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2017, Vol.74, No.2

  • 1.

    The Beginning of Britain’s Diplomatic Policies to Open Korea in the 19mid Century: With Regard to the Anglo-Russian Confrontation and the Korea-Qing Tributary Relationship

    Seunghoon Han | 2017, 74(2) | pp.9~41 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to analyze the true purpose behind Britain’s diplomatic policies to open Korea, undertaken by British diplomats in East Asia in the mid-19th century. When the Crimean War broke out in 1854, the British-French combined fleet attacked the Russian military and naval base at Kamchatka; at the time, John Bowring, Governor of Hong Kong, made a proposal to the 4th Earl of Clarendon, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in UK, to open Korea, together with European powers. In 1865, Thomas Wade, the British Minister to China, made plans to open Korea in association with other European powers in order to deter Russian aggression towards Korea. The reason that British diplomats chose to open the doors of Korea was to protect British commercial interests in East Asia by blocking the exclusive entry of Russia. By undertaking the opening of Korea, in association with other European powers, they attempted to make Korea a place where shares of interests were equally divided. However, since Korea was known to be a vassal state of Qing, Britain was required to check whether or not Korea had its own sovereignty. British diplomats confirmed that although Korea was a vassal state, she had sole responsibility for internal and external affairs. Britain therefore began to regard Korea as an independent state.
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    ‘Modernization Theory’ and Korean Historiography in the 1960s: With Focus on the Conferences of Korea University and Dongguk University

    안종철 | 2017, 74(2) | pp.43~73 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    ‘Modernization theory’ which was introduced into Korea in the 1960s consists of economic, social, and political dimensions. Based on the position that all societies are able to make the leap to modern society, this theory aimed to seek a universal framework that could be applied to the entire world, regardless of the specific situation of each society. This theory was viral and popular in Korea in the 1960s. This paper deals with the relationship between this theory and studies on Korean history, an area that has not received much attention from scholars. In Korea, modernization theory was widely discussed at two important conferences: the 60th Anniversary of School Founding Conference in Korea University (1965) and Dongguk University (1966). Particularly, several modernization theorists from western societies participated in the international conference at Korea University. Through the diverse exchanges of opinions that took place, the conference illuminated both the common ground and differences between western scholars and their Korean counterparts. After these conferences took place, the theory came to be projected into Korean discourse on periodization in Korean historiography. Debate centered on identifying the impetus of modernization from the viewpoint of Korean history, which would allow a recognition of the internal development of Korean history. In other words, the debate was a internalization of the modernization theory. It is therefore argued that modern Korean historiography can be better understood by examining the close relationship between ‘modernization theory’ and Korean history research.
  • 3.

    Mencius’ Nairuoqiqing and its Interpretation by Later Confucian Thinkers

    Jeong Hwanhui | 2017, 74(2) | pp.75~96 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the developments in the understanding of the relationship between renxing (人性) and feeling (qing, 情). The famous paragraph ‘Nairuoqiqing’ (乃若其情) from Mencius originally meant a monistic relationship between renxing and feeling. This paragraph was interpreted in two different ways by later Confucian thinkers. Both renxing and feeling were understood in an organic way in Zhao Qi (趙岐), Sun Shi (孫奭) and Zhang Jiucheng (張九成). In contrast, Zhu Xi(朱熹) was concerned with the blending of the two concepts. This phenomenon clearly shows changes in the understanding of the relationship between renxing and feeling in Confucian intellectual history.
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