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2016, Vol.73, No.1

  • 1.

    A Defense of the Positive Value of Mass Art

    Chong-hwan Oh | 2016, 73(1) | pp.11~43 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    When we use the term “mass art,” we use it against the notion of traditional pure art, in the sense that mass art is low art, while pure art is high art. We also use the term “popular art” instead of “low art” to avoid its pejorative sense. Since mass (or popular) art is usually thought to have a lower value, some assert that it is not art at all or, if it is art, it is low art. In this paper I will discuss Ted Cohen’s pluralistic hierarchicalism to defend the positive value of mass art. Cohen argues that there is no difference between the value of high art and that of low art, since each art satisfies the different aesthetic needs of different audiences. According to him, art is important to us because it is a focus for a mutuality that locates a community. Works of art are foci for intimate communities. The totalities of such communities to which one belongs determine what kind of aesthetic sensibility one has. As long as works of art fulfill their roles in forming aesthetic communities, the grades of their values do not really matter. In the case of jokes, it does not really matter whether the joke has slight or deep content, as long as its adequate audience feels that it is funny. We can argue that the same applies to the case of art. Cohen thinks that we must accept the egalitarian position of value, since that is the best way to explain why we sometimes enjoy both high and low art, and why sometimes a work of art can attract both high and low audiences. And this egalitarian position for pluralistic values fits more neatly into the contemporary attention to individualistic aesthetic sensibilities.
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    On Noël Carroll’s Definition of Mass Art

    김정현 | 2016, 73(1) | pp.45~75 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I discuss the validity of Carroll’s definition of mass art. According to Carroll, mass art can be defined with three necessary conditions jointly sufficient one. To discuss the validity of these conditions, I begin by showing critical counterarguments brought by John Fisher and David Novitz, and claim that they are either false or trivial. While doing this, the heart of Carroll’s definition will come up to the surface and remove some misunderstandings entangled with his definition. And, eventually, this removal make us realize his real intention for it.
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    K-Pop: a Peculiar Encounter of Korean and Pop Music - Inquiry into K-Pop’s Korean Authenticity

    이수완 | 2016, 73(1) | pp.77~103 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    I approached K-Pop with a rather critical look. The tension between K which represents Korea and Pop which means American Popular music is essential in understanding K-Pop. The term “K-Pop” was named abroad and it means Idol-based -Western- dance- music. And the culture industry plays a leading role in its production. “Kayo” which is the Korean word for Korean Popular music had been considered as authentic Korean popular music, historically. However, Kayo is replaced by “K-Pop” which discards Korea’s musical identity and historical context. This elimination is due to K-Pop’s target of musical globalization. Instead, it took on contents of American popular music and gained musical universality. The proofs of musical universality are individual emotion’s expression regardless of local character and dance oriented music by means of trans- media strategy. These traits maximize economic profit. K-Pop aims to become a transnational popular music and in this process ‘K’ transformed into a brand name for exporting goods. K- Pop became a fictitious concept. K-Pop shows that class, nationality, gender based authenticity is thrown away in 21th century popular music.
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    King Yeongjo’s Love for Novels and Its Meaning

    Kim, Soo Young | 2016, 73(1) | pp.107~134 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This paper searches King Yeongjo’s Seungjeongwonilgi (承政院日記, Journal of the Royal Secretariat) for novel-related articles to shed light on King Yeongjo (英祖, 1694~1776) as a novel mania and to explore its meaning in the history of Korean novels. The findings of this study are described below. King Yeongjo, in addition to the volumes revealed in previous studies, read Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三國志演義), Journey to the West (西遊記), Romance of the Eastern Han (東漢演義), Romance of the Western Han (西漢演義), Pingyaozhuan (平妖傳) etc. In particular, King Yeongjo enjoyed reading Joseon's three queer books, Journey to the West, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, and Water Margin (水滸傳), of which Romance of the Three Kingdoms was read with particular care. In short, King Yeongjo read Guunmong (九雲夢) and other Korean novels, as well as romances (演義小說), literary novels (文言小說), supernatural novels (神魔小說), renqing novels (人情小說), and other Chinese novels in diverse genres. King Yeongjo acknowledged the value and utility of novels. Such a positive perception about novels seems to have been formed from the Prince Yeoningun (延礽君) period, and during his 50 year reign as a king, King Yeongjo continued to enjoy reading novels. When sick or unable to sleep far into the night, King Yeongjo read novels to calm his mind. Also, he associated the contents of novels with political agenda, and regarded them as reference for running the state. As such, King Yeongjo enjoyed reading novels not only for private tastes, but also for official purposes, making this point important. Based on such facts, King Yeongjo’s love for novels presumably had considerable ripple effects on the upper-class culture of the time. In relation to this, it should be noted that the novels read by King Yeongjo have much in common with the novels listed in Prince Sado’s (思悼世子) Chinese Novel’s Hoemobon (中國小說繪模本) and the novels listed in Yun Deok-hui’s (尹德熙) Soseol gyeongnamja (List of novels). Putting together the above, it can be argued that we should pay new attention to the fact that one of the major reasons for the popularity of novels in Joseon in the 18th century was because King Yeongjo, as a novel mania, had a tremendous cultural effect on Joseon society.
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    The Visualization of Voices and the Unification of the Written and Spoken Language with Chinese Characters in the Newspaper Manse - bo

    Song Minho | 2016, 73(1) | pp.135~164 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the attached Korean transcription style adopted by the newspaper Manse-bo, which was published in 1906. At that time, Son Byong-hi (孫秉熙, 1861-1922), a religious sect leader of Cheondogyo annotated Hangul (Korean alphabet) beside Chinese characters when he founded the newspaper, and brought in a type called 'Ruby' in Japan. The Korean and Chinese characters used in combination showed through visualization the relationship of Korean and Chinese characters as they co-existed in the language environment of Korea in the Joseon Dynasty. However, in Korea, the vocal tradition that reads Chinese characters and the translation tradition that inscribes the meaning are thoroughly separated. Although each Chinese character had a correct annotation through this orthography, people who did not know Chinese characters could not have any chance to understand their meaning. Therefore, the newspaper Manse-bo at the time mostly used a method that annotated voice on modern concept words borrowed from the west. It also attempted an experiment in language through columns such as Gungmundokjagurakbu (國文讀者俱樂部), in which Chinese characters were matched to Hangul not through annotation voice, but by matching the meaning of annotation focusing on the words expressing action or description. It should be noted that this language marking experiment was part of a transitional process which resulted, in the end, in a complete Korean style, and not a reconstitution that was influenced by the Japanese way of reading Chinese classics. The phonetic and descriptive (or analytic) tradition established from the Joseon period had made an impact. In addition, the way of writing adopted in the newspaper Manse-bo brings to mind the relationship between Chinese characters and Korean letters that was brought up by the driving forces of Dongnipsinmun (『독립신문』) in the previous period. At the time, Seo Jae-pil (徐載弼, 1864-1951) and Ju Si-gyeong (周時經, 1876-1914) had expressed their opinions about the matter of transliterating from Chinese. The major focus of this discussion was how far it would be possible to transliterate from Chinese letters. Seo Jae-pil and Ju Si-gyeong both considered how deeply the concept of transliterated Chinese was imbedded within the everyday language of the people. In conjunction with this, they emphasized the need for enlightenment of modern western ideas. The attached Korean transcription style introduced by Manse-bo contributed to provoking, once again, attention on the discourse on the Korean language and the matter of enlightenment, which had been brought forth in this period. Furthermore, it recalled the conditions that eventually resulted in the establishment of the complete Korean style, since the tradition of reading the meaning of Chinese characters had not existed in Korea.
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    A Study on the Promotion and Conclusion of the Small Blast Furnace Construction Project by the Japanese Empire during the Pacific War Period

    Bae Suk Man | 2016, 73(1) | pp.197~231 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to disclose the full account of the ‘Small Blast Furnace Construction Project’, which was one of the major wartime policies of the Japanese Empire during the Pacific War period. The study specifically analyzed the planning process, beginning from the second half of 1942, the unfolding of the project, and its results and limitations. The purpose of promoting the said project was to increase the production of the critical war supplies of steel, and to counteract the increasing seriousness of transportation difficulties. While the Japanese aimed at increasing production of pig iron by constructing small scale blast furnaces at iron ore production areas on the one hand, they also conceived of a plan to mitigate the burden of iron ore transportation by supplying it to Japan. The content of the project involved completing the concentrated construction of mainly 181 twenty-ton small blast furnaces at the iron ore and coal production areas in Joseon, China (Northern and Central China), Mongolia, and Taiwan within the year 1943, in order to produce 500 thousand tons of pig iron that was to be supplied to Japan. The main agent of construction and management was the state-run Japan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., and steel manufacturing companies including Japanese zaibatsu, local steel mills and coal-mining companies were in charge. The results of the project were poor, with below 30% of the intended production goal, and only 50% of the pig iron produced was supplied to Japan. The reasons for the poor results included the technological problems of blast furnace operation, supply difficulties for tools and materials necessary for the construction, and the shortage of personnel including engineers and skilled workers. By region, the failure to resolve the problem of using anthracite as fuel resulted in poor performance in Joseon, while issues with the company in charge and the frequent change in local circumstances factored as the reason for poor performance in China.
  • 8.

    The Significance and Limits of ‘Religious’ Universities in Colonial India - Aligarh Muslim University and Banaras Hindu University

    Hawon Ku | 2016, 73(1) | pp.233~269 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Institutions of western higher education in India, including colleges and universities, have provided the South Asian subcontinent with major figures in Indian political and social history, as well as a large class of educated persons who have acted as the main force of modernization. However, since 1857 British rule endeavored to control Indian education through the establishment of colonial universities and the affiliation system, which remains a problematic issue even in present day India. Following such changes and challenges, two universities were established by Indians with religious education as a substantial part of their identity. Banaras Hindu University and Aligarh Muslim University share several similarities, such as their dates and processes of establishment, as well as their common goals in the education of a modern as well as religious citizen. In this paper I compare the methods in which the two universities brought together a religious identity and the idea of modern education, as well as the driving ideas and manners in which the universities were established. During a period in which colonial rule had fully assumed power over the institutions of producing and distributing modern knowledge, the two universities suggested a modernity differentiated with the West through a process of negotiation, adaptation, acknowledgement and resistance. However, this struggle to produce a modern “Indian” citizen with a religious identity was stymied due to several reasons, including the role of religion as well as language in their curriculum and education.
  • 9.

    Influencia de la doctrina donatiana en la preceptiva dramática española de la primera mitad del siglo XVI - enfocado en los paratextos de las obras dramáticas

    Chung Dong-Hee | 2016, 73(1) | pp.271~306 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    El propósito de este estudio consiste en revelar la enorme influencia del opúsculo de Donato sobre el género dramático en la formación de la preceptiva dramática española de la primera mitad del siglo XVI y su característica histórico-literaria. Antes de la circulación de la Poética aristotélica, lo que lideró el desarrollo de la teoría dramática fue la poética terenciana, o mejor dicho, los breves escritos teóricos sobre el género dramático que son material liminar de las obras terencianas con comento. Desde mediados del siglo XV los autores españoles como Juan de Menay el Marqués de Santillana mostraron la gran huella de la preceptiva donatiana en los paratextos de sus obras como prólogo, preámbulo y dedicatoria y consideraron a Terencio como el mejor comediógrafo. En la primera mitad del siglo XVI el concepto dramático donatiano mostrado en las obras dramáticas es notablemente uniforme y no se desvía de la preceptiva terenciana sugerida por Donato y los otros comentaristas de las obras terencianas. Dado que la doctrina donatiana ponía énfasis en la retórica más que las calidades que distinguen el método dramático, los dramaturgos españoles podían disfrutar de mayor flexibilidad y libertad en su proceso de creación por lo cual podían introducir los elementos no teatrales prestados de otros géneros coetáneos sin límite. Por esta situación psíquico-histórica, las obras dramáticas de la primera mitad del siglo XVI pudieron obtener las características peculiares dentro del marco del concepto dramático donatiano.
  • 10.

    The Ethics of the Other and the Political Philosophy of the Third in E. Levinas

    parkyeeun | 2016, 73(1) | pp.307~336 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Emmanuel Levinas, who began the philosophy of the Other, is often defined solely as an ethical philosopher and less valued in the realm of political philosophy. But ethics and politics should never be separated. Moreover, there was a clear political project in Levinas’ thought. How was political thinking possible for Levinas? This paper will examine how his ethics of the Other had moved to the political field through the concept of the third party in Totality and Infinity and Otherwise than Being. Levinas uses the notion of the third party to universalize his ethics of asymmetry. However, there is a difficulty in understanding the third party clearly because the third party is not discussed with due weight and because these two books explicate the third party in different manner. Moreover, it is very doubtable whether the notion of the third party is ever consistently used in the two books. However, we can definitely find his attempt to bridge the gap between ethics, which is face-to-face relationship with the Other, and politics, which is the relationship with the third party. This essay goes beyond this and aims to fend off several suspicions that are related to reality via the notion of the third party when the asymmetric ethics of the Other is thought about in the realm of politics.
  • 11.

    Criticism on Kripke’s Theory of Rigid Reference and Hermeneutic Probability

    Sungno Youn | 2016, 73(1) | pp.337~369 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The main purpose of this paper is to review critically the theory of referential rigidity by Kripke on the one hand, and to propose an alternative of hermeneutic probability on the other hand. For that matter we begin by introducing Russell’s descriptivist theory of reference in order to explain what are the first and second genesis of proposition. It is also necessary for us to show why Kripke coins the key concept of rigid designator and makes a difference between rigidity “de facto” for rigidity “de jure” as well as strong necessity and weak necessity. We think the exposé made this way offers a better way of understanding that a proper name does not have the same meaning as the corresponding definite description, contrary to Russell’s thought. These themes constitute the first part of this article. Its second part is dedicated to putting into question Kripke’ theory of rigidity. First we account for the reason why an interactionnist theory of language is better than its nominalist or ego-centered perspective one. It is also relevant for us to adopt an evolutionary viewpoint in order to emphasize the fuzziness of categories. Furthermore some problems are indicated that may well occur if one does not carefully distinguish things like ontological entity, categorial attributes one gives to that entity, propositional content by means of which the attributes are expressed, and propositional attitude the speaker adopt with respect to what she says. The final point of the second part of this paper lies in demonstrating that such an identity statement as “Hesperus and Phosphorus are the same planet” might represent the metaphysically necessary truth but not a posteriori attested one, a counter-argument which goes against Kripke’s. In the third part of this paper, we try to support our thesis that words do not designate rigidly but in a manner of hermeneutic probability on the basis of quantum physics, theory of prototype, and metaphor regarded as fundamental cognitive mechanism. In conclusion our position is made clear concerning relations among language, mind, world.
  • 12.

    A Comparative Study on the Language dictionaries of East and West Germany - Focusing on the “Wörterbuchs der deutschen Gegenwartssprache” and “Das große Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache”

    Kyung-Eun Choi | 2016, 73(1) | pp.371~400 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Das Wörterbuch der deutschen Gegenwartssprache (1961-1977) ist ein Meilenstein in der Lexikographiegeschichte der Nachkriegszeit. Es war das erste Wörterbuch, das die Modelle der von de Saussure eingeführten und von der Stlilistik der Prager Schule weiterentwickelten strukturellen lexikalischen Semantik in die Lexikographie einführte. Die Stilmarkierung beruhte auf einem System von vier sogenannten ‘Stilschichten’ und elf ‘Stilfärbungen’. Während der letzte Band des Wörterbuchs der deutschen Gegenwartssprache erschien, erschien auf der anderen Seite der Mauer der erste Band des großen Duden-Wörterbuchs mit dem Titel Das große Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache (1976-1981). In diesem ersten großen westdeutschen Wörterbuch, das nach 1945 erschien, steht die historisch- diachrone Orientierung an zweiter Stelle. Der Duden will also “die deutsche Sprache in ihrer ganzen Vielschichtigkeit darstellen und bewußt machen und zugleich ein Spiegelbild unserer Zeit und ihrer gesellschaftlichen Verhältnisse” sein. Das System stilistischer Bewertungen folgt aber zu weiten Teilen dem des Wörterbuchs der deutschen Gegenwartssprache. Der Vergleich der beiden Wörterbücher mit Hilfe der gleichen Stichwörter zeigt die andere Weltanschauung der beiden Seiten des geteilten Deutschland. Das wird zum Beispiel in den Worterklärungen der drei Stichwörter ‘Manipulation’, ‘Pazifismus’ und ‘Vaterland’ deutlich.
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