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2015, Vol.72, No.3

  • 1.

    The Features of “Empire” in Ancient China - An Examination of Ideological Aspects

    Jinmook Choi | 2015, 72(3) | pp.13~44 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines from an ideological perspective whether or not it is possible to call the ancient society of China an "empire", which has so far been commonly the case. Since it was ruled by an emperor, ancient China is an empire (帝國) in a literal sense, but the question posed by this paper is whether or not the translated Western term of "empire" is an equally appropriate name. Also, if ancient China was indeed such an empire, this paper seeks to address the problem of how many empire-like traits it had, and what type of empire it was. From the perspective of ideology, the thought of dayitong (大一統) won over in the end in the Qin and Han dynasties, so that ancient China in actuality appeared in the shape of a united nation. This ancient nation considered tienxia (天下) to be the ideologically appropriate and necessary domain of rule. Slogans such as tianxiayijia (天下一家) or jiatianxia (家 天下) were ideological devices that tied the united nation into one culturally and ideologically homogeneous common empire. At the same time, Confucianism as an integrating philosophy did not stop at traditional family ethics, but developed into an ethics of society and nation. As a result, ancient China can be classified within the translated term of "empire" in terms of its expansion of territory and the fact that it extended itself on the basis of ethnicity, culture, and homongeneity.
  • 2.

    Isocrates’ Panhellenism

    Heon Kim | 2015, 72(3) | pp.45~77 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    In the fourth century BC, Isocrates advocated so-called panhellenism as the most effective way to overcome the crisis with which Greeks were faced at that time. His panhellenism mainly consists of two parts: (1) Greeks have to put an end to mutual rivalries and to achieve a unity among themselves, (2) Greeks have to go on a military expedition in order to wage a war against the barbarians (=Persians). This paper aims to clarify the relation between the two parts of Isocrates’ panhellenism. In general, panhellenism was born and developed as a result of the Persian invasions in the fifth century BC. The enmity against Persians made Greeks united as one. Furthermore, Greeks designed a panhellenic expedition for the purpose of conquering the Persian Empire. This political vision was succeeded by Isocrates and finally was accomplished by Alexander the Great, the Macedon King. Isocrates considered the Greeks not simply as a ethnic community but rather as an ideological community formed by an education that could make its members have a concord or ‘oneness of mind (homonoia)’. In this view, hellenistic spiritual and mental factors such as philosophy, language, religion, mythology, history, tradition, law and political constitute were considered more valuable than ethical identity for being a Greek. The thought that such Hellenistic factors are universal and essential for all mankind should result in the sense of duty to hellenize all the barbarians. Consequently the panhellenism would consist not only of the unification of Greeks, but also of the military expedition to the Persian Empire justifying it as a necessary enterprise for civilization and enlightenment of the barbarians. On the other hand, during the fifth and forth centuries there were also critical attitudes to the imperialistic panhellenism. For instance, Plato, the most important philosophical rival of Isocrates tried to design a ideal polis with a moderate size. That means a critique to Isocratic panhellenism. On the other hand, the tragic poet Aeschylus and historian Herodotus seriously altered the tragical ending of imperialistic expansion by showing the example of Persian War.
  • 3.

    Investigating the Relationship between the Islamic Empires and Arabic Literature in the Middle Ages - Focusing on the Umayyad Era and the Abbasid Era

    Neung Woo Kim | 2015, 72(3) | pp.79~111 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This research investigates the relationship between the Islamic empires of the Umayyads and the Abbasids, and Arabic literature in the Middle Ages. The purpose of the research is two-fold: to understand how the literature participated in the management of the empires, and how it reflected the social phenomena that happened in the empires. The role of the poets in the empires overstepped the tribal level and was extended to the national level, such as defending the legitimacy of the rulers, supporting the policies of the empire, and criticizing social affairs. The empires witnessed negative phenomena such as the pursuit of pleasure and moral decay resulting from the expansion of urban culture. These phenomena were reflected in poems with the theme of wine and physical love. Meanwhile, the poetry of Sufism (Islamic mysticism) and the poetry of platonic love appeared as a reaction against the pleasure prevailing state of the society. Despite the Islamic principle of equality of all Muslims, non-Arabic Muslims actually were discriminated against by the Arabs. This caused resistance on the part of the non-Arabs, which began to take shape in the anti-Arab Shuʿūbiyyah movement led by Persians. Thus, Arabic writers tried to criticize or satirize the movement. In general, the Arabic literature of the Middle Ages reflected and commented on social phenomena and problems witnessed in the Islamic empires.
  • 4.

    Venice, a Medieval Maritime Empire - Myth or Historical Reality?

    Jong Kuk Nam | 2015, 72(3) | pp.113~148 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The history of Venice itself is a myth. Numerous historians do not hesitate in labelling Venice as a maritime empire, considering that it made a great expansion of Venetian domain in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the mainland of Italy in the Later Middle Ages. This article aims to review whether the concept of Venice as a maritime empire is only a myth or if Venice had the power and authority fit for an empire. Venice established a kind of maritime empire called Stato da Mar in the Eastern Mediterranean as the Fourth Crusade had come to conquer the Byzantine empire in 1204. Since the late Fourteenth century, Venice made an expansion towards the Italian peninsula and established Stato da Terra. Venice succeeded in maintaining these two foreign territories for some centuries against several great powers including the Ottoman Turks in the Eastern Mediterranean and France, and the Holy Roman empire in Europe. Venice's numerous enemies accused it of aiming toward the empire both on land and on sea. Several aspects considered, the fifteenth century Venice deserves to be called as an empire.
  • 5.

    A Study on Aspects of Korean Translation Regarding Chinese Ba (罷) in Nogeoldae and BakTongsa

    Jin, Haijin | 2015, 72(3) | pp.151~181 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to investigate the translation aspects regarding the Chinese particle ba (罷) by comparing different editions of Nogeoldae and Bak Tongsa. The particle ba was translated into either appraisal constructions such as -atwo mu/mwutenhota, -hwomi mu/mwutenhota and VP-lman kosti mwohota, or word-final endings such as volition marker -lila, promissive -(u)ma, declarative -nwola, -nila, interrogative -nonta, exhortative -cya, imperative -(u)la, -kwolye, -kwola, and -sywosye. By focusing on the subjects of the predicates, it can be shown that the particle ba had undergone a further grammaticalization, and that the translators faced the changes. From the early 16th to late 17th centuries, the particle ba mainly expressed a suggestion for the listener and a compromise from the speaker’s point of view. In late 18th century, however, it functioned also as the speaker’s volition/decision marker, exhortative, imperative, promissive, inferential, or question marker. We can see this particularly in the changes regarding appraisals. Appraisals, which vaguely expressed the several functions of ba in the early stages, had come to be substituted by different constructions in the later stages.
  • 6.

    “Haetae” Revived in Lee Sang’s Literature - A Study of The Walking Stick is Killed by the Train

    Go Hyeon Hye | 2015, 72(3) | pp.183~221 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, the postmodernity of Lee Sang which lies at the center of The Walking Stick is Killed by the Train is discussed. Specifically, in order to undertake a comprehensive analysis of this novel, as well as to carry out discussions on the haetae, a traditional and nationalistic text that was strategically used in this novel, three issues are addressed. The first is to reveal the reverse strategy of the funny story of this novel. To do so, the logic and laughter of reverse in Lee Sang’s literature, and the conflict structure and epiphany of laughter and fear in the novel was elucidated. The second is to check the distorted state of the colonial modern period of the 1930s displayed in this novel. To do so, the text was approached as a fable of colonial modernization in which the culture of the colonial modern period in vogue at the time was observed and the stylistic subject-object inversion was read. The third addresses the revival of the haetae in this novel and elucidates the meaning of the death of the walking stick. The haetae appearing in the story is examined from three perspectives, and attempts are made to explore what Lee Sang intended though the death of the walking stick. This novel is one of the stories of Koreans produced in connection with the Gwanghwamun Haetae. Lee Sang makes a judgment on the haetae to solve the problem of the identity of Koreans in the 1930s. It symbolizes the content of the judgment that is the subject of this novel.
  • 7.

    The Research of Korean Listening Textbooks’ Organizing Dialogues in China from a Computational Linguistics Perspective - Focusing on the Adverb

    LU XING HUA | 2015, 72(3) | pp.223~248 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Compared with the Korean quasi-oral system, there are certain differences in the use of adverbs existing in the dialogue texts of Korean listening materials published in China. In order to reveal the cause, the author, using the interval reasoning method of statistics, from two aspects, aims to discuss the adverbs in hearing teaching materials. According to grammatical features, the author firstly divides adverbs into two parts: sentence adverbs and component adverbs. Sentence adverbs can be classified into modality adverbs and conjunctive adverbs. And component adverbs can be classified into adverbs of time, adverbs of place, adverbs of manner, adverbs of degree, onomatopoeia adverbs, negative adverbs and so on. Last, adverbs are divided into the inherent word system, Chinese word system, and “inherent+Chinese”word system according to the origins. All these adverbs are compared with the Korean quasi-oral system, respectively. At last, based on the results of the above comparison, some suggestions are presented concerning the writing of demonstrative dialogues of Korean listening materials.
  • 8.

    A Study on Bartleby’s Resistance in Herman Melville’s “Bartleby, the Scrivener-A Story of Wall Street”

    Kwangjin Lee | 2015, 72(3) | pp.249~284 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper attempts to present a new interpretation by addressing to the most basic, but hitherto neglected elements of the story: business, office, leader-member relationship. It applies Leader Member Exchange Theory (LMX)—a theory of Organizational Behavior of Management—which analyzes the dyadic relation between leader and a new member. The narrator, the leader of his own organization, helps Bartleby, a new member, to undertake a new task that Bartleby never did before. Applying the LMX theory, this paper suggests that when Bartleby said “I would prefer not to”, it means his rejection of the leader’s LMX, and it also implies his rejection of business and organization. In addition, based on the fact that the narrator describes Bartleby as apparition or ghost, it argues that Bartleby stands for something that the American society which was changing its system to industrial capitalism lost in the process.
  • 9.

    Villette: Anglo-American Feminist Criticism Revisited

    CHOE JIAN | 2015, 72(3) | pp.285~303 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Anglo-American feminist criticism has contributed to the provision of methods for the discussion and assessment of Charlotte Brontë’s works. Villette, concerned with the interlocking issues of femininity and sexuality, particularly justifies the pertinence of such a theoretical angle in its textual analysis. The novel is often considered a paradigmatic feminist text and critics have located feminist consciousness immanent in the novel due to the recurrent references to female rage and anxiety. But Brontë’s elusive fiction, replete with multiple strata of signification, cannot be fully elucidated by such a monolithic approach. First and foremost, Villette evinces textual uncertainty, which incessantly displaces meanings and identities. The instability of characterization seems to negate the integrated humanist conception of the individual self. It further calls into question the very probability of interpretation itself. That suspicion is substantiated by the evasiveness of the narrative and the precariousness of the plot. In this respect, Villette turns out to be a touchstone in considering the strength and limitation of Anglo-American feminist criticism. By radically stirring up central assumptions around the notion of the unitary self which underlies the tactics of the criticism, Villette engages us to reassess its methods and possibilities and to revise the fundamental contradictions of the critical position, suggesting a more complex and non-linear perspective.
  • 10.

    Archaeology, Nationalism and the Formation of Modern States - with Focus on the Example of Greek Archaeology

    CHO DAE YOUN | 2015, 72(3) | pp.305~335 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The establishment of archaeology as a modern western discipline occurred in close association with the development of the European nation states and the spread of nationalism. In particular, archaeology played a key role in the formation of national identity. The current paper considers the case of Greek archaeology, which faced the task of recovering national pride and laying down the foundations of a new modern nation upon liberation from the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Therefore, the issue of the relationship between the modern nation state, nationalism, and archaeology is first examined, followed by a detailed survey of the process by which Greek archaeology came to be established and how it subsequently developed. The relationship between the state, nationalism, and archaeology, however, is apt to be problematic, as is observed through the case study on the debate surrounding Macedonia and the Vergina Star. It is believed that the case studies and issues relevant to Greek archaeology addressed in this paper will also provide insights for the practice of archaeology in Korea and indeed East Asia.
  • 11.

    A Comparative Study of Socratic Psyche and the Heart-Mind of Mencius - an Examination on Meno and Mencius

    Lee Won Jean | 2015, 72(3) | pp.337~366 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper will adopt the experimental comparative approach in dealing with the intellectual itinerary in two different canons, Mencius and Meno. Socrates and Mencius were willing to suggest to contemporary intellectuals who intended to obtain a shallow or superficial knowledge in order to win, the real way of obtaining authentic knowledge (or virtues) and authentic lives. Their teachings take on the form of dialogues, and in the meanwhile their interlocutor comes across some intellectual barriers. Mencius and Socrates together suggest that we seek, amongst the ever changing things, the eternal things that never change. Mencius mentions the finding of the lost mind through sa (thinking). Socrates uses the metaphor of the statue of Daedalos, which is apt to run away, to describe Psyche. Now that Mencius and Socrates and their colleagues have established what the eternal things that never change are amongst the ever changing things, they try to seek it again, in the other way around, by seeking what the ever-changing things are and newly learning about them. For Mencius, it is the collaboration of sa (thinking) and hak (learning). For Socrates, this means the process of recollection and collective inquiry.
  • 12.

    Why Translate Plato? The Answer of the Renaissance Platonist Ficino

    Song Euree | 2015, 72(3) | pp.367~400 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Marsilio Ficino is considered to be a central figure of the Florentine Academy, who contributed to the revival of Platonism in the Renaissance by translating Plato’s complete works and other major Platonists’ writings into Latin. But why did he translate Plato and his followers? The aim of this paper is to elucidate what kind of Platonism Ficino tried to revive and why. For this purpose, I draw attention in particular to the ‘prefaces’ of his translations, commentaries or treatises. Ficino’s prefaces show the objectives and intentions of his publications and the meaning and the role which he attributed to Platonism. We begin with a brief look at the main features of Renaissance humanism which forms a background to Ficino’s Platonism. In this connection, we consider what he understood by ‘humanitas’, a key concept of Renaissance humanism. We then turn to Ficino’s prefaces and some other writings, which lead to the conclusion that the Platonism sought by Ficino is a ‘pious philosophy’ or theology, even a philosophical religion. In order to elaborate this interpretation, we first clarify the conceptions of ‘prisca theologia’ and ‘common religion’, which Ficino used to situate Platonism in the tradition of pagan religion. Next, we investigate how Ficino, as both a Platonist and a Christian, conceived of the relationship between Platonism and Christianity. It is shown that Ficino found in Platonism a philosophical means for preparing ‘intelligent’ people for Christianity. Yet, in his attempt to appropriate Platonism in a Christian way, he seemed eventually to Platonize his own vision of Christianity.
  • 13.

    The Paintings of Jacques-Louis David and the Idea of “Grands-Hommes” - Art as a Political Text

    HA Sangbok | 2015, 72(3) | pp.401~431 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to observe the paintings of Jacques-Louis David as political and ideological text. J.-L. David, one of the most representative painters in neo-classicism, who worked from the second half of the Ancien Régime, actively mobilized his paintings to represent visually the spirit of the age of 18th century France. His artistic life provides us with the best historical example for the politicalization of art. The spirit of age that he wanted to visualize is that of the “grands hommes” (great man). As the French Ancien Régime and its traditional heroism were on the decline, the idea of the “grands hommes”, a new heroism as its anti-thesis emerged. His paintings were evidently oriented to make images embodying that idea. With the historical paintings of the second half of the Ancien Régime describing Greco-roman heroes and the political paintings illustrating the French Revolution’s heroes and Napoléon’s political greatness, David strived to represent and massively distribute the idea of the “grands hommes”. This study will demonstrate a significant example for reading art as a political text.
  • 14.

    Reading The Tale of Genji as a Woman’s Story

    Byungsook Kim | 2015, 72(3) | pp.435~446 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF