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2019, Vol.76, No.1

  • 1.

    Hobbes, Women, and Contract: Is There a Woman in Hobbes’s Social Contract Theory?

    Min, Eun Kyung | 2019, 76(1) | pp.11~45 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    During the past fifty years, feminist scholars have increasingly engaged with Hobbes’s political theory. Although Hobbes’s political vision has consistently come under fire for being hyperindividualist, authoritarian, and masculinist, his theory of the state of nature is increasingly seen as offering resources for feminist theory. This article attempts to take stock of the rich and varied feminist response to Hobbes. It offers detailed original readings of passages from Hobbes’s Elements of Nature, De Cive, and Leviathan that deal specifically with the difference between mother-right and father-right, the definition of the family, contracts between women and men, and women’s role in the commonwealth. The paper proposes that, ultimately, Hobbes evinces a sensitivity toward sex but operates without a sophisticated notion of gender, especially in his theory of the instituted, artificial commonwealth.
  • 2.

    “[I]s the Woman Really Possessed?” : Marriage Act, Property, and Madness in Susanna Centlivre and Eliza Haywood

    Lim, Jane | 2019, 76(1) | pp.47~78 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper reads the marriage plot of Susanna Centlivre’s comedy The Busybody (1709) and Eliza Haywood’s amatory fiction The Distress’d Orphan, or Love in a Madhouse (1726) to investigate the vexed question of women’s legal right over property, marriage, and self-governance in early modern England. Specifically, the female protagonists of Centlivre and Haywood attempt to reconcile the right to property and self-ownership by commanding their father’s inheritance but defying the rule of the father. Their female protagonists are dubbed “mad” at one point or another because the articulation of female rights challenges normative social and gender behavior prescribed by men; the trope of the mad woman is used specifically to reflect on women’s negotiation between self-possession and the state of marriage in which women in essence become property of her husband and thereby “possessed.” To put it in Lockean terms, the right to property is predicated on one’s ability to first claim “property in his own person,” an internal property that cannot be alienated. Reading Centlivre and Haywood’s texts as anticipating the marriage Act of 1753 that codified legal marriage through written documents, I argue that the female protagonists of Centlivre and Haywood overwrite their guardian’s legal authority through the manipulation of language and symptoms of madness. This paper explores how the interplay between legality, literacy, and lunacy negotiates the possibilities of women’s right over property and self-ownership.
  • 3.

    Seventeenth-century Pronk Poppenhuisen and Eighteenth-Century English Baby Houses: Gender, Domesticity, and the Novel

    Heewon Chung | 2019, 76(1) | pp.79~109 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper seeks to contextualize dollhouses from seventeenth-century pronk poppenhuisen to eighteenth-century English baby houses against the backdrop of gendering of interior spaces, and the rise of domesticity and the novel. Starting from the studiolo and cabinets de curieux, this study analyzes the intersection of power and knowledge, and the performance of gender and domesticity in the history of collection and domestic spaces. The purpose of the first part of this article is to survey the differentiation of pronk poppenhuisen from the cabinets of curiosities in terms of gendering of the collection, paying attention to the rise of domesticity exemplified in the contemporary emblem books. The second part of the paper examines the domestic value and sensibility represented implicity and explicitly in eighteenth-century English baby houses, and in doing so, it discusses how baby houses and novels visualize the interiority of both the households and the bourgeois subjects.
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    Motifs Concerning Presenting Clothes in Shijing and the Reception Ceremony for Royal Guests in the Zhou Dynasty

    LEE UK JIN | 2019, 76(1) | pp.113~144 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Poems about presenting clothes in Shijing have motifs related to the arrival of the receiver of the clothes, the listing of clothes, and the hospitality and affection for the receiver. Each of these motifs corresponds to procedures for treating guests in the Zhou palace. In Mao 222 and 261 in Court Hymns, the procedures and ceremonial dresses presented by the king are explicitly exhibited; a few examples can also be found in the poems in Airs of the States, which are known to be songs of love or praising figures in history. All of the clothes presented are believed to be of ceremonial dress. Ceremonies and Rites and the inscriptions of bronze vessels only contain information on the ceremonial procedures and the official statements of kings and vassals. In contrast to this, poems about presenting clothes in Shijing demonstrate not only the king’s address of instruction or the duties of feudal lords, but also metaphors of natural scenes and brotherly love for the guest. This contrast derives from the difference between strict protocol and harmonious music.
  • 5.

    Hidden Names and the Social Interactions of Chung-Am (冲菴) During His Exile in Jeju

    Duksoo Kim | 2019, 76(1) | pp.145~182 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    written by Chung-Am (冲菴) while he was exiled in Jeju are listed. Since the number of poems is small and there are not enough records to deduce the circumstances of the time, it is hard to understand the background and social interactions of Chung-Am during his exile in Jeju. There are several points to be noted; the fact that 37 poems were listed in the anthology 「Haedorok」 from the beginning; that 「Haedorok」 existed right up to the publication of its second edition; that the comments were edited and their histories were judged arbitrarily while Chungamjip was published twice; that a lot of works in the early days of Chung-Am were untitled, that Jejuilgi (濟州日記), which is another assumed work of Chung-Am, existed until the time of compilation of <Chungamsunsaengyeonbo> (冲庵先 生年譜), and other facts are worthy of attention. Despite the severe surveillance of the Hungupa, who were looking for opportunities to wipe out the power of Confucian scholars, Sajedang (思齊堂), An Chu-Sun (安處 順) helped the Gimyo-sages (己卯諸賢) both materially and morally. Letters from An Chu-Sun and the Gimyo-sages provide a glimpse into the harsh political situation and the daunted position of the Gimyo-sages; they also contain an intent to deliver information about the state of affairs of the time. The frequent concealment or distortion of characters in the poems of Chung-Am written in Jeju can be regarded as representing efforts to get rid of any source of possible trouble, given that detection by radar of the Hungupa could have brought about a fatal result to the entire family. On the other hand, the names of some of local residents of Jeju and Lee Un, the governor of Jeju of the time, were fully stated in his works, because those works were distant from personal affection or allegations of conspiracy.
  • 6.

    A Study of Gollyun Choe Changdae’s Friendship Poems: Focusing on Social Associations with Intellectuals

    kim-myo-jung | 2019, 76(1) | pp.183~211 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to comprehend the social associations between intellectuals based on the study of social association poems written by Gollyun Choi Changdae. The first characteristic is that true social associations can be found in the poems of praise. Gollyun seems to have composed poems based on a close relationship. Secondly, the signs of poetic communication among poetical friends through meetings could be confirmed. Gollyun composed Chinese poetry using antithesis while singing poetries with intellectuals, who were of Soron origin. Moreover, most of the poems had been written in his later years, at a time when he preferred frank social associations. Thirdly, this study explored how excitement from sightseeing a common place was shared. Gollyun maintained an active attitude in promising and actually going sightseeing with his intellectual friends, and shared experiences of the landscape with his companions.
  • 7.

    Gender Segregation at the Time of Death

    Lee, Kyungha | 2019, 76(1) | pp.213~235 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study considers the manifestation of ‘gender segregation’ at the ‘end of life’ (i.e. hour of death), based on relevant records written by men (on women) and those written by upper-class women in premodern Korea. The text that provided the basis for such gender segregation was also identified; it was the passage ‘男子不死於婦人之手, 婦人不死於男子之手’ that appears in the ancient Book of Rites. Gender distinctions regarding practice at the hour of death are clearly set out in the ancient scripture but they were not clearly adhered to in reality; the principles could or could not be followed. Records on gender segregation at death were limited in the 17th and 19th centuries but relatively abundant in the 18th century. This study was able to confirm that gender segregation at the time of death did exist in premodern Korea as a means of honoring proprieties.
  • 8.

    ‘Centenary of Literary Giants’ in the Field of Korean Modern Literature in the First Half of the 20th Century

    KIM MIJI | 2019, 76(1) | pp.237~273 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Celebrating a centenary or hundredth anniversary is a familiar event in modern times but it has no more than one hundred years of history in Korea. This study examines the beginning of the centennial celebration event (especially of modern writers) and focuses on the relationship between the concept of the ‘literary giant’ in the modern sense and in the form of a centenary. In the beginning of the 20th century, the word ‘literary giant 文豪’ was used only for western writers, especially of 19th century. This is because they were regarded as the most proper role models for Korean modern literature. Therefore numerous names of western writers and news of their centenary appeared in modern Korean media in the 1920s. Around the 1930s, the centenary of a writer appeared as a kind of cultural project, as can be seen in the newspaper special issues for the centenaries of Tolstoy, Goethe etc. From the mid 1930s, a tendency of recall Korean traditional thinkers appeared, represented by the name ‘Joseonhak’ (朝鮮學). Scholars and the media started to commemorate the birthdays or death dates of intellectuals. Jung Yakyong (Dasan) was a typical example. Following the centenary of Dasan, the issue of recollection and reinterpretation of traditional features or ideas emerged. In what sense and context that the revival of tradition could be justified was a controversial issue. As a result, the project and experiment of the centenary was a process of sorts in which the idea of modern literature and the relationship between modern and tradition was questioned.
  • 9.

    Bungei shuto as a Critical Space of Kim Saryang’s Japanophone Literature: the Media of the ‘Empire’ and Colonial Writers’ Exchange

    Takahashi, Azusa | 2019, 76(1) | pp.275~322 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines networks of colonial writers formed through the literary coterie magazine Bungei shuto (1933-1969), where many colonial writers like Kim Saryang published their works. Specifically, this paper attempts to explore the critical space of Kim Saryang’s Japanese-language works by analyzing study sessions of coterie members and readers, and letters exchanged between colonial writers in the coterie. Bungei shuto, published by Yasutaka Tokuzō, was created for the purpose of discovering new writers in response to strong sectarianism in the Japanese literary establishment at that time. Because of this mission, Yasutaka’s colonial experience, and lobbying by Chang Hyŏkchu (a coterie member), many colonial writers came to participate in the magazine as members. These included the Korean writers Chang Hyŏkchu, Kim Saryang, and Kim Talsu, and Taiwanese writer Long Yingzong. Records of study sessions by members and readers reveal expectations for colonial writers. However, the colonial writers were not unilaterally evaluated by members and readers, but also began to create exchanges among themselves through criticism appearing in Bungei shuto. Letters between colonial writers also show that they formed personal connections through participation in Bungei shuto. These letters show that Kim Saryang and Long Yingzong shared an ‘anxiety’ over their discomfort with the evaluations they received from the Japanese literary establishment, and that issues shared between Kim Saryang and Kim Talsu influenced their works. In this way, Bungei shuto created networks of colonial writers within the media of the ‘Empire’ that cannot be fully subsumed into ‘national literature.’ Although changes in Kim Saryang’s works have been viewed as a ‘retreat’ from ‘nationalist writing,’ viewed through the lens of these networks they can be seen as a process of trial and error within the media of the ‘Empire.’ This point of view offers the possibility of new ways of reading Kim Saryang’s works.
  • 10.

    ‘Reality’ and Re-presentation in Taiwan: Centering on “Night Monkey” (1942) by Zhang Wen-huan and “Pomegranate” (1943) by Lv He-ruo

    SHIN MIN YOUNG | 2019, 76(1) | pp.323~360 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Sino-Japanese War, triggered by the Lu-gou Bridge incident in 1937, had a profound impact not only on the political and social realm but also on the literary world. Colonial literary circles on the Korean Peninsula and Taiwan were required to produce national literatures under literary control policies. Sharing similar political and sociological points of views, and as they both fall into the category of Japanese Empire colonial literature, a great deal of overlap could be observed in the responses to the demands of the colonial government on the Korean Peninsula and Taiwan. However, it is noteworthy that there was a unique literary controversy in the Taiwanese literature circles of the 1940s that could not be found in the Korean peninsula at the same time. This is the controversy surrounding feces realism (糞現實主義) between Japanese writers in Taiwan and Taiwanese writers in 1943, which was criticized by Kudo Yoshimi. Japanese writers who were in Taiwan at the time criticized the literary works written by Taiwanese writers as being merely subordinate to romanticism, overwhelmed by emotions and over emphasizing the negative aspects of reality. However, it was also maintained that the negative aspects of the reality that were dismissed are also part of the reality of Taiwan, and so the Taiwanese themselves should not pretend not deny it. In the two works discussed in this article, “Night Monkey” of Zhang Wen-huan and “Pomegranate” of Lv He-ruo, the reality of Taiwan, which is different from the reality of ‘Taiwan’ expressed by Japanese writers in Taiwan, is revealed. “Night Monkey” borrows the eyes of a six-year-old narrator and paints the scenes of a farmhouse and a bamboo manufacturing factory in rustic colors. However, when the reader removes the limit of the gaze of the young child’s speaker and reads the events happening in the mountain farmhouse and the die-making manufacturing factory, the life of the ‘colonial’ Taiwanese is clearly revealed. On the other hand, “Pomegranate” is a work aimed at the writers who came from the time when the controversy of feces realism (糞現實主義) was taking place. The content of “Pomegranate” deals with the misfortune and brotherhood of the three Jin-pyeongs who cannot explain the causal relationship. The ‘war dynasties’, ‘Hwangmin’, and ‘war control system’, which dominated the discourse at the time, were concepts that could be established based on ‘state’. In this way, writers such as Zhang Wen-huan and Lv He-ruo placed in their works the realities of the majority of the Taiwanese, which was distant from the ‘present’ reality recognized by poetry writers such as Mitsuru Nishikawa and Hayada Hamada.
  • 11.

    ‘Rewriting’ of Loneliness and Endless Sorrow and Rage: Focusing on Lu Xun’s “The Misanthrope” (1925), Park Yeon-hee’s “The Misanthrope” (1955), and Takeda Taijun’s “The Silent Man” (1954)

    Kim JinGyu | 2019, 76(1) | pp.361~396 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores the process in which Lu Xun’s “The Misanthrope” was rewritten in the mid-1950s as Park Yeon-hee’s “The Misanthrope” and Takeda Taijun’s “Silent Man” based on ‘the nature of the Misanthrope’, ‘the cause of the conflict with the world’, and ‘the relationship between the Misanthrope and the observer’. Lu Xun’s Misanthrope, the intellectual and revolutionary, was despairing because of the imbecilic mob, and his becoming an adviser of warlord meant revenge for himself and the mob. The texts of Park and Takeda illuminate the shame and despair that led to the post-World War II period from the end of Japanese colonial rule based on Lu Xun’s “The Misanthrope”. The turned socialist, Hak-Nam, suppresses the desire for political participation because of his shameful career history. In the ‘conversion period’, when the ‘the national people’ were formed on the basis of anti-communism, he would like to be confirmed by Kwon that he wrote Stalin's Crime History, a kind of “statement of consciousness”, without pursuing his own profit. However, it was meaningless whether the genuineness of the conversion was due to the Korean War that broke out soon. Takeda’s misanthrope is not social reformers but pliable journalists and is thoroughly isolated from the surrounding people. Uoz, who had been subservient to the totalitarianism in the war period, fell into total loneliness and despair, after recognizing the violence of tying the Japanese together even on the basis of sorrow and anger caused by the war. Although it aimed at anti-war and peace, it was also a kind of nation-building.
  • 12.

    Masochism and Women in Son Chang-seop’s Novels

    Kim Juelee | 2019, 76(1) | pp.397~426 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analyse the meaning of masochism and representation of oral maternity in Son Chang-seop’s novels. Deleuze said that masochism is a contract in which a man entrusts all his rights to an oral maternity who comes and goes between a tempting ‘uterine maternity’ and a punishing ‘Oedipus maternity’. In masochism, an oral maternity forces and laughs at the father’s image hided in a masochist. As a contract between an punisher and a sufferer, which is contracted by the sufferer’s desire, masochism shows the reversed relations in which that a social weaker (like the handicapped and women) becomes a punisher and a social strong (like the intellectual and men) becomes a sufferer in 「Husband and wife」, 「Written in blood」 and 「A sufferer」. The rule of patriarchy like a sense of virtue and an ideology of the wise mother and good wife derives ironic humor with a woman punisher’s over-imitating. A woman punisher shows the image of an oral maternity who tempts, punishes and cares in novels at 1960s like 「Husband and wife」, 「Sons」, 「A class on human」, 「A study about the other sex」 etc.. In these novels the oral maternity who is sexual, kind and active destroys, laughs at and revises the morality of patriarchal society with temptation and care-giving.
  • 13.

    Possibility of Conversation Not Limited to a Fixed Language: Focusing on the ‘Telephone’ in Lee Cheong-joon’s Novels

    Lee Haeng-mi | 2019, 76(1) | pp.427~465 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article starts from the premise that the ‘telephone’ in Lee Cheong-joon’s novels is closely related to the intense inquiry of the writer on language, and not merely on the material level. The communication through the telephone is closely related to the property of ‘relational language’ defined by Lee Cheong-joon in that it requires mutual guarantee and agreement between the sender and receiver. In addition, since telephony constitutes context through the content of speech, mutual exchange has a considerable influence on leading the meaning of dialogue, and there is a possibility that the authenticity of the dialogue itself is doubtful. Also, a phone is also a medium for intensely forming intimacy and bond through intimate communication between two communicators. In this article on Lee Cheong-joon’s novels, an attempt is made to examine the aspect of representation of the properties of these telephones in parallel with the Lee’s language consciousness. In Lee’s novels, telephoning is usually semantically related to the emotional response and behavior of the recipient. The aspect of the representation of the telephone reflects the study on the related aspects of the ‘relational language’ and ‘existential language’ defined by Lee. “Floating Words” (1973) is a novel that reflects on the function of ‘relational language’. It shows the danger of deciding the reality by relying on the talk of the other party, and the importance of ‘existential language’ is further emphasized from these limitations. However, in the process of reaching this conclusion, the recipient interprets the caller’s words and behaves according to them. At this time, the recipient actively understands and acts on the language of the sender, and becomes the subject who introspectively searched for the relationship between the two language orders. On the other hand, “Abstract of Summer” (1982) shows the whole distrust of ‘relational language’ and the inclination to ‘existential language’. In the novels of Lee, the languages that convey the full meaning came mainly from the tongues and sounds of the Namdo. This novel is characterized by being written through letter writing. The voice of the speaker who wants to read beyond the character is connected with Lee’s voice who wishes to communicate freely beyond the normative language. However, the situation in which the ‘relational language’ represented by the telephone is completely denied implies the possibility that the ‘existential language’, an axis of the binational contradiction, becomes another closed communication circuit. In addition, Lee’s excessive distrust of ‘relational language’ is also projected that it is impossible to combine two language orders in the life of the city of Seoul.
  • 14.

    ‘Eros’ as a Medium of Recognition and Practice in Baek Nak-cheong’s “The Citizen Literature Theory”: Focusing on the Appropriation of “Timaeus”

    Kim, Dae-jin | 2019, 76(1) | pp.467~499 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the meaning of Baek Nakcheong’s intellectual practice in relation to the flow of knowledge field in the mid-1960s through a reading of “The Citizen Literature Theory” (1969). Recent studies on “The Citizen Literature Theory” sought to clarify the text’s position in relation to the intellectual flows formed in knowledge fields outside literature, such as history and religion. However, discussion has tended to be about the influence or acceptance of knowledge formed outside the literature field. This paper argues that “The Citizen Literature Theory” is a response to the challenge left by Park Chung-hee’s ‘national democracy’ in the 1960s knowledge field. That challenge was the synthesis of ‘citizens’ and ‘nation’. Baek Nak-cheong’s answer was to abstract the concept of ‘citizen’ and present it as a kind of situation. Baek Nak-cheong’s mechanism of synthesising ‘citizen’ and ‘nation’ was formed through reference to Plato’s “Timaeus”. In the “The Citizen Literature Theory”, Baek Nak-cheong, like Plato, implicitly presupposes that holistic recognition causes feelings of obedience. In that premise, Baek Nak-Cheong argues for the superiority of realism literature. After “The Citizen Literature Theory”, Baek Nak-Cheong’ logic emphasized feelings of obedience rather than holistic recognition. This paper explains such changes from a point of view of inversion in the Platonic scheme. Finally, this study asks whether the Baek Nak-cheong’s theory achieved only the effect that he intended. The conclusion of this study suggests that the logic of Baek Nak-cheong emphasized the emotions of the individual rather than the collective and may have paradoxically produced unintended results.
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