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2018, Vol.75, No.3

  • 1.

    The Ancient Olympics and Panegyricus

    Heon Kim | 2018, 75(3) | pp.13~51 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article comprises part of a larger research endeavor exploring the theme of “Festival and Life in the Ancient Greek and Roman World.” Given that the festival was the most important frame for cultural consumption in ancient western society, it is necessary to study the festival in order to understand and appreciate literature works as tragedy, comedy, and lyrics. For example, as tragedy and comedy (the most representative literature genres) were presented in the festival Dionysia, many important points might escape our notice if literary works were only approached from the perspective of textual criticism, ignoring any contextual considerations of the festival. In this article, Isocrstes’ epideictic discourse Panegyricus is the object of analysis. This political discourse was delivered in the ancient Olympics in 380 BCE, even though we do not know exactly in which program it was spoken at this panhellenic festival, which was the most famous sporting event of the time. He gave counsel on the war against the barbarians, so to speak, Persians and on the concord among Greeks. This idea can be called panhellenism, which was Isocrates’ consistent political project for the Greeks; it was also a political and rhetorical topos popularly used in panhellenic oration at that time. Although he thought of Athens as the leader of the panhellenic league, his intention was to show the conditions that the leader city-state should fulfil. In conclusion, the Olympics were the most effective place for delivering his panhellenic oration.
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    Thesmophoria and the Aristophanes’ Thesmophoriazusae

    Jang Sieun | 2018, 75(3) | pp.53~78 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of the article is to analyze how the Thesmophoria is depicted in the Thesmophoriazusae and to explain the meaning of Aristophanes’ ‘women’s play.’ This article overviews summarizes the events of the Thesmophoria and analyzes the parodies of the Euripidean tragedies and the chorus’ parabasis in the play. In the play, Euripides was accused of misogyny at the Thesmophoria and his in-laws sneaked into the festival to defend Euripides but were discovered and caught. They try to secure their release by parodying Euripides’ four tragedies but fail. In the end, they are released thanks to the reconciliation between Euripides and the women; and Euripides’ comic play. All the parodies used in the process are based on the motif of the Demeter-Persephone myth, the background myth of Thesmophoria. Aristophanes links the events of the Thesmophoria to its background myth, while connecting the festival to the City Dionysia during which the play is performed. By linking the two festivals, Aristophanes wishes for peace in the city, seeking harmony between women and men, and criticizing men's doubled-edged attitudes toward women.
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    Festival, Civic Leisure, and Contemplation in Aristotle’s Works

    Yunrak Sohn | 2018, 75(3) | pp.79~110 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study focuses on the question of what function the Greek festival played in society at the time, what implications it had on the members of society, and how it ultimately influenced their lives. In particular, I will try to reconstruct the form and content of the Greek festival, around references in Aristotle’s Politics, Poetics, Athenian Constitution, and Nicomachean Ethics, and trace the implications of the festival to citizens at the time. The mediator in this study is Aristotle’s term ‘leisure’(scholē) of the citizen, who participates in the festival and watches the theater shows and performances. This term is understood in the same context in which Aristotle emphasized music as an educational subject, when he insists on a certain level of education as a precondition for a free citizen. The final argument of this study is, on the ground of Aristotle’s thoughts in his texts, that participation in festivals and the enjoyment of theater is a public activity that involves free citizens and at the same time is the beginning of the personal act of contemplation. Because contemplation is not an idea that is irrelevant or distant from real life, but rather a reflection of the reality surrounding life or a particular situation that seems to be a problem in theatrical works, and a deep and fundamental reflection of life in general.
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    Poet and Paideia: Horace’s Carmen Saeculare

    jin sik kim | 2018, 75(3) | pp.111~136 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this paper is to examine the social role of the Roman poets of the 1st century BC through the Augustan poet Horace’s Carmen Saeculare. What Werner Jaeger once demonstrated in his famous work Paideia the tradition of the poet-educator, is how the Greek poet appeared in public in the festivals as an educator. If we are looking for a Greek-like festival in Rome, we should consider the festival Ludi Saeculares hosted by Augustus in 17 BC. At this time, the poet Horace composed the song Carmen Saeculare, a choir performance which was the last event of the festival. At the same time, Carmen Saeculare has been interpreted generally as a song of praise to advertise the prosperous reign of Augustus, during which the role of the poet was not greatly highlighted. We assert that Horace, unconcerned about the will of his employer, did not compliment his employer, and positioned himself as an educator. In the course of the choral representation of Carmen Saeculare, the poet spoke, to all Roman citizens including very mighty powers, especially to the next generation, perceptively of the future of peace and prosperity which citizens could have, if they, starting from now, would cultivate and learn the moral virtues and attitudes.
  • 5.

    The Other and Divine Mystery: The Mystical Origin of Levinas’ Idea of Divine Mystery

    Wook Joo Park | 2018, 75(3) | pp.139~172 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The origin of Levinas’ phenomenology of the Other and his idea of mystery is Judaic. This is an evident fact that Levinas himself has acknowledged and most Levinas researchers have assented to. However, there seems to be something missing from this consensus. Researchers should be reminded that Levinas’ idea of mystery was developed through serious communication with Heidegger’s mysticism, which was conducted in a very refutative manner. It would not be going too far to say that Levinas’ idea of mystery was affected by Heidegger’s mysticism in such and such a way. In order to substantiate this inference, the present study delves into specific details and the methodical structure of Levinas’ argument of divine mystery. This is followed by a comparative approach to Levinas’ idea of divine mystery and Eckhart’s mystical thought, which has been indicated as one of the primary origins of Heideggerian mysticism. In so doing, the present study demonstrates that Eckhart’s mysticism, which was interpreted in an existential way by Heidegger, constitutes one of the primary origins of Levinas’ idea of divine mystery, albeit more or less secondarily when compared with the Torah of Judaism. This is followed by a suggestion of the implications of this demonstration.
  • 6.

    Rereading Womanhouse (1972): A Pioneer of Feminist Art and Site-specific Installation

    Jina Kim | 2018, 75(3) | pp.173~220 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines Womanhouse, which was a project open to the public for about four weeks starting from January 30, 1972 in Los Angeles, USA. It was both an installation and an exhibition created by Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro with 21 college students affiliated with the Feminist Art Program at the California Institute of the Arts. They borrowed a large abandoned house, repaired it by themselves and created site-specific works exploring women’s experiences, roles, and awareness in the home. Womanhouse received national attention when it was open, but because the house was demolished shortly after the exhibition, most works were destroyed. Since then, it has been referenced as a representative work of first-generation feminist art; however, due to the negative associations with this era of art as “essentialist,” researchers have not produced detailed scholarly studies of Womanhouse. Recently, critical discussion has been expanded through the writings of several scholars and artists, a related exhibition in 2009, and a website. Furthermore, Womanhouse is beginning to be reconsidered as a combination of first generation “essentialism” and second generation “constructionism.” This paper, in part, agrees with this view. On the one hand, rather than seeing the installation as just a bridge between “essentialism” and “constructivism” in feminist art, this paper carries out a detailed examination of individual works in the Womanhouse exhibit and investigates implications for and against female experiences and the construction of femininity. On the other hand, beyond feminism, this article re-reads Womanhouse through its historical significance and factors critical to society as well as contemporary art world. By examining its experimental attributes, this paper argues that the installation anticipated various characteristics found in contemporary art: 1) the collaborative nature of work; 2) blurring the line between men’s and women’s work in the contrast between house repair vs. sewing, decorating, embroidery, etc.; 3) site-specific installation in an abandoned house; 4) mixing various media and genres.
  • 7.

    Comparative Literature in the Posthuman Age: How to Read Artificial Language

    SEONJOO PARK | 2018, 75(3) | pp.221~243 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the possibility that comparative literature might become relevant in the posthuman age, mainly focusing on the issue of reading. Language has been transforming itself constantly through the interaction with media, thus becoming increasingly artificial and mechanical. Even the most radical linguistic theories have been constituted through the global translation from science and technology. Human beings and machines, literary language and media, science and humanities do not compete; instead, they are deeply implicated from the very beginning of their constitution. In this context, the core ideas such ‘humanity’, ‘universality’ or ‘literariness’ for comparative literature are being challenged. ‘Close reading’ as a representative methodology does not cope with such a challenge, and to devise a different way to read, we need to establish the genealogy of reading in a Foucauldian sense. That way, the ideological, social and historical limitations of ‘close reading’ can be revealed more clearly. Comparative literature, when reading itself from the outside, might be able to deal with the artificiality of languages and texts, and think of the other — posthuman — forms of humanity.
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