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2017, Vol.74, No.3

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    From Manwen Yuandang to Manwen Laodang : A Study on the Revision of the Manchu Historical Records of the Early Qing Dynasty

    Kim, JuWon | LEE Hyoung Mee | 2017, 74(3) | pp.11~47 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper deals with the revision of Manchu historical records in the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, with focus on the Manwen Yuandang (滿 文原檔, MY henceforth) which was revised into the Manwen Laodang (滿 文老檔, ML henceforth). MY is written in Manchu letters without circle and dot, which is similar to Mongolian letters. ML is written in Manchu letters with circle and dot, which is often called the New Manchu Script. However, the revision in letter forms is not the main concern of this study; rather the focus is on the various aspects of the revision that took place in terms of content. ML can be regarded as a revised version of MY, but the process of revision is not simple. In particular, there are some “double (corresponding) articles,” which means two articles in MY that correspond to one article in ML. In these cases the original was revised more than once. We paid more attention to these double articles. In general the revision was conducted by the following order; [In case of single articles] MY → [revision] → ML [In case of double articles] MY → [revision] → MY → [revision] → MY However, the process of revision may have been even more complicated in some cases. The articles in Liezidang and Dongzidang show peculiarities in many ways. Through some annotations and notes in the double articles from Liezidang and Dongzidang, we can see that it is the articles from Liezidang that are reflected in ML, despite the fact that Dongzidang is the revised version of Liezidang; [In case of double articles] MY → [revision] → MY └→ ML We can also find some clues which show that the articles may not have been written at the time. It is likely that there are more cases which show the complicated relationship between the articles of MY and ML. Further studies are needed in order to reveal linguistic value of those documents.
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    A Study on the Accusative Subject of Complex Sentence in Manchu

    Do Jeong Up | 2017, 74(3) | pp.49~80 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to clarify the environment of the accusative subject phenomenon by giving careful consideration to this phenomenon in complex sentences in Manchu. The accusative subject phenomenon is not essential in Manchu, but it is widely used in complex sentences, especially in quotations. The accusative subject appears in the subject of the lower sentence to avoid semantic confusion when the subject of the higher sentence differs from the subject of the lower sentence. If the subject of the higher sentence doesn’t appear, the accusative subject of the lower sentence appears optionally. This phenomenon can be attributed to the fact that be plays a role in distinguishing subjects from other elements in sentences and the fact that be appears optionally unless the object is defined or is in a marked position in the sentence in transitive sentences.
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    The Meaning of Manchu -ra and -ha: Are They Tense or Aspect?

    SANGCHUL PARK | 2017, 74(3) | pp.81~104 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to identify the correct positioning of -ha and -ra, which are the only members of participle suffixes in Manchu. Attempts are made to establish if they belong to the categories of tense and aspect, as established in general linguistic theories, such as that of Comrie (1976, 1986). In early Manchu grammars, these suffixes were described mainly according to the traditional three-way tense distinction of past / present / future. Since Avrorin (1949), there has been a tendency to describe these suffixes in aspectual category. However, the aspectual distinction between -ha, which refers to the so-called ‘complete’ situation and -ra, which refers to the ‘incomplete’ situation, differs from the distinction between perfective and imperfective aspect established by Comrie (1976). It can therefore be seen as a tense distinction between past and non-past in terms of relative tense at best.
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    Exploring the Nature of Cultural Exchange and Fusion in the Korean Early Bronze Age through an Examination of Houses with Dual Post Rows of the Yeongseo Region

    Ilhong Ko | 2017, 74(3) | pp.107~158 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The use of dual post rows in Bronze Age houses has come to be regarded as an element of the Garakdong cultural assemblage. However, since the turn of the millenium, cases in which dual post rows have been identified in non-Garakdong culture houses have steadily accumulated. Therefore, it may be argued that a detailed study of dual post row houses is presently required. The results of the analysis suggest that in its earliest stage, this tradition of erecting two rows of internal posts was associated with the use of post footstones that were placed upon the house floor, and that the posts were distributed in such a way to maximize the utility of the dwelling spaces that had been divided by the post rows. This early form of dual post row use was identified in the Hwacheon, Hongcheon, Jeongseon, and Yeongwol regions, and later variations were identified in the Chuncheon and Pyeongchang regions. Radiocarbon dates indicate that this building tradition had already been established in the Hongcheon region by 1800~1700 BCE and that by 1400 BCE, regional variations had emerged. It was also identified that this tradition was associated with double- rim pottery and attached band pottery in its early stage and rim-perforated pottery in its later stage. Finally, it was observed that this tradition of dual post row houses shared many similarities with the houses of the Amnok River region and the northeast coastal region of North Korea.
  • 5.

    The Travel to Manchuria and Mt. Beakdu by the Royal Geographical Society in the Late 19th Century

    Sungjoon Bae | 2017, 74(3) | pp.159~194 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to examine the new understanding of Manchuria and Mt. Beakdu in the late 19th century by analyzing seven travel writings published in the Journal of Royal Geographical Society. The travel writings not only contain the detailed observations and measurements of geographical features but also reveal the appropriation of local knowledge by European knowledge. The one material base of their travels was the international network of the British Empire’s state apparatus and local facilities by which means imperial policy was executed. The other base was the practical support from the natives. The French name of Manchuria, “Mantchourie” began to be use at the beginning of the 19th century and soon the English name made an appearance. Along this line, the new understanding of Manchuria, which includes the three provinces in Northeast China, emerged from the 1830s. At first, the region was distinguished from China proper on the ground that it was the homeland of the Manchu people and ruled by warlords. However the regional identity started growing through the gradual awareness of a Manchurian history and Manchurian nation. It was at this juncture that Mt. Beakdu also appeared to Europeans as the object of scientific research.
  • 6.

    Petit-Bourgeois Literature Discourse and ‘Modenization’

    Jung-A Hwang | 2017, 74(3) | pp.195~221 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to analyse the Petit-Bourgeois Literature Discourse presented in the “Citizen Literature vs. Petit-Bourgeois Literature Debate” of the late 1960s. What the discourse actually did with its rather peculiar concept of petit-bourgeois could be summed up as a literary modernization project. The discourse mostly focused on condemning pre-modern conventional thoughts and practices, while neglecting to criticize modernity itself. The space it created through linking different concepts of petit-bourgeois, individual, self-consciousness, and personality, corresponded to the characteristically modernist “inward turn”, but, at the same time, was oddly expanded to the point of cancelling out the significance of “outward reality.” Trivialism, an essential element of the discourse, also stressed the value of the trivial at the expense of political and historical realities. Drawing on the overemphasized autonomy of self and literature, the discourse sought to achieve a kind of compressed modernization. The major problem with the discourse lies not so much in its attempt of undertaking a certain modernization project per se, as in the fact that its version of modernization did not allow for the possibility of radically confronting and criticizing the modern.
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    The Structure of Relative Objectivity and Difficulty of Representing the ‘Orient’: the Conflicting Views of Tsuda Soukichi, Okawa Syumei and Minoda Muneki

    Zheng Yi | JunSungKon | 2017, 74(3) | pp.255~294 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Tsuda Sokichi (津田左右吉), Okawa Shumei (大川周明), Minoda Muneki (蓑田胸喜). What they have in common is that they aimed to find the identity of their nation through the foreign ideas of the East and West. Tsuda Sokichi perceived the individual to be a limited being and maintained that the current desire or intention of such an individual had to be understood in relation to the state history. Okawa Shumei put importance on identifying how individual recognition appeared from the phenomenon of history in order to achieve objectivity. Minoda Muneki stated that things that existed innately in the past should be accepted as is, since individual recognition has no subjectivity. The logic of these three diverged at this point. Tsuda Sokichi focused on examining the transformation of concept of the East. He denied the created East and insisted on the creativity of Japanese culture. Okawa Shumei divided the East and West, and proposed a theory of creativity concerning Japanese culture, which had come to establish a new culture through interaction with Chinese and Indian cultures. Minoda Muneki adopted the theory that cultural exchange led to either the preservation or extinction of cultures, and asserted that, throughout Japan’s exchange with other eastern cultures, the innate cultural traits of Japan had not been lost from ancient times. These three adopted different theories and methodologies, but all had arrived at the notion of ‘individual subjectivity’ through independent realization.
  • 9.

    On Usama ibn Munqidh’s Perception of the Franks: Analyzing His Memoirs The Book of Contemplation

    Neung Woo Kim | 2017, 74(3) | pp.295~328 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines anecdotes related to the Franks in Usama ibn Munqidh’s memoirs Kitāb al-I‘tibār (The Book of Contemplation), paying attention to the details of what the author had witnessed participating in the war against the Crusaders. The fact that Usama wrote about the Frankish issue demonstrates that the Crusade was a crucial issue for Muslims of the day. He seems to have conveyed his experiences and knowledge of the Franks in order to help the Muslims break through reality. The hatred of Usama against the Franks is evident in the expression of God’s curse and punishment for them in several anecdotes. However, some stories show some Muslims, including Usama himself, being acquainted with the Frankish people. Usama generally has an attitude of contempt and disdain for the level of Frankish civilization. He regards the Franks as inferior people, except for two groups amongst them. The first consists of the crusader knights for whom Usama shows respect and concern – he maintained a friendship with some knights. The second group consists of the Frankish people who settled in the Muslim area and became accustomed to Islamic culture.
  • 10.

    Not Moderate, Or Not Intentionalism: A Criticism on Moderate Intentionalism

    Haewan Lee | 2017, 74(3) | pp.329~364 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Intentionalism emphasizes the importance of authorial intention in interpreting an artwork. It has evolved into moderate intentionalism (MI) by means of circumventing the well-known Humpty-Dumpty problem caused by radical intentionalism. This ‘moderation’ is done basically by accommodating the public elements of language into the theory of intentionalism. So MI now claims that not just any and every intention, but only the intentions successfully realized in the work can determine the meaning of the work. In this article, I argue against this type of compromised intentionalism based on my suspicion that this cannot result in a coherent and principled-theory. First, we need to be clear about the essential claims in each position and how they draw the line of conflict. The description that anti-intentionalism (AI) denies the relevance of intention in interpretation while MI does not is somewhat misleading. Instead, I propose that MI should be understood as a position which allows a case where the authorial intention wholly determines the meaning. MI need not claim this be every case. Yet if MI does not allow such cases, that is, if MI admits that all intentions should be constrained by the public elements of language, then there might not be much differences between MI and AI. After establishing the real claim of MI, I examine the actual content of MI as a theory rather than as an intuitively appealing slogan. The situation looks to me dilemmatic. If the public nature of the language and the context of the utterance is emphasized as the constraining factor for determining the meaning, this seriously weakens the character of the theory as a version of intentionalism. In order to maintain the intentionalism, MI can claim, as it actually does, that in the case where the work’s meaning is ambiguous (i.e., where the public elements cannot determine the meaning), the authorial intention can play the role and determine the meaning of the work. However, if the ambiguity is what the public elements of the work report about the work, then it should not be disregarded as long as MI cherishes its original motivation to be moderate. An ambiguous work shows that the authorial intention is not successfully realized. Therefore in MI, a failed realization of authorial intention should not override the ambiguity and should not force us to determine the meaning of the work. If it does, it is no longer MI but radical intentionalism. In addition, I also find that the case of irony, which has been an important supporter of intentionalism, would no longer favor MI due to the motivation of MI to be moderate. I conclude that MI is not a sustainable position.
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