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2015, Vol.72, No.1

  • 1.

    A Scene of Nietzschean Thoughts in 1930s’ Poetry (I) - Focusing on the Nine Members’ Society Poets

    Shin, Beom Sun | 2015, 72(1) | pp.11~58 | number of Cited : 21
    Abstract PDF
    This article explores the Nietzscheanism of the 1930’s Nine Members’Society (Kuinhoe) poets. I examine three poems, such as Kim Kirim’s“New Year’s Eve” (Cheya), Chong Ji Yong’s “Sadness from StreamlinedShape” (Yusonaesang) and Yi Sang’s “The Story of a Street out of aStreet” (Kaoegajon), all published in the magazine Poetry and Novel(1936). These three works thematize the poetic motif, ‘a street.’ This paperredirects the research perspective on explaining ‘a street’ from WalterBenjamin’s concept flaneur to Nietzsche’s concept of ‘the Übermensch’srapid running.’ ‘The child in a dream’ from Chong Jiyong’s Poem “Fanwith Ying and Yang emblems” (Taegukson) and ‘Mr. Cha-Pal’ from YiSang’s poem “The Start of Mr. Cha-Pal” (Cha-pal-siui chulbal) are mainNietschean characters who represent the very concept of ‘theÜbermensch’s rapid running.’Park Taewon’s short story “The Master of Café Bangranjang” (Bangranjangchuin) also listed in the same journal Poetry and Novel (1936) gives me a crucial clue to interpret these three poems all together. I gain this cluefrom my reading of the chapter, “The Way of the Creating One” fromThus Spake Zarathustra. ‘A star’ in the chapter indicates the Übermenschof the first movement, “Wheels Running by Nature.” In other words, theNine Members Society’s exploration of philosophical thoughts is deeplyrelated to the Neitzschean Übermensch thesis. This paper attempts to interrelate and interconnect Nine Members’ literaryworks and explain how the Neitzschean Übermensch thesis is set andpursued with a specific aim by these members.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Flaneur’s View and the “Reality” of Illusion in Kim Ki-rim’s Poetics

    Kim Jung-hyun | 2015, 72(1) | pp.59~93 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to discuss the sentimentality of Kim Ki-rim’s text, withregard to the special aspect of his poetics in representing the “reality” ofdream and illusion. Generally, Kim Ki-rim’s text has been explained interms of its superficial modernism and excessive ideality. But a noteworthypoint of Kim Ki-rim’s text is that his reality is an unique conceptionand goes beyond a realistic description. In other words, the expressionof primitive intuitional sentimentality and non-generality is a signifiedrepresentation of truth-reality. This is related to the fact that KimKi-rim’s city-text has an intention of the potential possibility of representingthe “reality” of dream and illusion, which goes beyond the criticalreality. Analyzing “Goldfish”, “Sea and Butterfly” and “Jupiter Exile”carefully, this study exposes Kim Ki-rim’s aesthetic orientation on the artisticflaneur’s concept. *
  • 3.

    East Asian Literature and Woman - Yosano Akiko (1878-1942), Na Hyesŏk (1896-1948), Eileen Chang (1920-1995)

    Choi Jung A | 2015, 72(1) | pp.95~130 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Woman was a new subject with wide and various spectrums in themodern discourse of East Asia. When the discourse of ‘new woman’ (shinyeosŏng) emerged into the public from the long silence under the patriarchalsociety, this term became a new buzzword crossing over the boundariesbetween the new and the old, the premodern and the modern, andthe East and the West. The act and behavior of female subjects stands forthe direction of the modern civilization but also becomes an issue overtime, space, and ideological differences in East Asia that confronts theWestern modernization in the early twentieth century. Female subjects who are interpolated by the men are fated within thediscourse of the masculine society but the new woman’s movement beginsto arise in East Asia. New Women’s emancipating movements let them toimplement their own voice as “the language of the first-person,” whichwas the ultimate process of making their lives sensual and artistic. Theirvoices are multi-layered beyond the single-layered male voice. The un-precedented ‘new woman’ movement came from their dreams toward anew life. This paper looks at the pioneering aspects of these women: Na Hyesǒkin colonial Korea, Yosano Akiko in Japan, and Eileen Chang in China. These three women succeed in establishing the new woman character ineach East Asian society even beyond the differences of temporal and spatialbackground. In particular, it is worth to notice that the process of fosteringself-consciousness as a woman is also engaged to realize theself-identity as an artist. Their attempts to deepen the layers of female literarystudies as a female stylist contribute to further aestheticize the worldaround them.
  • 4.

    Is ‘Gugeo’ (國語, Korean Language/National Language) a Basic Modern Concept?

    Byeonggi Lee | 2015, 72(1) | pp.133~164 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The essay considers several issues relevant to narrating the conceptualhistory of ‘gugeo’ (國語, Korean Language/National Language) as part ofan advanced work. From examining its definitions in the Standard KoreanLanguage Dictionary and the provisions of the Framework Act on theNational Language (Law No. 7368), it is noted that the concept of ‘gugeo’encompasses various implications like ‘official language,’ ‘nationalization,’‘national characteristics,’ ‘Korean alphabet,’ and ‘regional characteristics.’To confirm its status as a basic concept in a modern sense, the essayexamines whether ‘gugeo’ has undergone the four categories of conceptual changeintroduced by Reinhart Koselleck, that is, Democratization (Demokratisierung),Temporalization (Verzeitlichung), Ideologization (Ideologisierung), andPoliticization (Politisierung). The essay reveals that ‘gugeo’ had gonethrough or had been going through all these changes in the period before1910, when the Korean modern transition was underway. Finally, after stressing the fact that the national awareness of ‘Hanguel’,the character system of the Korean language, has accelerated the modernconceptualization of ‘gugeo’, the essay presents the need for further studieson this issue.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Representation of Women and Ethics in Kim Seung Ok’s Adaptations

    Eunyoung Lee | 2015, 72(1) | pp.165~198 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I maintain that in Kim Seung Ok’s adapted scenarioswomen reemerge as central and marginal figures, respectively, in the fieldsof reproduction and production fields. With regard to the former, he remakesconventional and modern women figures through emphasizing traditionalmaternity or stressing socialization of motherhood. With regard tothe latter, he reenacts women as social others, separate from the idea of‘a good wife and wise mother’ in a heathy home. He remakes women with ‘a good wife and wise mother discourse’ inthe course of adapting popular novels to screen plays because he was consciousof popularity and censorship. But the point that women in his scenariosare represented as equal and autonomous subject in narrative shouldnot be overlooked. In other words, he depicts women characters who become independentwithout men’s help in the production and the reproduction realms. Besides, he sets the relationship between men and women as an intimateone. I point out that is the women’s desire at that time, as well as beingKim Seung Ok’s ethics.
  • 6.

    The Allegory of Fantasy Novels and the Ecriture of Korean Children’s Writers

    Changhyun Kim | Kyunghwa Kim | Sangwon Ahn and 2other persons | 2015, 72(1) | pp.199~226 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to analyze the ecriture, a kind of collectivewriting which appears in Three Sips of Spring Water, and investigate thesuppressed orders embedded in Korean children's literature. Through theprocess, this study aims to reveal the roots of the lack of diversity, excessivemoralism, and naive innocence of childhood, which are the typicalcharacteristics of Korean children's literature and at the same time theproblems, and critically introspect their political qualities. Three Sips ofSpring Water is a work which the author and publisher declared to beaiming at Korean fantasy. The characteristic of fantasy novels is the distinctallegory structure that provokes imagination. Therefore, by comparingwith other works in terms of how this book recreates the typical allegory of fantasy novels, it can reveal the storytelling method of this work. Based on the result of comparison with the well-known Lord of the Ringsand Harry Potter series, Three Sips of Spring Water generally follows thegrammar of fantasy, which are a dualized world and loose allegory, butdeviates from the typical subject of fantasies, the longing and resistanceto authority, and embodies the Korea reasons of attraction to affectionand coexistence. However, despite such achievements, its way of expressingthe subject is simple and instructive. This originates from the 'favor-granting' attitude of Korean children's writers, The basis created fromthe ecriture that announces such attitude is the narrowness and exclusivenessof the Korean children's literary world.
  • 7.

    Disneyland and Heterotopia - The Book of Daniel, The Magic Kingdom, and The Public Burning

    Sangjun Jeong | 2015, 72(1) | pp.227~262 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines Disneyland around Michel Foucault’s concept of heterotopiain the context of the American way of life. It particularly analyzesthree novels in which Disneyland is backgrounded, foregrounded orintertextualized to highlight the themes of each work: E.L. Doctorow’sThe Book of Daniel, Stanley Elkin’s The Magic Kingdom, and RobertCoover’s The Public Burning. Since the idea of heterotopia has been usedin a diversity of ways, this study takes it to mean a space that reflectssociety, but in a way which calls to mind idealized aspects of the culture. Each writer provides a vivid and powerful image of Disneyland: a spacewhere history disappears, time stops, or the whole world is a kind of acircus show. The study suggests the need for contrasting, discordant, anddifferent narratives about Disney’s theme park to better understand it andits relationship with American culture in a complex fashion.
  • 8.

    Letters from a Means of Governance to Resistance - Focusing on the Western Middle Ages

    Kyung-Eun Choi | 2015, 72(1) | pp.263~291 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In an age when written language was new and sparsely used, the Gospelwas spread orally by Jesus Christ. The words of Christ were soon putdown into what became scriptures; and the job of interpreting and preservingthe holy words fell on the clergy. They monopolized the written scriptureand Latin - the mediaeval common tongue - thereby holding dominanceover the laymen and the largely illiterate commoners. The establishmentof universities and growth of the urban population undermined thechurches and monasteries. The exclusive employers of scripture attemptedto control the laymen through various means. A case in point was the prohibitionof bibles. However, such policies disintegrated, as the use of thewritten language jumped with the advent of the printing technology. Thelettering system had transformed from a governing tool of the exclusiveto a means of resistance by the masses.
  • 9.

    Heterolingual Writing and Problems of Translation

    SEON Yeong-A | 2015, 72(1) | pp.293~324 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Cet article, de caractère exploratoire, a pour but de s’interroger sur leproblème théorique et pratique que pose la traduction des textesplurilingues. Quels sont les choix faits par les traducteurs pour traduire ces textesqualifiés “intraduisibles”? Pour identifier ce problème majeur de la traduction,nous avons procédé à une comparaison entre le texte original etla version coréenne d’Allah n’est pas obligé d’A. Kourouma. On a constatéque la traduction coréenne, publiée dans la collection “Chefs-d’oeuvreJeunesse”, s’est efforcée de produire un texte homogène et dans une languestandard plus adaptée à son jeune lectorat. Comment rendre alors cequi semble l’intraduisible? Ici, la traduction française de Sozaboy noussemble significative en cela qu’elle ouvre de nouvelles perspectives:les traducteurssont parvenus à sauvegarder l’originalité de l’anglais “pourri” deKen Saro-Wiwa par l’utilisation d’une langue équivalente.
  • 10.

    The Theory of Religious Social Movement in Gaebyeok and ‘Japanese Philosophy of Religion’

    HurSoo | 2015, 72(1) | pp.325~355 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In the 1920s, the young people of Cheondogyo published in the periodof ‘cultural politics’ the first issue of Gaebyeok (meaning ‘the dawn of theworld’) to realize their purpose of ‘religious social remodeling.’Gaebyeok was divided into three areas; ‘enlightenment,’ ‘communication,’and ‘general public.’ Its leading members carried articles about modernWestern thoughts and the doctrine of ‘in-naecheon’ (the equality of humanrights) in the ‘communication’ part. And in ‘enlightenment,’ they spreadnot only both an idea of the world as the relation of ‘mutual identity’ anda practical plan of ‘activist ethics’, but also put out the ‘doctrine of humannature’ (saramsŏng chuui; 사람性主義), ‘pan-humanistic nationalism’ (汎人間的 民族主義), and the ‘doctrine of Jeokja’(赤子主義). In this process, the theory of ‘phenomenon viz reality’ (現象卽實在論)played a important role, but its presence gradually faded down thereafter. The Japanese theory played a role as a vehicle which helped combine thedifferent two strata forming the unity of Gaebyeok, religion and society,and then disappeared.
  • 11.

    Imaging the Imperial Russia in Modern China

    Yang Ilmo | 2015, 72(1) | pp.357~389 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to investigate several aspects of interrelation betweenthe various projects of modern nation-building inside the Qing dynastyand their awareness of Russia, and further to examine the structure of representingthe Other in modern China, comparing the Chinese recognitionof the Russian Revolution of 1905 with their earlier perception of despoticRussia. In order to analyze this problem, it is necessary to inquire into each ofthe subjects of discourses which produced various imaginations ofImperial Russia. I will consider the different ways of thought expressedby the typical Chinese political social groups, such as the government officials,gentry, modern intellectuals and the mass media, revolutionarygroups, while making practical use of Russia as a resource of thinking. I argue that Imperial Russia was represented in different images, dependingon the subjects who formed China’s political discourse and reality.
  • 12.

    The Reception and Criticism of Lai Zhi‐de’s (來知德) Study of Changes (易學) in the Joseon Dynasty

    Kim Young-woo | 2015, 72(1) | pp.391~420 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined the patterns of the Joseon scholars’ reception andcriticism of Lai Zhi‐de’s study of changes during the Joseon Dynasty. The history of the study of changes in the Joseon Dynasty may be calledthe history of the Neo-Confucian study of changes. In this trend, however,the interest of the scholars continued to be in a symbol-number-basedstudy of changes, which tried to interpret the words of Gua and Yao inThe Book of Changes through exploring the ‘symbols’ (象) of Gua andYao, and in the course, Lai Zhi‐de’s Juyeokjipju drew people’s attention. Lai Zhi‐de’s study of changes became an object of criticism, but itplayed the role of a positive stimulation to Joseon intellects who tried tointerpret The Book of Changes in a different way beyond the authority ofNeo-Confucianism.
  • 13.

    A Comparative Study of American Buddhist Meditation Practices - Focusing on Zen, Tibetan Meditation, and Vipassana Movement

    장은화 | 2015, 72(1) | pp.421~452 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This article investigates American Zen, Tibetan meditation, and vipassanain terms of their development and characteristics. Zen laid foundationsfor layman-based practice by creating the Zen center. Zen assimilated intoAmerican culture while removing authoritarian legacies and integratingwith American social engagement tradition. Concerning Tibetan meditation,the lojong training and dzogchen spread on a great scale. Also thereis the Shambhala Training, the most secularized form of TibetanBuddhism. Vipassana is popularized in the form of a mindfulness meditationand is integrating with psychotherapy aiming at worldly happiness. I bring to light a fundamental limitation of lay-centered Buddhist meditation,which I think originates from Americans’ reductionist attitude. Asa conclusion, I offer the necessity of a new monks’ community as asolution.
  • 14.

    Formation of the Concept “Nachhaltigkeit” and Its History - With Emphasis on the Theory of Forestry in Germany of the 18 th Century and Its Practical Meaning in Terms of Sematic Content

    Kim, Hwa Im | 2015, 72(1) | pp.453~478 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Although Hans Carl von Carlowitz in Germany is considered to be the fatherof ‘sustainable yield’ forestry, the concept of “sustainability” coined byhim cannot be acknowledged as his own individual creation. It is becauseHans C. v. Carlowitz had widely studied forestry and forest policies of manyEuropean countries through what was called the Grand Tour. From the viewpoints of forest managers in the 18thcentury, “trees” werethe major resources of coping with the economic crisis in Europe at thattime. Germany was no exception. The foremost concern of forestry thereforewas to protect and manage trees as economic resources. Under thecircumstances appeared such terms as “preservation,” “careful managementstrategy,” “stockpile,” “protection,” and “forest management” and, finally, HansC. v. Carlowitz came up with the concept of “careful” and “sustainable.”Of course, the term “sustainable” in forestry of the 18thcentury is notsynonymous with that of the contemporary times. The long-term perspectivefor resource management, care for posterity, and humanities-basedthoughts are some of the noteworthy issues that shed much light on promotingthe concept of “sustainability” today.
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