Korean | English

pISSN : 1598-3021 / eISSN : 2671-7921

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.63
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2016, Vol.73, No.2

  • 1.

    A Study on the Structure and Mechanism of Words and Image in Dramas — Focused on Misaeng (2014), a Television Drama

    Seunggook Yang | 2016, 73(2) | pp.13~37 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Owing to the development of visual media, movies and television dramas are central to the drama form recently. Especially, Korean television dramas have made a remarkable qualitative progress since the 1990s, and it is no exaggeration to say that they are the aesthetic model of other television dramas around the world today. While enjoying television dramas in our daily lives, however, we have no epistemological self-consciousness of why we are immersed in watching television dramas this much. In addition, new television dramas are constantly being produced with a similar format, but we have not even found a methodology good enough to discover common aesthetics among them and to extract distinctive features. As a form of behaviors, dramas develop events by exposing behaviors with words and images. Therefore, the methodology of drama aesthetics can be regarded to focus on analyzing the structure and mechanism of such words and images. Thus, as a part of the process of discussion I have attempted so far, this study aims to examine the structure and mechanism of words and images in dramas, based on phenomenological views and perception theories. Particularly, this study attempted to explore the relation between words and images and how to compose words and images by the camera point of view, especially focusing the form of television dramas. Besides, this study investigated how the structure and mechanism of words and images get related to the way of television dramas showing themes. Television dramas can naturally draw out viewers’ empathy through a close harmony between the auditory perception from television drama characters’ utterances and the visual perception showing their behaviors and objects. Through this process, Viewers perceive the world provided by television dramas as their own ‘environment (Umwelt)’ and recognize their existence of ‘Being-in-the-world (In-der-Welt-Sein)’ as ‘us’ not ‘me’. Today, television dramas have become central to the drama form, and it is attributed to such an aesthetic structure of television dramas. This study has a feature as a preliminary review to explore the general aesthetic mechanism of television dramas. Thus, this study attempted to seek a methodology of analyzing universal dramas, particularly focusing on Misaeng out of all the Korean dramas.
  • 2.

    The Survival Plan of the New-drama Group and the Middle-theater as a Agenda

    Lee Kwang ouk | 2016, 73(2) | pp.39~82 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study tries to elucidate the discourses brought on by the ‘middle-theater’ that appeared as an agenda for the Chosun theatrical world in late 1930’s. The middle-theater referred to the eclectic theatrical works appeared in Japan. But Park`s claim for middle-thater was similar to the popularized way of the Shin-hyup and the second period of the Keuk-yeon. Meanwhile, the Keuk-yeon had no option but to take a doubtful position about middle-theater. This is because the maintaining the cultural capital included in the sign ‘new-drama’ was a way to unify the existing audience of the Keuk-yeon - the intellects. Moreover, as the value of the new-drama had been formed through a distinction from commercial plays, Keuk-yeon could not help denounce the play of Chungangmudae as nothing but a commercial play. But there were complaints about the monopolistic cultural capital of the Keuk-yeon, and it was hard to identify an actual difference between new-drama and middle theater. Therefore, the extension of new-drama was expanded as new-drama world that included the middle-theater group. Moreover, the new-drama group had become gradually differentiated in adopting different position about middle-theater. Afterwards, the term of middle-theater disappeared from the field of discourse, but it’s critical consciousness was succeeded by the term ‘attraction’ of the new-drama. This had relevance to the audience pool that displayed a tendency of a class mixing. Finally, the existing dichotomy to divide new-drama and middle-theater according to commercialism was no longer useful in late 1930’s. In other words, the new-drama group was given the task of proving its value of existence. Therefore, focus must be centered around the fact that the theoretical criticism produced at this time was the result of earnest effort to find the survival plan of new-drama.
  • 3.

    Disguised Identity and Perception of Anxiety in Films of the 1960’s — focucing on The Devil’s Stairway and The Tiger Moth

    PARK MIRAN | 2016, 73(2) | pp.83~122 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to analyze how, in the 1960’s thriller movies The Devils Stairway (1964) and The Tiger Moth (1965), the instability of the society reveals itself while the audience figures out the narrative of crime, and how this instability is recognized by the audience. In The Devils Stairway and The Tiger Moth, the crimes involve in murdering people who are obstacles to making a new family. The crimes are concealed in the inside of the family, and the desire to make a new family is frustrated by the interference of the past. The Devil’s Stairway shows the process in which a sense of internal instability is gradually transferred to internal uncertainty that he can’t believe in himself from uncertainty about the objective outside world. Thrills and suspense formed by disguise of death show the process in which anxiety is not only to simply position in the interior of the society and family but irrupted into inner side. Therefore it is structured perception of two specters that is anxiety for the society and family and anxiety for his own mind. The Tiger Moth makes the audience recognize the ambiguity about identity of others through a person to disguise his identity. Figurative language a character uses is, has the potential to hold back the truth as a language to hide at the same time reveal himself. This ambiguity about identity has intensified the sense of fear that the threat from behind by acquaintances. The ambiguity identity of the character and being identified are perceived as the anxiety of feeling that his suppressed desires come from unresolved the past is latent very closely. The fact that 1960’s thriller film has been emerged as a cultural phenomenon means thrilling experience can present a new perspective and a sense for the everyday life of the audience. The Devil’s Stairway and The Tiger Moth show the sense of anxiety which is inherent in our home and every mind. This works invite audience participation to thrilling experience come from disguised identity, make crack a demand for stability that is a reconstruction of family and a reconstruction of nation. Also this works make the audience perception anxiety about 1960’s everyday life. In the 1960’s thriller movies, the sense of anxiety that can’t converge upon stable system smoothly has been formed in the ally with the audience.
  • 4.

    Intentional Connection of Two Versions of ‘Heavenly Homecoming to Star’ with ‘Youth Culture’

    Arum Song | 2016, 73(2) | pp.123~155 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Discussions on youth culture in South Korea exploded starting from Heavenly Homecoming to Star, which set an unprecedented box-office record in the areas of novel and film in the early 1970s. Thus, Heavenly Homecoming to Star is considered as if it is an integration of youth culture, but the identity of the youth culture has not been clearly proven, and it should be made clear that active discussions could be achieved after the publication and release of the two versions of Heavenly Homecoming to Star. Therefore, instead of confirming youth culture through Heavenly Homecoming to Star, a discussion on what really made it possible to connect two versions of Heavenly Homecoming to Star and ‘youth culture.’ The two versions of Heavenly Homecoming to Star were the works very appropriate for attracting the public in the 1970s in that they were expressed in a way that they stimulate the readers and audiences’ sensibility. This characteristic of sensibility can be considered a cause that made people evaluate them novel on one hand and very popular on the other hand, which made natural its connection to young consumers newly flowed in. Young people who responded to Heavenly Homecoming to Star were considered abrupt through the media that had continued introducing Western youth culture since the 1960s, and then, discussions on the youth culture of South Korea spread. The ambivalence to reveal the Korea’s complex about its youth culture as that of an underdeveloped country as compared to those of the West and at the same time, cleverly compare advanced cultures with Korean youth culture equally made a fire in a controversy of youth culture. As the controversy began, college students would redefine youth culture to regain their identity as young intellectuals, opposing to the interpellation of the name of ‘youth’ in the work of Heavenly Homecoming to Star. Youth culture, at this time, is converted to a meaning different from that in the controversy of youth culture, and no controversy occurs anymore. In other words, youth culture in the 1970s cannot be viewed by a single concept, and the beginning of youth culture or early youth culture is a combination of young people’s response to the novelty of the two versions of Heavenly Homecoming to Star with the desire of the times, and it is a concept that is floating, according to the situation in which it is placed or the subject of interpellation, there is a clear substance.
  • 5.

    Walter Scott’s Achievement in Waverley as a Modern Historical Novel

    Kim, Myung-Hwan | 2016, 73(2) | pp.163~191 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to examine Walter Scott’s achievement in Waverley, his first historical novel. The Jacobite rebellions the novel depicts should be regarded as part of the Western powers’ struggle for the hegemony of the emerging modern world system, which will help us overcome the limitations of Lukács’s Eurocentric views on Scott. Waverley as a whole including its ending is certainly “conservative,” since it affirms the political entity of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland after the Union Act of 1707. Scott is, however, successful in creating a vivid portrait of poor but attractive and sometimes heroic Highlanders and their ethnic culture. By means of combining different elements of romance, Gothic fiction, Shakespeare’s histories, and contemporary realist novel, Scott persuasively describes common Highlanders’ virtues and their potential to address the challenges of encroaching modernity as well as the inevitable doom of their traditional society.
  • 6.

    Trying to Tell “the Two-fold Unspeakable” in Harriet Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl

    KIm, Lee Eun | 2016, 73(2) | pp.193~224 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims at investigating a slave girl struggling to give a true-to-life picture of the slavery against the silence forced upon her. In addition to the cruelties and physical tortures, the slaves were doubly bound because they were unable to confide in each other and form their own bond among themselves. Trying to appeal mainly to the Northern white female readers, Harriet Jacobs focuses on the sexual abuses on the slave women but creates a much different character compared with the conventional slave girl as a passive victim. Jacobs portrays Linda Brent who talks back and speaks up against her master, Dr. Flint. Furthermore, in order to escape seduction by her master, Brent enters into a sexual liaison with another white man, which would have made the contemporary genteel readers uncomfortable. In describing this affair Jacobs cannot depict the ‘unspeakable’ because she is incapable of finding appropriate expressions to convey her inner psychological turmoils which are often beyond the readers’ experience and imagination. Even though Jacobs tries her best to narrate the wrongs, evils and depravities of the slavery as much as possible, slavery is still beyond her description due to its indescribable abominations. Her book is valuable not merely because she records an accurate and vivid reality of the slavery, but because she awakens the readers to the extreme difficulties of grasping the truth of the slavery.
  • 7.

    Rereading “Calypso” in Ulysses — Leopold Bloom’s Hedonistic Breakfast and Deviation

    JOO RI LEE | 2016, 73(2) | pp.225~256 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores the aspects of Leopold Bloom’s eating that are represented in “Calypso,” the fourth episode of James Joyce’s Ulysses (1922). In epitomizing the ethos of modern metropolitan flâneur, Bloom, with his prosaic wandering, tastes and digests a broad range of cuisines throughout the entire text. As a Hungarian Jew in Dublin and a cultural transgressor, Bloom, for all his desire for pleasure, savors forbidden foods, including the pork kidney not included in the category of Jewish kosher. Representing a resistance to the culture of exclusion, Bloom’s eating creates his individual pleasure and the pleasure of Ulysses — recognizable for its inclusiveness and heterogeneousness. However, while profiting pleasures from the transgressive eating, Bloom becomes preoccupied with a sense of guilt and anxiety, although such feelings are often repressed in his mind. In keeping with this idea, my discussion of “Calypso” examines how the text presents the combination of pleasure and anxiety, by focusing on Bloom’s transgression from kosher. To speculate about the reasons for Bloom’s anxiety, this article tries to unravel a sequence of images inscribed in “Calypso,” which, in fact, betray Bloom’s anxiety of consumption.
  • 8.

    Between the Real and Fiction — Performative Writing in Elizabeth Costello

    Yeo Sun Park | 2016, 73(2) | pp.257~286 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the performative aspect of J. M. Coetzee’s Elizabeth Costello. The novel pursues the question of how form is related to the expression of content. More significantly, the novel addresses critical debates concerning the relationship between philosophy and literature. It brings into focus how the literary form shapes the philosophical content: the novel’s moral and political import is inseparable from its distinctively literary qualities. Coetzee dramatizes ethical, moral and philosophical interest mediated through the form of fiction and by so doing explores a new formulation of ethical thinking in ways that can only be offered by literature. Thus, the philosophical argument is, in the novel, presented in a way that involves engagement with characters, and the reflection on moral life is conveyed in the form of emotions. Throughout the novel, Coetzee invokes the text as a stage, writing and reading as a performance. The setting that the novel constitutes is not so much mise en scène attributed to representation, but rather mise en abîme referring to the impossibility of representation. Seen in this light, Coetzee’s experiment in form may be regarded as seemingly postmodern; it aims, however, at a new dimension of realism, which emphasizes the importance of essentially related nature of lived experience and brings into being its embeddedness in life rather than the life represented. Through his performative writing that dramatizes the potential plight of a novelist arising from her insistence on fidelity to the “real,” Coetzee reinterpretates what the “real” means and reinvents a new dimension of realism in Elizabeth Costello.
  • 9.

    A Study on ‘Trust(信義)’ depicted in Lee Haejo’s Sinsoseol

    Lee Kyungrim | 2016, 73(2) | pp.289~318 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Lee Haejo has been well recognized as a writer devoted to Sinsoseol along with Lee Injik and Choi Chansik. Recently, several studies have developed a remarkable research on his translation Yullihak, which can be considered as a major reference to understand his early thoughts and intentions to write Sinsoseol. This text can be expected to make a shift in existing interpretation paradigm which regards Lee Haejo’s works as accepters of premodern ethics orientations. The most interesting point in this text is that it explains Ethics as recognition and practice at the same time. The purpose of Ethics as a modern academic discipline is regarded as to recognize the standards which divide good from evil, which make human a human. One of Lee Haejo’s major themes is to capture this standards in his works and present it to his readers. However, Yullihak requires not just to recognize the pre-existing standards but to understand that these standards can be changed as society changes rapidly. Consequently, to create new standards which can be fitted to the changed society rises as a major project. Yullihak defines that society is a collective of individuals. And it recognizes various social relations between individuals as a contract. The concept of contract creates an image of subject who can be regarded as equal to the others, who have a free will to agree to the contract. This kind of subject appears beyond the pre-modern social or moral system. They can be regulated by their own contracts, not by premodern ethical regimes. Lee Haejo tried to plant this idea into marriage which can be represented as a synecdoche of other social relations. He has depicted an ideal contract in Hongdohwa, and also revealed its crucial nature in HwaoeiHyul. If a contract cannot achieve its ideal form, it can only be depicted as a legal contract. However, Lee Haejo tended to carry contracts beyond its own legal nature. His concern was to impose a moral nuance on these relations. He crystallized it as a Trust. In this context, trust is social morality required among the society. It requires to suppress selfishness when circumstances around the contract change, and to keep their promises as they made. From this perspective, we can reconsider some behaviors of female characters in Lee Haejo’s works. Because trust can be achieved by actual performance of keeping promises, the contents of promise can be regarded as minor factors. Female characters who kept trust can achieve their human quality by their own.
  • 10.

  • 11.

    Memory of Division and Politics of Memory

    Hang KIM | 2016, 73(2) | pp.361~392 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines possibility of how the memory of division in Korean peninsula could be appropriated politically. That division of the peninsula has functioned as ‘dispositif of sovereignty’ and the politics of memory should suspend this function is main argument of this article. ‘Dispositif of sovereignty’ is a complex of knowledges and institutions that produces fictional state of exception through which sovereignty of the state could present itself. In the case of South Korea, it would be shown in the law of national security that is a decisive element constructed by various political, econimical and scientific practices. The politics of memory can be regarded as a sort of practice which should suspend function of such dispositif, but the previous discourses about this politics have not been able to clarify this kind of suspension. Walter Benjamin and Ichiro Tomiyama are influential figures who can give an important perspective proposing what is characteristic to the politics of memory. Benjamin defined the memory as an appropriation of the past which could never belong to winner or loser in history, and Tomiyama, along with Benjamin, has recalled a figure of ghost which was forgotten and thrown into hall of oblivion. Sojin Kim, a novelist in contemporary Korea, thematized this kind of politics of memory in his works. He showed us a cesura of history by describing his father’s life. This cesura of history which Sojin Kim made exist is a point of suspension of dispositif of sovereignty, and the politics of memory could redeem an original form of life combining the past and the future onto the present.
  • 12.

    The Fan Wu Liu Xing and its Intellectual Discussion about the One

    Lee Sungryule | 2016, 73(2) | pp.393~422 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article presents a translation of the newly uncovered bamboo text, the Fan Wu Liu Xing (FW), with some discussions on the nature of the text. The FW proposes the One as the primordial entity which can stabilize and maintain the existence and movement of all nature as well as all the phenomena and orders in the nature, religion and humanity. The acquisition of the One makes possible the unification of the world and, moreover, its stable control, leading eventually to the most valuable existence of the world as the model of Heaven and Earth. The FW further argues that the political rhetoric and utilization of the One maximize the political efficiency for the ruling of one state or the world.
  • 13.

    Tibet, Reflected in the Eyes of the Missionaries - Missionary activity and awareness about the Tibet Buddhism of IppoIito Desideri (1684-1733)

    HyukJoo Sim | 2016, 73(2) | pp.423~457 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to study local experiences and track records of a western Jesuit missionary, Ippolito Desideri (1684-1733), who opened the Tibetan mission in 1716, and to provide different perspectives and opinions to the fragmentary knowledge and images of today’s Tibet we are aware of. It was around 17th to 18th century when Tibetans in China had been introduced and propagated in earnest to the Westerners. Protagonists of the propagation were merchants, missionaries, oriental scholars, geographers and botanists, and each one had their own missions and objectives when entered Tibet. Amongst them, it can be said that an active part played by Catholic missionaries had a significant contribution of introducing Tibet to European society.  Desideri is the first Italian Jesuit missionary who expanded the mission in Lhasa, Tibet. He left Rome on September 27, 1712 and arrived in Lhasa, capital of Tibet, on March 18, 1716. In Lhasa, he practiced his missionary activity for five years, and during this time he witnessed the invasion of the Dzungar Mongols and wars in 1717. This conflict placed Desideri under difficult circumstances for expanding his missionary activity; yet, he exhaustively studied the Tibetan culture and religion in there. His extensive notes on Tibet showed one of the best accounts of Tibetan culture and religion among the former Western missionaries, owing to his study of Tibetan language and Buddhist scriptures with Tibetan monks while living in the largest Buddhist sects, Sera monastery near Lhasa, Tibet. The body of this article examines the initial form of Tibet in the 18th century revealed through his multifaceted experiences, observation and contacts with local dignitaries, King and living Buddha, in ​​Tibet. In other words, this study oversees humanistic culture of Tibet and its external relations built at the time. By doing so, this study estimates and traces the real Tibetan society that reflected in the eyes of a westerner in the 18th century, as in the proposed subject.
  • 14.

    Music and Peace — Musical Activities of the German-Austrian War Prisoners in Bando and Kurume P.O.W. Camps

    Kyungboon Lee | 2016, 73(2) | pp.459~490 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The Japanese P.O.W. camp in Bando in the Shikoku Island during the WWI is regarded as ‘a paradise’ of the German-Austrian prisoners and the peaceful P.O.W. Among the various cultural activities their musical performances have contributed to this positive reputation. By analyzing German documents of the Federal archive Berlin- Lichterfelde in Germany, diaries and memories of the prisoners as well as Japanese documents in the Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, this study explores how music related to peace in the Japanese P.O.W. camp, particularly in the case of Bando and Kurume due to their enormous musical activities, and which political purposes Japan had aimed to. It further examines the interrelation between music and peace.
  • 15.

  • 16.

  • 17.