
  • 3.

    Hegel on Conscience

    Sung, Chang gi | 2014, 71(2) | pp.77~101 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    One of the interpretive common notions concerning Hegel’s philosophyof right is that he prioritizes the state or the community over the freedomof the individual. One mode of such interpretation is related to his discussionof conscience as the subject of free moral judgment. According to it, Hegelis thought to argue that the authority of the state must precede the individual’sconscience and the latter could only be respected in so far as it obeys thelaw recognized by the state. I attempt to argue against this current understandingby reinterpretating his theory of conscience. I argue that Hegelacknowledges the significance of conscience and conscience, or, the individual’sfree moral judgment is preserved after the transition to EthicalLife. The important thing in particular here is a different understanding ofthe dual structure of conscience and of the ‘Aufhebung’ of Morality byEthical Life. Hegel seeks to overcome the limitations of its formal aspectof subjective certainty by the concept of true conscience and to its objectivity. It is therefore not the conscience as such, but its individualistic shape, theformal one, that is abolished within Ethical Life. This interpretation of conscience, situated in the link of Morality and Ethical Life, plays an essentialrole in understanding the thought of the relation of right and morality, ofsocial institutions and individuals.
  • 4.

    The Influence of French Film in Colonial Joseon in the Late 1930s

    kim seung goo | 2014, 71(2) | pp.105~140 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This article investigates the influence of French film in Colonial Joseonin the late 1930s. It is well known that in Colonial Joseon, foreign moviesplayed an important part in the formation of modern culture. Recent studiesfocusing on Hollywood films have been based on such thinking. However, previous articles on foreign films have not dealt with Frenchfilms in depth. Some French films had a popular viewership in the 1930sbut generally it was the highbrows that were the main consumers ofFrench films. Among these consumers were many literary intellectualswho had a deep interest in movies that had been made in France, thecountry of culture and art. This influence was reflected in the works thatthey created. Firstly, in this article, I examine the factors that were involved in theadoption of French films in Korea. Then I investigate what French movieswere actually offered to the audience, based on documentary data. Finally,I examine how literary intellectuals were influenced by these movies, andhow those influences were associated with their creative activities. The basic data considered in this discussion are fairly insufficient, andprevious studies on this topic are limited. Because of this, the current articlewas not able to go beyond basic data tabulation. However, it is hopedthat this paper may act as a starting point for studies that may follow inthe future.
  • 5.

    A Rediscussion of Ho-oe Sidae - Focused on Its Characteristics as a Serial Novel of the Newspaper Maeil Sinbo

    JEONG SANG BAE | 2014, 71(2) | pp.141~175 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to examine Ho-oe Sidae, the onlyfull-length novel written by Seohae Choe, with focus on its characteristicsas a serial novel of the newspaper Maeil Sinbo. Thus, this paper is characteristicin that it tries to take a look at the background of the creation ofHo-oe Sidae and the core elements of its narrative unfolding in terms ofthe media arrangement and strategies of Maeil Sinbo. As such, it is differentfrom existing studies that have evaluated its value in terms of literaryhistory. Ho-oe Sidae, published as a serial novel owing to the newspaper’s strategyof the independent characterization of the art and science page, is takenas a case that allows us to specifically clarify the characteristics ofnewspaper serial novels in the 1930s. Though he was aware of censorship,Choe tried to carry out his own counter-strategy in terms of the work, andreflected on communication with popular readers in various ways throughthe work. We can also observe that various narrative devices and descriptive techniques were used to attract readers’ interest. Above all, this study is an attempt to reconsider the negative recognitionof the bulletin for the Japanese Government-General of Korea,Maeil Sinbo or of newspaper serial novels, and more specifically clarifythe characteristics of Ho-oe Sidae as a newspaper serial novel.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Imaginative Geography of Mo Yun-Sook’s Early Poems - Focusing on Nationalism, Imperialism, Sentimentalism

    Kim, Ok-Sung | 2014, 71(2) | pp.177~209 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Shining Region is a noteworthy yet controversial collection of works. Itexcels the works of the first generation of Korean female poets and helpsdefine Mo as the first female poet in Joseon, but it has not been discussedadequately enough considering its significance. This study illuminates thefacets and meanings of nationalism, imperialism and sentimentalism inMo’s Shining Region, focusing on its imaginative geography, and notes onthe following. First, Mo’s Christian nationalism, which is based on theimaginative geography of the Old Testament, is associated with imperialismand secular desire. Second, her imaginative geography of the battlefieldsis related to nationalism and imperialism governed by evolutionistictheories of power. Third, the imaginative geography of the Gando regionbears significance as it introduces the Gando experience to modern Koreanpoems while it reveals problems such as Mo’s superficial awareness ofKorean territory and the fissure between the public and private self. Fourth, Mo’s nationalism in her early poems is old and limited in that itfails to perceive the scheme of Imperial Japan. Although it looks resistantagainst colonial rule, it is in fact connected with imperialism in depth. This limitation belongs not only to Mo but to her era itself. Fifth, sentimentalismin Mo’s early works represents the domain of the private poeticself. Sentimentalism reveals the inner world of Mo’s private self while nationalismreflects the persona of the public self. The essence of her poemsassumes more of the former. Her sentimentalism contributed to a freshperspective on the aesthetic value of personal feelings and the works offemale poets, and thus deserves more attention and further study.
  • 7.

    Identity Struggles of the Colonized in the Taiwanese Novel Orphan of Asia

    SHIN MIN YOUNG | 2014, 71(2) | pp.211~246 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Wu Zhuoliu’s novel Orphan of Asia (1943~1945) was written inJapanese, the national language under Japanese occupation; the novel’sprotagonist is Hu Taiming, an intellectual from Taiwan during the colonialperiod. Existing studies on this novel have not gone beyond Han racialnationalism, interpreting Taiming’s transition as a recovery of Han racialconsciousness or as an overcoming of the consciousness of having beenorphaned. It should not be overlooked, however, that the novel was writtenin the 1940s, which means that about forty years had passed since colonializationtook place. Therefore, the issues about which the young intellectualsof the 1940s agonized over do not necessarily correspond withso-called nationalistic tendencies. They were not only the colonized but alsothe youth who desperately explored what to do and how to live in thegiven situation. On the other hand, it should not be ignored that the settingfor the novel is Taiwan, a nation which needs to be understood in termsof its relationship with imperial Japan and mainland China. Identities ofthe colonized Taiwanese show different aspects in and out of the islandof Taiwan, respectively. While the binary structure of the colonizer versusthe colonized and Japanese versus Taiwanese (Chinese) is noticeable inthe island of Taiwan, the situation becomes more complex outside of theisland with the intervention of the third component that is mainland China. Taiwan was facing double exclusion and double surveillance, and wascompelled as an in-between being by both mainland China and Japan. Through the protagonist, Hu Taiming, Orphan of Asia depicts a long journeyof seeking one’s self-identity and, simultaneously, shows aspects ofliberation beyond colonialism, imperialism and nationalism.
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  • 9.

    Movie-theaters and Cinema Culture in the 1920s-1930s - Focusing on Asakusa and Nish-ginza

    Choongsil Jeong | 2014, 71(2) | pp.287~326 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    During the 1920s-1930s, movie theaters in Tokyo were built in bothsuburban areas and city centers. However, movie-watching patterns differedacross the regions between different city centers, and between thecity center and suburban areas. This study focuses on the differences inmovie-watching patterns between Asakusa and Nish-ginza, two city centersin Tokyo, and examines the regional characteristics of the city centers,the environment of movie-theaters, and the watching patterns of moviespectators. In the late 1920s, sound films were introduced, and modern movie theaterswere constructed in Tokyo. However, in the case of Asakusa, evenin the 1930s, spectators were unable to focus on movies and were compelledto watch them in a nosy and distracting environment, due to theregional characteristic and the working-class makeup of spectators. Sound and modern movie theaters were introduced earlier in Nish-ginzathan other parts of Tokyo. Unlike Asakusa, Nish-ginza spectators wereable to pay greater attention and watch movies more quietly. These movie-watching patterns allowed Nish-ginza to rise in popularity and becomethe leader of Tokyo’s film culture in the 1930s. Despite being situated close to each other, Asakusa and Nish-ginza differedconsiderably during the early period of Japanese film history becauseof the regional city-culture and differences in audience configuration.
  • 10.

    Metaphorical Expression and Communication in the Yogācāra School -Focus on Profound Work Ahn

    Hwanki Ahn | 2014, 71(2) | pp.327~356 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to clarify the role and meaning of metaphorical expressionoften used in the Yogācāra texts. Especially I note that theYogācāra school, one of the Buddhist sects, used metaphor to show thepeople the experience of the trainer. First, as a preliminary stage, I establishthe relationship between the metaphor and the common object whichis the concept of Yogācāra buddhism. After that I reveal the trait of themetaphorical expression in Yogācāra texts as follows. First, metaphor is used as the method[upāya] to show the ultimate stateat the level of the ordinary people. They are not able to easily understandthe content obtained through practice. So the trainers need to express itusing everyday language. The metaphor was a good means by which theycould sympathize with the people. Second, the Yogācāra school had toshow the subtle workings of the mind, including the ultimate state suchas nirvana which could not be realized by the ordinary people. TheYogācāra school expressed those works of the profound mind, the seventhmind[manas-vijñāna] and the eighth mind[ālaya-vijñāna], by metaphoricalexpression in order to communicate with the ordinary people. Third, in theearly Buddhist scriptures, the thought of Buddha was taught through thedialogue between Buddha and his followers. On the other hand, theYogācāra school logically and minutely described the important conceptssuch as nirvikalpa-jñāna(無分別智) and the consequential wisdom(後得智)for establishing the basis of Bodhisattva and the concept meaning the stateof mind, tri-svabhāva(三性), in Yogācāra texts. The concepts are demonstratedin the abstract. In this regard, the metaphor was a good methodto vividly express these abstract concepts.
  • 11.

    The Karma of Power: The“Both Sides” of Machiavellian Exemplarity in The Prince and the Paradox of Agambenian Sovereignty

    Bomin Kim | 2014, 71(2) | pp.357~385 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study offers an Agambenian interpretation of Machiavelli’s use ofhistorical examples in The Prince. I show how, even as Machiavelli insistson the impunity with which the prince can and should transgress traditionalnorms of political action for the sake of his personal safety and thestability of the body politic, his historical examples, initially appearingfragmentarily for illustrative purposes, gradually snowball into stories ofthe fall, as well as the rise, of princes. If the prince can rule on himselfas being exceptional to conventional ethical and moral parameters of statecraft,he can, in turn, also be ruled as exceptional to the safeguards afforded by traditional moralities. Without being explicit about it,Machiavelli effectively anticipates the paradoxical duality of sovereign exceptionality,famously conceptualized by Giorgio Agamben, according towhich the necessary correlative to the prince’s capacity to create homosacer is his suppressed identity as another homo sacer. The duality ironicallyopens up the possibility that Machiavelli’s own discourse with itsemphasis on serving the current ruler of the state can indiscriminatelyserve the illegitimate, as well as the legitimate, ruler and even would-beusurpers. It is this consciousness of the paradoxical nature of his own discoursethat motivates Machiavelli’s insistence on martial virtuosity as theonly princely virtue, his categorical distinction between princely virtù andthe subject’s virtue, and his call to Lorenzo Medici to bring order to Italyin a state of primordial chaos.
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