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2014, Vol.71, No.3

  • 1.

    Some Aspects of Laughter in the Autobiographical Writing of J.-J. Rousseau - How to Overcome the Fear of Ridicule

    leeyongcheol | 2014, 71(3) | pp.9~44 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Le rire pourrait être considéré comme l’un des thèmes inhérents chezRousseau tant au niveau du discours littéraire que sur le plan du discourssociopolitique. Cependant, jusqu’à récemment, ce sujet n’a guère attirél’attention. L’objet de cette étude consiste à examiner d’abord l’influencedu rire sur l’identité de Rousseau dans son enfance, pour ensuite aborderde plus près la propriété du rire auquel Rousseau s’est attaché afin d’obtenirla paix et le bonheur de l’âme au coeur de la solitude forcée. Rousseau se croit souvent une victime de moqueries et il critique la dérisionen compatissant à la douleur de son objet. Loin de fonctionner pourpunir les vices, la dérision sert à ridiculiser tout ce qui s’écarte de l’opinionmanipulée par les puissants, y compris la vertu au détriment des relationshumaines dans la société. Rousseau s’adonne à l’écriture afin de promouvoir la vérité et la vertu,mais il devient lui-même l’objet du mépris général. Il déclare avoir trouvé le bonheur intérieur dans la solitude, tournant en dérision ses persécuteurs. Un des hommes les plus malheureux selon le critère social, pourtant sachantjouir de son existence, il peut avoir un sourire heureux pourlui-même et souhaite offrir à ses lecteurs le sourire susceptible de les consoler;en contrepartie il veut gagner leur affection. Rousseau a gravé ainsiun sourire dans la littérature, que les ténèbres les plus sombres ne sauraientobscurcir; sourire du bonheur intérieur et d’égalité que tout lemonde peut partager.
  • 2.

    Acts and Events - Ethics and the Architectonics of Life in M. Bakhtin’s Thoughts

    Choi Jin Seok | 2014, 71(3) | pp.45~75 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    There are some fundamental problems concerning the ‘division of theModern world’ between life and culture in young Bakhtinian thought. Forhim, culture is made up of the totality of the effective calculability, rationalizedwith science and technology, and spiritual and physical systems. The main characteristic of the cultural world is established in the ‘unity’which always arranges all the parts of culture hierarchically. In contrastto this, however, life lies beyond this calculability and is full of fragmentary,individual, unlinear acts and events. This ‘uniqueness’ appears asa distinctive feature of a life. What is the relationship between culture andlife? The former is visible and tangible, the latter is invisible, concealedbeneath culture. According to Bakhtin, the only way to resolve the problemof this Modern division exists in creating a philosophy of the act, oran ethics of life. But this kind of philosophy is different from traditionalmorality because the Bakhtinian concept of acts and events begins withthe individualized activities of everybody. In this sense, his ethics are nei-ther a platonic Idea nor a Kantian categorical imperative, which forceupon us the absolute norms of life. Bakhtin insists that we have to createour own ethical grammar with an answerability in events. That is why hecalls the new ethics (a philosophy of the act) an ‘Architectonics of Life.’
  • 3.

    Korean Appropriation of Avant-garde Art (1) - Jean Cocteau and Yi Sang

    Song Minho | 2014, 71(3) | pp.77~115 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is the first article of a sequential project that aims to investigatehow the artistic practices of the Western Avant-garde influencedKorean artists. This article investigates, in particular, the issue of how anessential part of modernist thought in Yi Sang’s works was affected byJean Cocteau’s cubism art. Literary writers in colonial Joseon, includingYi Sang, Jung Ji-yong, Kim Ki-rim and Park Tae-won, could read almostall documents and books on Western literature and art, including theworks of Jean Cocteau, through their Japanese translations. Through theseJapanese translations, they could also participate in the artistic universalityand modernity. The translation of Jean Cocteau’s works published inJapan in the 1930’s was obtained and it was confirmed that the words ofJean Cocteau cited by Yi Sang were mostly quoted from the Japanesetranslation. Finally, attempts were made to pinpoint the exact point atwhich Yi Sang’s intervention into modernist thought, through JeanCocteau, took place. The idea of avant-garde art that Jean Cocteau had advocated at the timegained concrete form through the Cubist artistic practices of Picasso inpainting and Eric Satie in music, etc. The artistic philosophy of Cubismwas derived from Einstein's theory of relativity which produced the perspectiveof a scientific understanding of the dimensional structure of theworld. Thus, Cubism was an artistic practice based on rigorous scientifictheory, which was the reason why it could be an international thought. Yi Sang also participated in the avant-garde stream of thought throughthe early series poems, “3 dimension/angle blueprint.” Furthermore, inadopting a variety of poetic images from Jean Cocteau’s poems, in theprocess of understanding and accepting his overall art world, Yi Sang createdhis own artistic world. In particular, the fact that the images of the‘angel’, ‘Venus’ and ‘arm stump’ etc. present in Yi Sang’s early poemsreveal the influence of Jean Cocteau, and the way in which Yi San consideredthis impact as an opportunity for new creation is identified in thispaper.
  • 4.

    The Re-examination of Coordination and Subordination

    Kim keonhee | 2014, 71(3) | pp.117~157 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The aims of this study are to re-examine the distinction between coordinationand subordination by studying the previous criteria (comprising‘symmetry’, ‘movement’, ‘anaphora’, and ‘the topic particle -nun’) and topropose a new perspective on coordination and subordination based oncomplex sentences which illustrate the focus and contrast of semanticpragmatics. In this study, the coordination and subordination of the complexsentences are examined in particular by the universal coordinative/subordinative standard, ‘shared tense’ and ‘(non-)switch reference’. As ‘-ci’ subordinative sentences show subordinaton according to thelanguage typological coordinative/subordinative standard of shared tenseand (non-)switch reference, the ‘-ci’ sentence, which is a traditional ‘focusand contrast’ sentence, can be seen to show subordination. The ‘or’ coordinativesentences (focus and contrast) show coordination from the viewof symmetry, and subordination from the view of (non-)switch reference. In previous studies, such as Lee (1995), Sohn (1999), it has been assertedthat the distinction between coordination and subordination is the matter of degree. This position is further developed in this study by concretelyexplaining, according to a new distinction criteria, the degrees required forsubordination vis-à-vis coordination. Consequently there exists flexibility,not dichotomy, in the relationship between coordination and subordination.
  • 5.

    A Study on Derivational Root Analysis in Korean Color Adjectives

    HONG SEOK JUN | 2014, 71(3) | pp.159~197 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to examine the root derivational suffixesthat have been identified as thus in previous analyses of Korean color adjectives,and to determine whether they are roots or root derivationalsuffixes. Word forms that combine a derivational root with the adjective-derivational suffix ‘-hada’ (for example, geomus-hada, geomuseuleum-hada), account for most of the Korean color adjectives. Theinvestigation of these root derivational suffixes began by compiling a listof root derivational suffixes based on previous studies. The concept of theroot derivational suffix, along with the criteria for distinguishing roots androot derivational suffixes, was then established. The latter consists of thefollowing: 1) the root derivational suffix must be a root formational element,2) the root derivational suffix is not a lexical morpheme but agrammatical morpheme, 3) the root derivational suffix must have its originalmeaning and constrain the meaning of the front element of complexroot. As a result, it is proposed that most of the previously identified one-syllable-repeating root derivational suffixes, such as -(eu)dede,-(eu)daengdaeng, -(eu)jabjab, -(eu)sugsug, -(eu)jogjog, -(eu)chugchug,-(eu)chungchung, -(eu)tete, -(eu)twitwi, -(eu)tungtung, -cheugcheug,-(eu)chigchig, are in fact roots and not root derivational suffixes. The mostimportant basis for this is the fact that roots having the same form andmeaning as that of the one-syllable-repeating root derivational suffixes alsoexist in words such as dede-hada, chungchung-hada, twitwi-hada andthe like. Root derivational suffixes such as -sung, -sil, -jag, -(eo)muteuleum,-ggeum, -ggeus, -ddeug, -ggeule, -ggeumule, -(eu)ggeuleum whichwere combined with less than two stems were also examined and it wasdetermined that they too were closer to roots than root derivational suffixes,as they had enough lexical meaning.
  • 6.

    Park Hwaseong’s Novel, Baekhwa

    ROH YEON SOOK | 2014, 71(3) | pp.199~243 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Park Hwaseong’s novel Baekhwa, which was serialized in the newspaperDonga Ilbo, is generally not regarded as a representative historicalnovel of the Japanese Colonial Period. As such, a study on the newspaperseries text of Baekhwa has not been carried out even though it is completein form. Therefore, the current paper aims to deal with the material ofthe ‘series itself.’The focus of this paper is the representation of the ‘sentimental classnature’ in Baekhwa. First of all, Park made an ideal world in order to realizerevenge against the evildoer(勸善懲惡). Secondly, each character’semotional thinking was expressed by poetry and music(詩歌). Loyalty wasimplied by poetry and music, which operated to connect Wangsaeng andBaekhwa as important clues. They were reborn as the artist by poetry andmusic without losing their original nobility, and reborn as true humanbeings. Finally, the characters were linked by a debt of gratitude(恩義) toone another. They swore brotherhood and married each other in the nameof comrades(志氣相合). Moral justice(義), in particular, is this novel’s main theme and is connected with the plot of the revenge. Although this series is a historical novel, it focused on fictional charactersrather than actual characters. They are unrecorded characters, such asthe Subaltern. Park succeeded in delivering, through them, the messagethat the realization of justice makes the world better.
  • 7.

    The City Image in Yeom Sang Seob’s Novels

    YU INHYEOK | 2014, 71(3) | pp.245~283 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to analyze the totality of the city image presented inYeom Sang Seob’s novels. Yeom, as a Seoul born author, wrote a numberof work depicting various city areas in Seoul. Love and Sin, Rampage,The Three Generations, and Fig show the multi-dimensional faces ofSeoul and its bottomless depths. Firstly, Yeom draws an actual city image of Seoul rather than the imaginedgeography divided by ethnicity. In the colonial period, the idea of‘the southern village’ (namchon, the Japanese district) and ‘the northernvillage’ (bukchon, the Korean district) was commonly accepted. Thesegeographical names suggest that Seoul was actually divided and that itwas difficult to traverse to the other side as it was intuitively split. Yeom,however, did not fence himself with such imagined geography. He showsthat the division was not absolute. He focused on the Japanese living inthe north, and Koreans dwelling in the south. As a result, his works makemanifest the complexity of city spaces. Secondly, Yeom combined distant classes and its social spaces. By do-ing so, he managed to unveil ‘the whole city’. In his novels, heros andheroines are geographically distant from each other. Furthermore, theireconomical and class status are also very different. In this case, the distancebetween one another reflects their social difference. It makes us seethe city as a whole. This is because that two halves (two different classesand also two different spaces) are combined. Yeom is thus successful in representing the totality of the city space. This is not only because he wrote about more places than other writers;rather than depicting only a part of the city or the city in fragments, herepresented the totality of Seoul. This paper aims to demonstrate this pointby using maps and methods of literary geography.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Formation Process and Features of the Surrealism Poetics of Jo Hyang

    Hong Rae-seong | 2014, 71(3) | pp.285~321 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines Jo Hyang’s initial activity, from the Nangmanpaperiod to the end of the 1950s, in order to consider the formation processand features of Jo Hyang’s surrealism poetics. Nangmanpa, a publicationthat Jo Hyang played a lead role in, may appear to be unrelated to surrealismbut an analysis of Jo Hyang’s comments in Nangmanpa suggestsotherwise. The romance that Jo Hyang supported differed from the existingromance and is likely to have been connected to surrealism. Therefore,Jo Hyang’s surrealism from the 1950s appears to have originated not asa result of the conversion of literary trends but from the gradual manifestationof his internal consciousness. Criticism against the literary circles ofthe metropolis also played an important role in making concrete JoHyang’s surrealism. Jo Hyang did not produce any visible results during the ‘Hubangi’ circleperiod. Jo Hyang’s activities at the time can only be observed throughhis writings in Jugan Kukje and the ‘College Korean Language Series’. It is from this ‘Hubangi’ period that he constantly published surrealism relatedwritings and it can be said that Jo Hyang’s surrealism poetics wereestablished by the end of the 1950s. Unlike the surrealism of Western European, which focused on image itself,Jo Hyang’s surrealism poetics was not only limited to image; he didnot give up the world of values. In other words, Jo Hyang pursued notonly images but also values. Jo Hyang first made rough drawings throughautomatism and then attempted to produce surrealism poems by using themontage technique. The montage technique consisted of the following twokinds: one which combined rough drawings with probability to give specificvalue, and the other did so without probability to disclose the imageitself. As such, Jo Hyang’s surrealism poetics involved the production ofpoems of two different kinds of systems.
  • 9.

    The Epigraphic Materials Transmitted to Qing China

    Jung, He-Rin | 2014, 71(3) | pp.323~357 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Epigraphic materials represent one of the last categories of cultural exchangethat took place between the scholars of China, Korea and Japanbefore the 20th century. Qing scholars tried to gather and organize overseasacademic documents, in addition to domestic documents. They obtainedKorean epigraphic data from the Korean envoys and the Japanesedata through the help of Joseon scholars, since Joseon had sent envoys toboth countries. The epigraphic materials transmitted from Japan to Qingthrough Korean scholars comprised three kinds: ancient Chinese epitaphicdata, ancient brass-rubbings of four Japanese stone works, and someJapanese bronze mirrors. The first consisted of copies of Yishanbei (嶧山碑) supposedly made before Tang which allowed scholars to confirm thatthe other extant copy of the same original stone, which existed in QingChina at the time, had also been made before the Tang Dynasty Thebrass-rubbings of four Japanese stone inscriptions, including Tagobi (多胡碑) and Tagazonobi (多賀城碑), were delivered to Ye Zhi-Shen (葉志詵) and Liu Xi Hai (劉喜海) respectively by Kim Jeong Hee (金正喜) andJo Byong-Gu (趙秉龜) - they were included as supplements inHadongkeumsukwon (海東金石苑), which was a collection of Koreanbrass-rubbings, in a dictionary, and in some Chinese books. The bronzemirrors were sent to Ye Zhi-Shen, Weng Fang-gang (翁方綱) and othersand were included in Jinshisu (金石索).
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