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2016, Vol.73, No.4

  • 1.

    The Foreclosure of the Asiatic Mode of Production and Its Implications: Gayatri Spivak’s Critique of Marxian Evolutionary Models in A Critique of Postcolonial Reason

    Ryu, Doo-Sun | 2016, 73(4) | pp.15~58 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In postcolonial discussions, the evolutionary theory has been one of the most controversial issues, as its application to human society has been used as a justification for imperialism/colonialism. In this essay, I address this issue, drawing upon the Marx section of Gayatri Spivak’s A Critique of Postcolonial Reason, in which she critiques Marx’s foreclosure of his own concept of the Asiatic Mode of Production [AMP]. Rather than focusing on the native informant’s perspective and related topics, I pay particular attention to Spivak’s new emphasis on the foreclosure of the AMP in this section and her issues with Marx’s acceptance of evolutionary models, based on the assumption that Spivak considers Marx’s foreclosure an expression of his “desire to theorize the other,” which is based on the idea of unilinear “evolutionary storyline.” I also analyze how Spivak “resurrects” the AMP “in order to understand globality” (CPR 72), without problematizing the supposition about “stages” of development as long as such development doesn’t rely on the idea of unilinearity, and with the aim of indicating how Marx’s AMP has given insights to contemporary philosophers such as Deleuze and Guattari, who connect the AMP to the contemporary globalized world. All in all, I seek to make my point that Spivak marks herself as one of the remarkable postcolonial theorists to incorporate Derridean “new politics of reading” in her new reading of Marxian evolutionary models, thus enriching postcolonial theories.
  • 2.

    Gayatri Spivak’s Subaltern Ethics in Mahasweta Devi’s “Pterodactyl, Puran Sahay, and Pirtha”

    Miji Park | 2016, 73(4) | pp.59~107 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines Gayatri Spivak’s subaltern ethics discussed in her A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Toward a History of the Vanishing Present. I analyze Mahasweta Devi’s “Pterodactyl, Puran Sahay, and Pirtha” drawing upon Spivak’s concepts of “subaltern responsibility,” “ethical singularity,” and “ethics as the experience of the impossible” for which, I argue, Jacques Derrida’s and Emmanuel Levinas’s philosophical thoughts on ethics serve as the foundation. I describe the process in which a mainstream journalist named Puran Sahay in “Pterodactyl, Puran Sahay, and Pirtha” is initiated into “a subaltern responsibility,” which Spivak defines as an ability to respond to subaltern and to be responded by them, thereby establishing a singular ethical relation with the Nagesia tribe, or subaltern. I demonstrate that “Pterodactyl, Puran Sahay, and Pirtha” reflects Spivak’s hope for making representations of subaltern possible-the question that she consistently contemplates-through an ethical relation with subaltern and her demand for painstaking labor until the experience of the impossible becomes possible. My study is significant in that Spivak's subaltern ethics enables silenced and forgotten people around the world who struggle to establish their individual identity as a “subject” rather than an “Other” to have a voice and be heard.
  • 3.

    Rereading Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway through the Subaltern Concept of Gayatri Spivak

    최상이 | 2016, 73(4) | pp.109~153 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines foreclosure of a Native Informant and a subaltern as discussed in Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Toward a History of the Vanishing Present and rereads Mrs. Dalloway through her reading of Jane Eyre and its criticisms. Spivak notices the Native Informant who should be foreclosed in the process of Sublime in Kant’s Critique of Judgment. Also she points out the same pattern in the bourgeois feminist critiques that celebrate Jane’s achievement as an individual female. According to Spivak, Jane is accepted into the patriarchical family law through Bertha Mason who is a foreclosed subaltern female by madness. She accuses the feminist critiques for being complicit in imperial axiomatism, not discussing the relation between Jane and Bertha. While there is no third-world character in Mrs. Dalloway written by a first-world female author, Virginia Woolf is deeply related to imperialism. I attempt to apply the Sublime in reading Mrs. Dalloway, especially focusing on the double discussion between Clarissa Dalloway and Septimus Smith. I claim that Clarissa contemplates Septimus’s suicide through the dynamic of Sublime and that Septimus, a shell-shocked veteran, is not simply a Clarissa’s double, but rather a foreclosed subaltern. Therefore, this study reveals the comparability between the double discussions in Mrs. Dalloway and Spivak’s subaltern argument.
  • 4.

    Considering Letters as a Historical Text and Women’s Representation

    Oh Ye Ji | 2016, 73(4) | pp.155~198 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Expanding Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s reading of Jeffery Birtch’s letter in A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Toward a History of the Vanishing Present, this article argues that female letter-writing is different from male letter-writing in that it constructs subjectivity of Women that defies the patriarchal colonial regime by using its social decorum. According to Spivak, a man’s letters allow him to become a “representative image” of colonial subject within a historical context. Letters are private, but also paradoxically represent the writers’ social ego. I find that it is not only in the case of letters written by a white male colonial subject but also Daniel’s letter, working as a native informant, plays a pivotal role in supporting Rochester and making himself a colonial subject in Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea. Daniel’s letter also redefines Antoinette’s personal history. In contrast with Daniel’s letter, Rebecca’s letter in Toni Morrison’s A Mercy subverts the social definition of women by vacuating the stereotypical meaning of woman that is expected to be reflected in a letter. Furthermore, I argue that Florens’s letter has its potential resistance to patriarchy complicit with colonialism for it is written in the Jacob’s house which was built within the colonial structure.
  • 5.

    Theory on the Diachronic Variableness of Classical Literature through the Positioning of Modern Remediation Contents in the History of Classical Literature

    DO KYUNG KWON | 2016, 73(4) | pp.201~251 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study intends to construct a new theoretical premise that can safely establish the remediation of the cultural contents of classical literature as a universal phenomenon, in order to actively respond to the demands of the time concerning cultural interface and social practice in Korean literature. The existing research on the cultural contents of the classical literary world is presently moving from a theory of modern adaption (with focus on physical fusion research) that regulates the relation between classical literature and other fields, to a theory on the diachronic variableness of classical literature that regulates cultural contents as a different modern version by attracting the cultural contents into classical literature. The achievements of this study can be summarized in the following way. Firstly, it addresses the issue of the relative redetermination of ‘the modern’ and the current scalability of classic literature. Through this, the theoretical basis for the present duration of classical literature in the time of cultural contents is secured. Secondly, it demonstrates the current duration and scalability of classical literature by considering if the history of modern literature can be restructured through the remediation of classical literature. To establish this thesis, this paper identified that remediation by reformatting is not only relevant to present cultural contents, but is also a universal phenomenon that appeared throughout the entire history of diachronic variableness in classical literature.
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    A Study on Chae Man Sik’s Rewriting of Mother — Centered on the (Anti)Initiation of a Male Character

    YU INHYEOK | 2016, 73(4) | pp.287~320 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study inspects Chae Man Sik’s political (un)conscious and its way of fictionalizing Mother and its revised works The War Story of a Woman and The Life of a Woman. It focuses particularly on the male character Junho, since his role and function has been underestimated in previous studies. To date, analyses of the three texts have focused on the female character Jinju (Sukhi). The status of her family members are unrevealed in Mother. However, Jinju becomes a daughter of a military officer that participated in the Russo-Japanese war (The War Story of a Woman) and a daughter of a patriot revolutionist (The Life of a Woman). This difference is regarded as the key point of the texts. This study, however, focuses on Junho, the husband of Jinju, as the most converted character in the three novels. In the three texts, the sufferings of the women are monotonic. On the other hand, Junho’s initiative story experiences dramatic change. In Mother, the initiative narrative exists. However, it vanishes in The War Story of a Woman. Lastly, it is reintroduced in The Life of Woman. The consequence of this is a dramatic changing of plots. The important fact is that each text shows a different political context. In Mother, the text hints that Junho can become the subject of enlightenment by overcoming the old customs, as symbolized as the mother. In The War Story of a Woman, however, the chance of success vanishes. Lastly, The Life of a Woman intentionally presents an ambiguous ending. This leads to the conclusion that the rewriting of Mother was actually a process of de-politicalizing the texts, and not the other way around.
  • 8.

    A Study of Kyung-tak Kim’s Korean Phonetic Notations for Chinese Books

    XU MEI LING | 2016, 73(4) | pp.321~361 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines the issue of translation between Chinese and Korean through two books, Zhongguoyu fayin jieshi (1939) and ZhongguoyuⅠ(1940). In these books, initial consonants were transcribed into the following elements of the Korean alphabet. ① The palatal initials were transliterated as ‘ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅅ(ㅆ)’, the alveolar sibilant initials were transliterated as ‘ㅉ, ㅊㅊ, ㅆ’, and the retroflex initials were transliterated as ‘􀀀, 􀀀, 􀀀, 􀀀’. A form of ‘ㅇ + phoneme’ was used. ② ‘b, d, g’ etc. were transliterated in two groups. ③ ‘f’ was transliterated as ‘ㆄ’. ④ ‘l’ was transliterated as ‘􀀀’. Finals were transcribed into the following elements of the Korean alphabet. ① ‘i’ was transliterated as ‘ㅣ’, ‘-i[ʅ]’ was transliterated as ‘ㅢ’, and ‘-i[ɿ]’ was transliterated as ‘ㅡ’. ② ‘ai’ was transliterated as ‘ㅏㅣ’, ‘ei’ was transliterated as ‘ㅔㅣ’, ‘uai’ was transliterated as ‘ㅘㅣ’ , ‘uei’ was transliterated as ‘ㅞㅣ’. ③ ‘ao’ was transliterated as ‘􀀀’􀀀, ‘iao’ was transliterated as ‘􀀀’􀀀, ‘ou’ was transliterated as ‘􀀀’􀀀, ‘iou’ was transliterated as ‘􀀀’􀀀. ④ ‘er’ was trans-literated as ‘’ in ZhongguoyuⅠ, while it was transliterated as ‘ㅓ+􀀀’ in Zhongguoyu fayin jieshi. This research may contribute to filling in the gaps in the data concerning historical Chinese phonology. Future research will be carried out on basic Chinese textbooks published at the same time as these two books.
  • 9.

    Effects of Writing Assessment and Differentiated Instruction in the Education of Writing for Students Majoring in the Natural Sciences and Engineering — Concentrating on the Cases of KAIST

    Yunjeong Jo | 2016, 73(4) | pp.363~402 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the details and effects of the level tests executed at KAIST, and shows the impact of differentiated instruction on the writing abilities of students, in order to demonstrate the necessity of writing assessments and differentiated instructions on writing education at universities. All of the students of KAIST have to take a ‘writing level test’, after which they take lectures on writing according to the grade obtained. This paper summarizes the contents and grading methods of the ‘writing level test’, which was incorporated in order to objectively identify the writing abilities of students. This kind of evaluation system can help in establishing the purposes and methods of writing education according to each student’s current status, and make the students establish a definite and firm motive for writing education. In addition, as an example of differentiated instruction, this paper summarizes the concrete contents and characteristics of the lectures titled ‘basics of writing’ and ‘logical writing’ respectively, which are executed at KAIST. This paper also emphasizes the method and effects of ‘one to one consultation’, which is an essential step of the above lectures. The effectiveness of graded learning is verified through surveys that were carried out during the process of ‘one to one consultation’ and the degree of improvement is seen from the results of the end of term writing test. The writing level test and education program of KAIST is based on the premise of a small group of students, the student’s desire for learning, the educational passion of the professor, and the contribution of the writing center. The process through which writing evaluation and differentiated instruction were carried out at KAIST provide several implications for inspecting problems and finding ways of developing writing education programs in universities.
  • 10.

    Here-and-Now Eternalized — Based on the “Berlin Stela of the Royal Family”

    유성환 | 2016, 73(4) | pp.403~471 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    After his ascension to the throne, Amenhotep IV embarked on a series of radical changes in art and religion. From the beginning of his reign, Amenhotep IV founded new temples to the Aten, a relatively new deity in Egyptian history, represented with the sun-disk (but, in essence, the radiant light of the sun instead of the physical disk) and built a new capital city in Middle Egypt to further the cult of the Aten. Soon after the foundation of the capital, he changed his name to Akhenaten and promoted the Aten as the sole deity of his religion. In the regnal year of eleven, he began to proscribe other older gods, especially the former state god Amun, throughout Egypt. Along with the dramatic departures with the past during his reign, the traditional concept of time, traditionally represented with two opposing but complementary concepts of Eternal Sameness and Eternal Recurrence, also underwent revisions and modifications. As a result, (1) the emphasis was shifted from the eternity (Dt + nHH) to the concept of here-and-now with a notable preponderance of Change (xpr) and the Eternal Recurrence (nHH) over Stasis (wnn) and the Eternal Sameness (Dt); (2) the abstract mystery of mythology as an intelligible reality was superseded by the physical reality of everyday life; and (3) artists, freed from the timeless and idealized artistic style of the past, began to pay more attention to detailing of the visual reality and the concept of here-and-now. Along with this changed temporal concept and worldview, the Amarna art demonstrates distinguished features summarized as follows: (1) the primary focus on Akhenaten and his royal family that, as the Holy Family, stood between the invisible deity and their people; (2) prolific expression of immediacy and emotion to express the actuality of words and deeds of Akhenaten and his family; and (3) the three-dimensional treatment of space even on a two-dimensional surface. In order to observe the prominent features of the Amarna art, the Berlin Stela of the Royal Family is used in the paper as a primary example in addition to other closely related stelae and tomb reliefs because it employs a number of innovative artistic devices and shows the unique traits of the Amarna period, such as the lively expression of gestures, keen interest in movements, preoccupation of the present (as the time of the epiphany), and an unrelenting emphasis on visibility and frivolous details.
  • 11.

    Religious Sin Attested in Akkadian Literary Texts

    Sungduk Yun | 2016, 73(4) | pp.473~502 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This essay aims to explore Akkadian literary texts that include terms for religious sin, such as šettu, šēttūtu, arnu, annu, targīgu, haṭû, hiṭītu, hīṭu, and considers what kind of religious tradition exists behind them. The Akkadian texts reveal to us that religious sin was largely considered to be a ritual mistake, unintentionally committed by an individual. The Gods could forgive the sinner or punish the perpetrator with diseases or other disasters. Professional religious personnel could help their clients with certain prayers, rituals, or incantations, but politicians made use of the concept of religious sin to criticize their opponents and to imprecate curses upon them. In the Neo-Babylonian period, it became much more important to prevent the committing of sins or resulting punishments, so anticipatory prayers and beneficial acts were emphasized. It was an astonishing change of religious tradition, in that the concept of religious sin broke out from its function as a practical remedy and individual faith came to be pursued instead.
  • 12.

    A Study on Siddhavastu of Daeseungsaronhyeonuigi written by Hyegyun

    Kang Dae-hyun | 2016, 73(4) | pp.503~538 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    There are many phonological summaries in Sanskrit about the Siddhavastu of India. In the history of Korea, references of Siddhavastu appear in Beopgyedogichongsurok written during the Goryeo Dynasty, and in Jineonjip which forms part of the Buddhist Ritual Collection of the Korean Medieval Period. References of Siddhavastu in Korean texts of the Ancient Period, on the other hand, had yet to be found. However, the author was fortunate enough to discover one trace of Siddhavastu from Ancient Korea; this was the Siddhavastu of Hyegyun of the Baekje Dynasty, which was discussed by Annen in his book Shittanzō, which was about a series of Japanese Siddham studies. One trace of Siddhavastu is found in Daeseungsaronhyeonuigi Sipsaeumui, and it is possible that Hyegyun adopted the GO-On (吳…音) type of Chinese character pronunciation, since Siddhaṃ (肆曇) or Siddhavastu (肆曇章) was also included in his book. Furthermore, this is the first evidence of literature for the Siddhavastu written by ancient Korean. The Siddhavastu of Hyegyun contained fourteen phones which formed the roots of the letters [a⋅ā⋅i⋅ī⋅ u⋅ū⋅e⋅ai⋅o⋅au⋅ṛ⋅ṝ⋅ḷ⋅ḹ] in Mahaparinirvanasutra; he holds the same view of Dharmakṣema⋅Xie Lingyun etc, and also adopts the notions of the fifty letters [ka⋅kha etc] of Mahaparinirvanasutra. In particular, the author realized that a⋅ā are the back vowels (後舌) in the fourteen phones inside the root of letters, ṛ⋅ṝ⋅ḷ⋅ḹ are the entering or checked tone (入聲) in the four tones (四聲), and the last two, aṃ⋅aḥ are from a⋅ā, and after aṃ⋅aḥ, the ultimate vowels, no other vowels exists. As mentioned above, it was good enough for verbal interchange between Korea and Japan in ancient times, as is proven by the citation in Annen’s Shittanzō. Consequently, it can be firmly established that one clear piece of evidence about Siddhavastu written by an ancient Korean does indeed exists.
  • 13.

    A study on Ouyang Jingwu’s Harmonious Philosophy with Confucianism and Buddhism

    ShimChangAe | 2016, 73(4) | pp.539~570 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Ouyang Jingwu (1871-1943), who was the spearhead of Lay Buddhist Buddhism in modern China, first mastered Cheng-zhu learning and was absorbed in Lu and Wang’s learning, and later applied himself to Buddhist studies research and conducted Buddhist education in his thirties. He experienced a series of historical events and felt the need of Confucius’ real mind, and finally reconciled thoughts of Confucianism and Buddhism in his latter years. Ouyang theorized his thoughts, and defined the meaning of Inner Teachings as achieving perfect clarity, called Nirvana, through internal cultivation, and Outer Teachings as the others. According to his definition, Buddhist studies is Inner Teachings in the most upper-level position and Confucianism is Outer Teachings in the Bodhisattva position. He also interpreted Buddhism as the noumenon aspect and Confucianism as function, and considered the two to be inseparable. On the one hand he explained the view that Confucianism and Buddhism were the same in terms of fundamental reason in his interpretation of the scriptures of Confucianism such as Great Learning, Doctrine of the Mean, Analects, and The Book of Changes. On the other hand, he made an attempt to reconcile Confucianism and Buddhism from the perspective that Confucianism and Buddhism were the same but different in scale. It is possible to suggest that Ouyang’s way of reconciling Confucianism and Buddhism was somewhat biased, because he reinterpreted or broadly interpreted the main concepts of Confucianism in his own way. But given that Ouyang’s belief that the development of Confucius’ real mind was the way of saving the country at the time emerged as a dearest wish of this intellectual, it can be said that his thought has great historical significance.
  • 14.

    A Study on the Sensualist Anthropology and Aesthetics of J. G. Herder — Focusing on the Relationship with the Aesthetics of Baumgarten and Lessing

    Sun-Kyu Ha | 2016, 73(4) | pp.571~608 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) is undoubtedly one of the most impressive and influential European philosophers of language and history of the 18th century. It is, however, of great importance to recognize that his basic philosophical intention lies in an elementary reform of the traditional philosophy of men as human beings. His lifelong persisting project was to establish a new anthropological philosophy in which men are comprehended not as a species of rational animal but as concrete living individuals in a particular historic and cultural situation. This study aims to consistently elucidate the relevant points of his anthropological philosophy and aesthetic thoughts. First, it analyzes the main substances of his sensualist and historic anthropology and reconstructs his aesthetic theory in the context of the formation process of modern aesthetics. For this purpose, the philosophical relationship between precritical Kant and Herder, and between Hamann and Herder, is also considered. Furthermore, the question of how Herder inherited the theoretical achievements of the aesthetics of Baumgarten and Lessing is considered, and the points at which he attempted to surpass them theoretically are examined. Such a discussion of the anthropology and aesthetics of Herder is very meaningful, not merely from the viewpoint of philological or historical interest. They cannot and should not be regarded as past relics that have totally lost their vital power. On the contrary, they have significant theoretical potential even in the present, especially regarding contemporary philosophical anthropology, in addition to the sensualist theoretical turn of post-modern aesthetics.
  • 15.

    ‘Woody Persona’ and the Problem of Authenticity

    Kang, Eun-a | 2016, 73(4) | pp.609~639 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this essay, I would like to conceptualize the so called ‘Woody Persona’ in three aspects. First, as a comic character like schlemiel, ‘Woody Persona’ has inefficient power to change the world. But unlike schlemiel, his intellect makes it incapable to create illusion which is favorable to himself or his hope. Rather, his intellect sees reality more pessimistically and so becomes an origin of his joke. Second, ‘Woody Persona’ has competitive relation with his homosexual, middle class intellectual colleagues, but to a few women, instead, he passes down his knowledge, ethics, philosophy etc. as a teacher. Third, Woody Persona dedicates himself to find his authenticity in his individualistic world and his failure reveals the problems or the absurdity of the so called ‘Finding Authenticity Project.’ Since Match Point, however, ‘Woody Persona’ becomes more and more marginalized and Woody Allen film begins to present world of snobs more directly.
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