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2017, Vol.74, No.4

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    The Symbol of Fire in Aleksandr Blok’s Twelve

    Jhee Won Cha | 2017, 74(4) | pp.47~96 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Aleksandr Blok’s epic poem Twelve is well known as the highest literary masterpiece dedicated to the Russian October Revolution in 1917. It has created a stir and evoked strong arguments between Russian artists and intellectuals about the author’s attitude to the revolutionary reality, Bolshevism and the poem’s meaning. It seems that the controversy and arguments on Twelve has been coming mainly from the vibration of its meaning and the ambivalence of its judgment. The symbol of fire is expected to fully explain Blok’s ambivalent and paradoxical conception of the revolution described in Twelve. In Twelve, with images of strong and uncontrollable nature (‘стихия’) like snow storm and whirlwind which were also used to embody the revolution and its turbulence in other writings of Blok, is rising one more thing of ‘стихия’, the image of red fire. Once the metaphors of snowstorm and whirlwind construct the conception of the revolution as the phenomenon of стихия irresistible and insurmountable by human, the conception of the revolution became at last completed by the symbol of fire. The revolution was substantially ambivalent and contradictory. It was destruction and at the same time construction. It was ambivalent and contradictory ‘èlan vital’ that would bring the new by destroying the old. Thus the revolution could not help being embodied only by the symbol of fire that implied life and death, destruction and metamorphosis. Moreover, the symbol of fire introduced the image of Christ through this ambivalence of life and death. The image of Christ gave the implication about the duty of the artist and the intelligentsia who run into the revolutionary reality, about their right deeds. Blok understood and accepted the October Revolution through the ambivalent symbol of fire that would transform the world from destruction and death to regeneration and metamorphosis. Twelve described the revolution conceptualized in various images of fire. “Мировой пожар” (world fire) might be the final, complete symbol of the October Revolution.
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    Revolution, or the Utopia Betrayed: The Political Unconscious in A. Bogdanov’s Red Star

    Choi Jin Seok | 2017, 74(4) | pp.97~142 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to analyse the novel Red Star, which was written by Alexander Bogdanov, the famous philosopher, activist, politico-economist, psychologist etc. in the period of Russian Revolution. Generally, his novel was known as one of the Utopian literary works, which represented the Bolshevik’s Socio-Democratic Idea. But we cannot agree with this point of view, because the novel has an unusual narrative structure by comparison with another utopian literary genres. Leonid, the hero in the novel left to the Mars with the purpose of studying the highly developed science and technology in that planet. But his mental and physical abilities could not support this mission, finally he suffered from severe depression, Melancholia. At this moment, I would try to interpretate this novel from a different standpoint, in other words, from the concealed political dispute between Bogdanov and Lenin. I believe that Bogdanov wanted to argue with Lenin and Bolsheviks, because they had a bitter dispute at that time. Maybe Bogdanov intended to take a revenge on his political enemies. However, his plan succeeded only in half, and we have to investigate the true reason for this half success. That’s why we would re-read the Red Star in the light of Political Unconscious.
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    N. Berdyaev and Russian Revolution

    Minn Ah Kim | 2017, 74(4) | pp.143~167 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The beginning of the 20th century, the period just before and immediately following the Russian Revolution of 1917, brought with it a new renaissance in Russian literature, culture and philosophy. At the same time, however, this period was a time of social and political turmoil. N. A. Berdyaev, one of the most famous russian philosophers of the 20th century, lived in this time of catastrophe. For Berdyaev, who was once a Marxist and then became an enemy of Marxism and regime of Communism, the Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917 were an important theme of his whole life as a philosopher. Berdyaev criticized that Russian revolution was hostile to freedom, personality and spirit.
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    A Defense of Moderate Actual Intentionalism

    Chong-hwan Oh | 2017, 74(4) | pp.177~216 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper I accept Carroll’s position that the meaning of an artwork can be explained by the analogy with utterer’s meaning in ordinary conversations. When confronted with an utterance, our standard cognitive goal is to figure out what the speaker intends to say. Likewise, when confronted with an artwork, we try to figure out what the artist wants to tell us by means of his or her work. Moderate intentionalism holds that we need to know the intent of the speaker in order to fix the meaning of his or her utterance, because the constraints of grammatical, contextual, and background knowledge still allow several possible meanings. Radical intentionalism, on the other hand, holds that the intent of the speaker can determine the meaning of an utterance without those constraints. I argue that the criticism of anti-intentionalism against radical intentionalism does not apply in the case of moderate intentionalism, because the latter concedes the role of those constraints. Moderate intentionalism also concedes the importance of those constraints in the interpretation of artworks, and holds that we need to know the intention of the artist, only when the meaning of an artwork is not determined in spite of our consideration of those constraints. The fact that the interpretations of an artwork can diverge and actually do diverge in the field of artistic criticism shows the implausibility of the anti-intentionalist claim that only those constraints can determine the meaning of an artwork. Therefore, I try to show that Haewan Lee’s criticism against moderate intentionalism, which is based on this claim, begs the question. Hypothetical intentionalism holds that the intention of a writer should be considered as the intention which epistemically ideal readers construct and project onto him or her on the basis of the work for the maximum aesthetic and/or artistic value. Even though this position presupposes the autonomy of the artwork, I argue that we must reject it because its view of intention runs counter to our commonsense. I argue that moderate actual intentionalism is the best theory of the interpretation of artworks, because it explains the actual situations of artistic criticism most convincingly without any logical inconsistency.
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    Intention and Interpretation: Refining Hypothetical Intentionalism

    Yoon, Juhan | 2017, 74(4) | pp.217~252 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    There has been a long controversy on the relevance between artists’ intentions and interpretations of artworks among analytic aestheticians. Intentionalists insist that interpretations of artworks should seek to discover actual artistic intentions of their creators in principle, while non-intentionalists regard the artistic interpretations as tasks to find out publicly realized meanings in the artworks, not what is actually intended. In the beginning of this debate between intentionalists and non-intentionalists, their positions were constructed in a way of strongly rejecting each other, but the ones recently suggested, such as hypothetical intentionalism and moderate intentionalism, seem to embrace the pre-theoretical intuitions and the interpretive practices that motivate their opponents. In this paper, I argue that the hypothetical intentionalism can provide more coherent and persuasive explain on the nature of artistic interpretations than its competing theories. For this purpose, I first (1) elucidate the primary point of hypothetical intentionalism by reorganizing the structure of this long debate between intentionalists and non-intentionalists, and (2) compensate the interpretive model of hypothetical intentionalism by considering value-maximizing theory, then (3) suggest more sophisticated and developed interpretive model which is expected to provide us with a better explain on the nature of artistic interpretation.
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    Intentionalism and Anti-Intentionalism: Reformulating the Debate Focusing on the Concept of Intention

    Hyun Joo Shin | 2017, 74(4) | pp.253~285 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    One of the central topics in analytic aesthetics regarding interpretations of artworks is the debate between intentionalism and anti-intentionalism. The two sides are in conflict concerning the question of whether the meaning of an artwork is identical with the author’s intention. Intentionalists argue that it is, while anti-intentionalists deny it. The debate has been evolved to a complex situation where any resolution seems out of sight, due to the fact that both are reluctant to discuss their fundamental assumptions about ‘intention’, while their arguments are valid only with the assumptions of their own. Given this, I find it necessary to disclose different notions of intention in each side and discuss which will lead to a better theory of interpretation. With this aim in mind, I begin by reformulating the debate as centered on two problems raised by anti- intentionalists. Concerning the ‘epistemological problem’, I show that the problem only works within the Cartesian notion of intention and examine whether intentionalists can solve it by adopting alternative notions. Concerning the ‘irrelevance problem’, I show that the problem is dependent upon the realist notion of intention and examine whether intentionalists can avoid it by using the anti-realist notion. Finally, I argue that intentionalists can defeat anti-intentionalists regarding the first problem, while the debate is almost at a dead-end regarding the second, which then leads to my analysis on what should be examined further to achieve a breakthrough.
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    A New Understanding of Shamanism in Korean Literature: Focusing on Kang Eunkyo’s Works

    AHN,JIYOUNG | 2017, 74(4) | pp.289~323 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Shamanism has been combined with passivity or sense of defeat. This has been caused by the episteme of understanding Shamanism as unreasonable and this attitude toward Shamanism remains unchanged. In order to reconsider Shamanism, this essay examines it in relation to mythological thinking, focusing on Kang Eunkyo’s works. For this purpose, this essay pays attention to the world view of Shamanism that connotes an “Ontological Turn”. In the early days of Kang Eunkyo’s works, there is an inquiry into the problem of seeing things that are not routinely recognized. This shows the thoughts of nihilism, death, and absence. In the middle days of Kang Eunkyo’s works, she pays attention to the struggle between life and death with the “Baridegi” motif from narrative Shaman Songs. It is related to the recovering of symmetry between life and death. In Kang Eunkyo’s late works, the boundaries between the ego and ‘The other’ disappear, and the schizophrenic subject appears. This schizophrenic subject of enunciation is related to the fact that it can be understood in terms of creating heterogeneous networks with entities and objects.
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    The Characteristics of Young Ha Kim’s Novels as Approached from the Perspective of ‘Ubiquitous-Sigongganseong (時空間性)’

    Kim, Eunkyung | 2017, 74(4) | pp.325~359 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This essay intends to consider the following two problems. One is on the reorganization of Sigongganseong in ‘the novels of the present time’. Discussions of this problem have been developed from a historical perspective, comparing ancient novels, Sinsoseols, and the modern novels of Korea. The other is on ‘the economy of emotion’. I discuss on the problem through an extension of my existing research contents. The arguments about these two problems are continued focusing on the effects of Information Technology (IT) on ‘the Novels of the present time’. In relation to the first problem, through Young Ha Kim’s novels, it can be discovered that he subtly represents the reorganization of Sigongganseong based on the development of IT. The representations have two directions. One is the ‘extension’ of Sigongganseong in the direction of keeping one’s distance from reality, which become first point of issue. The other is the ‘compression’ of Sigongganseong in the direction of involving with reality, which becomes the second debatable ground. I consider that these reorganizations of Sigongganseong correspond to the problems of ‘prospect in existence’ of human beings. That it, the extension of Sigongganseong corresponds to the extension of the prospect in existence and the compression of Sigongganseong corresponds to the compression of the prospect in existence. In relation to the first point of issue, I reveal two points. One is ‘discontinuity’ in the historical stream of Korea novels. Plural Sigongganseongs can be found in Young Ha Kim’s novels, which consist of Sigongganseong in the standard sense and Sigongganseong extended by IT. There are heterogeneous aspects of life; the disparate aspects of life are simply in switch. Sublation or transcendence does not exist, in comparison to Korean ancient novels. The other point is ‘continuity’ in the history of Korea literature. It is possible to catch aspects of transcendence in the events that occur in the Sigongganseong extended by IT. It may be safe to say that they succeed the tradition of the ancient novels. In connection with second debatable ground, the ‘contingency of literature’ is discussed. As a result, it can be disclosesed that ‘contingency’ has not robbed Young Ha Kim’s Novels of their ‘probability’. It is proposed that the Sigongganseong compressed by the global network is a very resonant reason of such a phenomenon. It is comparable to the ‘contingency’ of Sinsoseols causing the ‘improbability’. In the third section, the problem of emotion in relation to the Sigongganseong is discussed. The focus of the discussion is on ‘access’ through IT gadgets and ‘sexual intercourses’. In this regard, the novels of Kim manifest tendencies. Before sexual intercourses, the connection between ‘emotion (/access)’ and sexual intercourses is tenuous. Such aspects of sex are called ‘the practical sex’. The reason for these aspects is seen to be ‘the accessibility of access’ through IT devices. On the other hand, after sex, the connection is closer. Manifest is Kim’s novels is the so-called phenomenon of ‘pre-sex after-emotion (先-情事 後-愛情 現象)’. The ‘ever-present possibility of access’ can be regarded as the physical foundation of such a phenomenon. Depending on the ever-present possibility of the access, the heros and heroines of Kim’s novels repeat partings and reunions. There are drift and loose streams of heterogeneous feelings. This is referred to as ‘the beat phenomenon (mecnory hyunsang) of emotion’. The following two points can be proposed as the significance of this paper: first, the discussion on the reorganization of Sigongganseong and it’s impacts on novels in the history of Korea literature; second, the discussion on ‘the economy of emotion’ which focusus on the connection between emotion and the Sigongganseong.
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    Colonization as Immigration and the Discovery of a ‘Region’: Choi In-hoon’s Dumangang and the Late Arrival of a Portrait of Colonial Childhood

    Jang, Moon-seok | 2017, 74(4) | pp.361~414 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Choi In-hoon’s Dumangang (1970), a novel which represented the customs of ‘Town H’ under the Asia-Pacific War in 1943-1944, was based on his childhood experiences. However, the representation was not transparent or smooth, and it was only possible under the conflicting and oppressive relations between childhood memories and the public memories of the nation. As a result, the narrator of Dumangang has two disparate voices about the colonies, and sutured the two voices through the ‘Prologue’ at the beginning of the novel. The narrator of the Dumangang keeps a distance from the typical representation of colony, which regarded the colonial experience as one of suppression and exploitation, and tries to understand colonization as a process of immigration and represents colony as ‘a region’ which colonized Koreans and Japanese colonizers coexisted within conflicts. Furthermore, the ‘region’ represented by Dumangang is the basis for recognizing the subjectivity of the ‘people’, the duplicity of history that constitutes the social order, and the condition of environment. Dumangang captures the life of a particular area and the specific life of the ‘people’, and represents the ‘animalistic affinity’. This interest is deepened through One Day of Novelist Gubo (1970-1972) and The Tempest (1973).
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    The Different Scenarios and Dilemmas of Interdisciplinarity

    Kim, Hyena | 2017, 74(4) | pp.415~440 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Interdisciplinarity has been established as a useful way of legitimization for the university, which is presently facing an identity crisis. Accompanying rhetoric, such as flexible, free, innovative or resistant, testifies to its stratagem to assimilate diverse political and epistemological positions through dereferentialization. This paper presents a critical examination of different discourses surrounding interdisciplinarity, categorized into technocapitalism, liberalism, and radicalism, in order to debunk the ‘interdisciplinarity myth’. Among these discourses, technocapitalism seems to dominate the battlefield of interdisciplinarity with the hype of innovation, problem-solving, and accountability. Despite its disguised neutrality, it successfully achieves accumulation of capital by technocracy in a broad sense. Liberalism, as a descendant of the Humboldtian idea of the modern university, pursues liberation of humanity based on the unity of knowledge. But such nostalgia has lost its sway in the posthistorical university, leaving the existing system intact. As a more recalcitrant counterpart to the aforementioned approaches, radicalism challenges all disciplinary divisions in the world predicated on boundary work. However, it has also been disempowered in a contradictory relationship with the system. Meanwhile, interdisciplinarity, armed with inclusion rather than exclusion, has developed into an excellent instrument to satisfy the desire of the capital. A critical reflection on the different scenarios of interdisciplinarity leads to the conclusion that interdisciplinarity shares the cognate pathologies of disciplinarity, including the division of labor, production, and abstraction. The question that lies before us is whether or not we still need another new script to struggle with the simulacrum of interdisciplinarity and to eradicate the pathogen of repetitive restructuring.
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    Hatada Takashi’s Studies of Korean History in “Postwar” Japan

    Park junhyung | 2017, 74(4) | pp.441~474 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article reviews Hatada Takashi’s studies of Korean history in the context of “Postwar” Japan. His first book Korean History, was published in 1951, when the Korean Peninsula was embroiled in war. In his book, Hatada criticized studies on Korean history from the “Prewar” era for not considering “human presence,” and insisted on a new historical description centered on the Korean Nation. He urged the “Postwar” Japanese society that forgot about Japan’s colonial responsibility to acknowledge its victims beyond national borders. Furthermore, Hatada revealed the relationship between academia and power, and questioned if academics can exist apart from reality. Because the scholars of the “Prewar” era abandoned their thoughts for the goal of protecting academic purity, which only nurtured an irresponsible attitude that could combine with any form of power. Finally, Hatada asserted unification between thought and academics, and attempted to raise social responsibility among scholars by bringing them back to reality. Although Hatada’s studies were not only confused with exclusive nationalism, but also suspected of expressing empathy with Korean people, his thought process above will enable a revaluation of his studies.
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    On the Second Sentence of the 11th Line on the South Side of the Bilgä Kagan Inscription

    Yong-Song LI | 2017, 74(4) | pp.475~492 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Orkhon Turkic is the oldest Turkic dialect whose written records have come down to us. It is known to us through the inscriptions found in present- day Outer Mongolia, mainly in the basin of the Orkhon River, thus being conveniently called ‘the Orkhon inscriptions’. These are the Kül Tegin, Bilgä Kagan, Tunyukuk, Išbara Tarkan (Ongi), and Küli Čor (Ikhe-Khüshötü) inscriptions. Many parts of the Kül Tegin and Bilgä Kagan inscriptions are identical. The Bilgä Kagan inscription is in a worse state of preservation than the Kül Tegin inscription. There were already many severely damaged parts in the Bilgä Kagan inscription in the end of the nineteenth century. These parts have not been read properly. One of them is the second sentence of the 11th line on the south side. Modifying the reading of Radloff (1895), we can now read the sentence in question as follows: : iTRULK : zSKGRK : SmUK : nutl [: igNmUT : TROTC]U : klkuq kookïlïk : ü[č tört : tümän agï:] altun : kümüš : kärgäksiz : kälürti: “They brought scent, [30,000~40,000 rolls of silk brocade], and gold and silver in abundance.”
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