Korean | English

pISSN : 1598-3021 / eISSN : 2671-7921

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.63
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2015, Vol.72, No.2

  • 1.

    The Image of Russia and the Understanding of the 1905 Russian Revolution Presented in Kim Yunshik’s Diary, Umcheongsa

    Hwang Jae-moon | 2015, 72(2) | pp.13~51 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay examines the awareness and understanding of Russia and its 1905 Revolution by the Korean intellectuals of the time. As one significant case study, this essay pays attention to Kim Yunshik, focusing on his diary Umcheongsa (陰晴史). Kim was one of the prominent reformists who planned and executed the enlightenment policy. He was also an active newspaper reader who read and summarized newspapers in his diary through the long period of exile. In reading the front part of the diary, it is observed that Kim had taken a sort of prejudice against Russia. Russia was often expressed as a greedy and aggressive country, and its image implicit in the text was not at all positive. It is assumed that these negative images had been formed through his inherent knowledge, in which Russia was regarded as a sort of savage tribe. It is clear that these images were maintained during his life, and it was supposed to be one of the major reasons why he regarded Russia as a properly defeated country similar to the opinions exposed in Japanese newspapers. Of course it is obvious that the more important reason was due to a lack of information that could be obtained by the Koreans of the day. In matters concerning revolution, he seemed to regard it as a rebellion in natural consequence of defeat. So some fundamental elements of revolution, for example the workers’ struggle against monarchy and capitalism or the problem of the capitalist class, were not mentioned in his diary, though some articles in the newspapers that he read had indeed dealt with these issues. It is unclear whether Kim’s case can be seen to be universal, but it can be said that it represents one of the major tendencies of the time in Korea.
  • 2.

  • 3.

    Reception of Tolstoy by the Japanese Revolutionaries before and after the Russo-Japanese War

    Kyounghwa Lim | 2015, 72(2) | pp.89~122 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In this article, I will shed light on the reception of Tolstoy by Japan’s early socialists while having in my mind the chronologically overlapping criticisms against Tolstoy made by Lenin. At the early stage of the development of the socialist movement in Japan, Tolstoy’s seemingly pro-socialist stance based on absolute pacifism was instrumental in making the image of a socialist party striving to obtain the opportunities for legal activity. The socialist anti-war position was also seen as “Tolstoyist”. However, as soon as Tolstoy’s criticisms of the Russo-Japanese War became known in Japan, the local socialists could not help sensing serious limitations in the possibilities for the realization of basic societal reforms and social justice inside the Tolstoyist framework of society’s rebuilding based on the revival of personal religiosity. The same skeptical attitude can be seen in Lenin’s criticism of Tolstoy. Following the course of Russia’s 1905-07 revolution, Tolstoy’s “non-resistance” became a target of criticisms as well. Concomitantly, Kōtoku’s group evolved into anarchists following the Russian revolutionary events, and embraced anarchic communism and the method of direct actions. Lenin, at the same historical moment, found a reason for the 1905-07 Revolution’s defeat in the peasant “non-resistance” articulated by Tolstoy. However, Lenin also found that “Tolstoyism”, together with negative features typical for peasant dissenters, exhibited such a positive quality as willingness to build a socialist society free from exploitation. The latter was to be considered to be Tolstoy’s historical contribution. In Japan, however, as revolutionaries were cruelly suppressed during and after the “High Treason” trials of 1911, Tolstoy’s radicalism was now to be hidden away from the public’s eyes.
  • 4.

    Liang Qichao’s Conversion in the Concept of “Revolution” - Around the Period of Qingyibao and Xinmincongbao

    Yi, Hye-gyung | 2015, 72(2) | pp.123~160 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines how Liang Qichao, who had a leading role as an enlightenment thinker, changed the implication of the concept of “revolution” around the time of the Russian Revolution of 1905. Though Liang Qichao, as a “Constitionalist”, was in conflict with the “Revolutionaries,” he was the first person in China to adopt “revolution”, a translated term, with its modern meaning. With the understanding of “revolution” as a concept similar to “evolution”, he used the term quite affirmatively up to a certain time. However, through confrontation with the revolutionaries while witnessing the reality of the Russian Revolution, he organized his negative position towards revolution. Social evolution was regarded as a framework to recognize the reality that people had to uplift the national competitiveness, as well as an institution to recognize the moral value that they had to control self-indulgence and contribute to the country. Criticism of revolution was also carried out within the framework in which Liang Qichao accepted social evolution. Domestically, “revolution” was regarded as a private ambition towards power by amoral people who needed to devote themselves to the country; in terms of the relationship with foreign countries, it was criticized as a riot that eroded national competitiveness. It was considered not different from dynastic revolutions which had been forced by selfishness without any consideration to the nation and its people. “Revolution”, which had been affirmed as evolution, was negated as a “barbaric” takeover against evolution.
  • 5.

    The Idea of the Humanities and the Task of Korean Humanities

    Paek Chong-Hyon | 2015, 72(2) | pp.163~193 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Over the past 5,000 years, Korea has established its own peculiar culture by accepting and absorbing the various cultures of neighboring countries. And with the fact that the subject of culture is a human being, it is conceded that the humanities that are supposed to encourage the value of humanity are at the center of culture. Accordingly, Korean humanities have the task of realizing the universal idea of the humanities in the Korean sociocultural context and at the same time advancing global culture by diffusing a unique Korean spirit—the spirit that can be expressed only through the Korean language—all over the world. Korean humanities has now set the very lofty goal of accommodating, through Korean language, all the valuable materials that have been accumulated over the history of human beings in such a way as to enhance humanity, human dignity, and the value of humanity. By doing so, it is expected that the human value of Korean citizens is to be raised, and that its crux is to spread out through translations into foreign languages. It is well known that just as different communities take different approaches in realizing the same desired sociocultural value, so different persons take different methods in realizing the same desired human value. With the creed that the realization of this sort of uniqueness is conducive to enriching human culture, promoting a variety of human life style, and increasing the possibility of continuously developing human life itself, Korean humanities purport to go hand in hand with all the sociocultural paradigms such that they recognize different sociocultural peculiarities but at the same time respect and cooperate with them.
  • 6.

    Corporate and Governmental Social Irresponsibility - The Sewol Ferry Disaster in the Light of Addictive Organization Theory

    Kang,Su-Dol | 2015, 72(2) | pp.195~233 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The Sewol ferry disaster of April 2014 in South Korea that took the lives of as many as 304 people should be understood as a result of structural contradiction, in which the socioeconomic problems accumulated in the process of economic growth for more than the last 50 years were compressively expressed, and not as just a simple traffic accident or conspiracy. The present study systematically explains the structural contradictions involved in the causes of the Sewol ferry disaster and the ex post facto response processes, from the viewpoint of addictive organization theory. Consequently, this study emphasizes that for Korean corporations or the government to fulfill their social responsibility, a system shift should be achieved eventually to clearly recognize the process of addiction in the organization process and to fundamentally heal corporate and government organizations, instead of providing partial, temporary, superficial, and ad hoc prescriptions.
  • 7.

    The Life of Thoughtlessness and the Evil in the Modern History of Korea - With regards to the Sinking of the MV Sewol

    Suk-Soo Kim | 2015, 72(2) | pp.235~269 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    We Koreans became engulfed in sadness and anger owing to the sinking of the MV Sewol which occurred on April 16, 2014. It never happened by chance. It is also a self-portrait of Korea demonstrating the fact that Korean society is sick as a whole. The sickness we are suffering from is the loss of the memory community and the life of thoughtlessness. We have a wound because our country was colonized by Japan and our nation was split by other powers. Unfortunately, we had to accept the excessive control of the state and the excessive domination of the market in order to escape from that damage. The former controlling system and the latter competing system have demanded of us to become subjects participating in creative activities, rather than subjects participating in memorizing activities. These creative subjects had to fulfill the mission of faster growth. Therefore, these subjects were not able to become autonomous subjects that were free from the order system of the state and the competi-tion system of the market. We cannot but think either non-subjectively or fightingly. The former thinking is identical with the latter thinking in the point of unreflective thinking. Just as the evil of Eichmann occurred from this thoughtlessness, so did the evil of the MV Sewol. Of course, there is a difference between the two, but they all basically occurred from thoughtlessness. As Karatani Gojin said, we must pursue “associationism” in order to solve the problem of thoughtlessness which the over-governing of the state and the market gave birth. We have to overcome the poverty of the thought implied in the obeying thought and the competing thought through the solidarity of imagination like this. But we must proceed from the command type education and the competition type education, in which a fissure between thought and reality exists, to the open education in which mediation between the two takes place through the act of judging. When we engage in this education, finally we will be able to escape from the evil of the MV Sewol caused by the collusion between capital and the state.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Oral Transmission of Domi in Samguksaki - In Particular on its Variation in the Chungnam Province of Korea

    Jeong Jeho | 2015, 72(2) | pp.271~303 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This research examines the version of the Domi myth which comes from Boryeong, located in the Chungnam region. The Chungnam version of the Domi myth features several distinctive elements vis-à-vis other versions. First, Domi is a carpenter. Second, the powerful individual entrusts Domi with a building job in order to ensure his absence and then tries to rape Domi’s wife. Third, Domi’s wife avoids rape by asserting her own uncleanness, rather than a maid being a replacement. These elements represent a great difference compared to other versions. In particular, the Chungnam version of the Domi myth is very similar to the shamanic Seongjufuri myth. A carpenter also appears as a character in the Seongjufuri myth. Hwang-uyang is also absent due to being involved in building construction due under the direction of the upper class. In addition, Hwang-uyang’s wife also avoids rape due to her own uncleanness. The Chungnam version of the Domi myth was influenced by the Seongjufuri in transmission. But was Seongjufuri passed down in the southern region of Gyeonggi Province. So there is a difference between the two myths. But the Haraeng-i of the southern region of Gyeonggi Province also played in the Chungnam region. So it is possible that Seongjufuri may have influenced the Chungnam version of the Domi myth.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Foreign Travels of Lee Kwangsoo in the 1910’s

    Kim Mee Young | 2015, 72(2) | pp.305~341 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to reveal the main achievement of Lee Kwangsoo’s travels abroad in the 1910’s. Lee Kwangsoo traveled to Shanghai, Vladivostok, Cheeta, and North Manchuria in 1913~1914. In those travels, he observed the grades of rank, catching up with how much these nations had been modernized. The nations of the East could not compare to those of the West in terms of the degree of civilizedness. Japan was observed to be more developed than the other eastern countries at the time. Russia was also more civilized. But China was seen to be only half-civilized and Joseon yet to be civilized. Lee Kwangsoo regarded the Joseon people to be very poor and unenlightened, and the Joseon intellectuals to be very lazy and emersed in violent disputes regarding party politics. Thus, he did not find any kind of hope for Joseon to remain an independent nation in the near future. In 1915~1918, Lee Kwangsoo lived in Tokyo due to his studies. During this time, his second period of study abroad, he observed how great the Japanese power of civilizedness was, as well as how high the Japanese grade of civilization was, compared to Joseon. He had been impressed by Fuguzawa Yugichi’s theory of civilization and evolutionism. But it is in Russia that he realized the fate of the Joseon people. This is why his theory of civilization was transformed into a theory of culture for Joseon, as a neighbor of Japan in those times. He believed that if the independence of Joseon could not be ensured, then at least efforts should be made to reserve the identity of its people by maintaining the unique characteristics of Joseon culture. These thoughts were the results of his travels abroad in the 1910’s.
  • 10.

  • 11.

    A Study on the Change Facing Korean Modern Poetry in the Digital Era

    Im, Soo-young | 2015, 72(2) | pp.375~406 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis diachronically examines the change in Korean modern poetry, faced with the appearance of multi-media. It starts with the consideration of ‘media’ and surveys the element of remediation in Korean modern poetry, especially focusing on ‘Cyber Literature Plaza, Munjang’. It studies the digitalization of korean poetry corresponding to multimedia developments, and examines the limitations of this. It considers the element of remediation in ‘Cyber Literature Plaza, Munjang’ in three different ways. The first is the remediation of printing poetry, which changes the shape and impression of poetry when transferred from printing to digital media. The second is the reproduction of poetry and the spatialization of reception ways. ‘SIBAEDAL’ which utilizes visual media for appreciating poetry is analyzed. The last is hypertextual remediation, such as through SNS and podcasts. In particular, this study investigates these issues focusing on the limits of interactive communication in the digitalization of korean poetry and considers the way in which it will proceed.
  • 12.

    Re-reading Nakae Chōmin’s A Discourse by Three Drunkards on Government - Focusing on Liberty, Morality and Righteousness, Revolution and a Vision of emocracyLe

    Lee Yeaann | 2015, 72(2) | pp.407~443 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Nakae Chōmin’s A Discourse by Three Drunkards on Government (三 酔人経綸問答, 1887), according to past research, presents pacifism, military expansionism, and neutral diplomacy—through three characters, a Gentleman of Western Learning, the Champion of the East, and Master Nankai—as a means by which the small state of Japan can maintain its independence faced with the imperialism of the West. However, this paper aims to identify these three characters with Chōmin in the past and present, based on a series of experiences that he had over time. It also aims to examine three arguments in this book with the dual structure of self-criticism, which is composed of Chōmin’s criticisms of his own ideas of the past, and also of his own ideas of each period of time. Re-reading the book from this perspective, one can note that Chōmin makes repetitive self-criticisms through the characters and persistently continues the dis-cussion, even to the point of sacrificing logic. Then, one can see that the main theme of the book is formed around how modern Japan should understand and practice liberty, morality and righteousness, and revolution as it journeys toward democracy. The “given rights” proposed after the heated debate of the characters as an alternative to “revolutionary liberty” helps the reader understand how the idea of liberty was perceived in modern Japan, in terms of conflicts and limitations, as well as how the idea was deeply rooted and maintained in discussions of liberalism and democracy in the country afterwards.
  • 13.

    A Triptych of Happiness - Appearance, Continuance and Suspension

    Chan-Woong Lee | 2015, 72(2) | pp.445~471 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to examine the condition of happiness by intersecting a short story of Anton Chekhov and the history of philosophy, or rather it is to review the landscape of being unhappy and then sketch an alternative portrait of happiness beyond it. In “Terror”, a short story of Chekhov, we find three characters who feel unhappy, each in a different way: Gavryushka is miserable due to the lack of moderation and his loss of human dignity; “I” and Marya Sergeyevna does not know the ways in which she can reach a plateau existing beyond love and passion; Dmitri Petrovitch suffers from a metaphysical nihilism stemming from the banality and meaningless of the world. These portraits of unhappiness remind us of some principal philosophical thoughts on the nature of happiness, that is, enjoying the pleasure of the noble human (Aristotle), augmenting one’s joy through multiple and external relations (Epicurus, Russell), and laying a wager of one’s life on the ultimate meaning of the world. Each happiness may be named as ‘humanistic’, ‘naturalistic’, and ‘romanticistic’ respectively. These three conditions of happiness, sometimes being superposed and at other times in conflict, steer our lives into different and diverse directions. We may not prevent the boundary lines dividing happiness and unhappiness from invading suddenly and abruptly into our lives. However, our comprehension of the nature of these lines may provide us with the practical wisdom (phronesis) which is necessary for us to ride the waves of the lines.
  • 14.

    The Problem of Legitimacy in Self Assertion of Modernity - Regarding to H. Blumenberg

    Sun Bok Bae | 2015, 72(2) | pp.473~505 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper I will contribute to the anthropological orientation of Modernity’s consciousness through the German philosopher H. Blumenberg’s Legitimacy theses. According to him, the modern rationality goes back to later Mediaeval Ockham’s Nominalism, in which were hidden the gnosticism that transformed Ockamists to an opinion that vouched for voluntary God, and destructed Scholasticism and provided the way for modern rationality. Its philosophical movement let Descartes abet compare wicked and absolute God and to agitate to do thought experiment for the certainty of subject. So emerged the rationality of Self Assertion like an invocation of command bevor God’s absolute power. H. Blumenberg criticised K. Loewith, who believed that there were no more decisive breakthroughs in Modern as eschatological pattern of Christendom. His theses recognised discontinuity in regard to K. Loewith and C. Schmitt, but continuity in regard to M. Heidegger. So his grounding of the modern subjectivity was accredited to the discontinuity of history and the continuity without self epoche(ἐποχή) making history.
  • 15.

    Tool Development to Evaluate Effective Communication in Nursing Handover

    Jeoung Yeon Ok | Bak Yong-Ik | Sok Sohyune and 1other persons | 2015, 72(2) | pp.507~542 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    The necessity of effective communication in the handover between nurses is increasing in clinical practice. Feedback on what is good communication and how to communicate better is required. The purpose of this study is to develop an evaluation tool of handover communication between nurses. The establishment of evaluation criteria based on the perspectives of the staff nurses was systemized in a preceding qualitative research on the nurses’ experiences of handover communication. The communicative acts and norms that make good communication during nursing handover are based on this research. The evaluation items consist of two types of evaluation sections. One type of the criteria examines if necessary communicative acts are performed according to the individual communication phases. The other type of criteria is related to the overall evaluation of the whole handover communication. And these evaluation tools are generally verified through a content validity index by experts. This evaluation tool can be used for the education of nursing handover communication, and also as a tool for the repetitive estimation of their own handover communication, which is the presupposition for their long-term and continuous improvement of communication.
  • 16.

  • 17.