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2019, Vol.76, No.2

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    The Kwantung Army (Japanese Armed Forces in Manchukuo)’s Policy of Intelligence Warfare against the Soviet Union and White Russians

    In-soo KIM | 2019, 76(2) | pp.13~53 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The most obvious feature of the position of the ethnic minority during the World War II in the Far East was represented through the problem of White Russians. White Russians, who were the anti-Communist groups in Russia, were the targets of the ‘Ethnic Harmony Policy’ (民族協和政 策) advocated by Manchukuo (滿洲國). They represented an ambivalent existence, included in the category of Russians on a racial and ethnic perspective. The Kwantung Army (關東軍) tried to study the intelligence warfare techniques of the Soviet Union and used the White Russians as a means of intelligence, propaganda and conspiracy warfare. It also established a buffer-zone with the Soviet Union by utilizing the agricultural immigrants of White Russians. In addition, the Kwantung Army planned to create autonomous governments for them. From the standpoint of the Kwantung Army, White Russians were both resources of knowledge about the Soviet Union and useful tools for propaganda. The White Russians were also the ones who had a desire to revert to an anti-revolutionary homeland. However, at the same time, they were considered as a danger because they were targets of espionage and vigilance, and they embodied Russian ethnicity. The attributes of White Russians were inherently conflicted and contradictory: the internal political conflicts of White Russians’ society, the clash between anti-communist ideals and the Russian national ethnicity, and the inability to distinguish between Red Russians (the revolutionists) and White Russians. The Kwantung Army’s intelligence warfare against the Soviet Union through the White Russians during World War II clearly shows the character of the space in which the sub-ethnic groups were located. There is a huge contradiction and ambivalence between desire and neurosis in the Kwantung Army’s policy towards the White Russians.
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    R. B. Bose as an Indian Independence Activist and His Relationship to Korea: Rethinking Anti-Colonialism from the Perspective of the ‘Trans-Imperial’

    Mizutani, Satoshi | 2019, 76(2) | pp.55~104 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    While in India under British rule, R. B. Bose (1886-1945) — a militant independence activist — was involved in an attempted assassination of the Governor-General, forcing him into migrating to Japan, where he would continue his anti-colonial activities in exile. In May 1934, Bose visited Seoul, the capital of Korea, a nation which was under Japanese rule. During his one-week stay there, he was greeted day after day by high-ranking Japanese officials of the colonial state and was found to try and persuade those Koreans with whom he interacted into cooperating with the Japanese rulers. Why was it the case that someone who was in the very forefront of anti-colonial struggle in one empire ended up discouraging it in another? This is nothing short of a contradiction. Contemplating this contradiction, the paper argues, will help us consider what both colonialism and anti-colonialism were in a new light. Conventional historical studies of colonialism have mostly revolved around the relationship between the ruler and ruled in one given empire. But such a framework would fail to help us see why and how R. B. Bose did what did in Seoul that year. What is required as an alternative is a ‘trans-imperial’ perspective — a perspective which allows the histories of both colonialism and anti-colonialism to be situated within the relations between different empires in question. Through elucidating the reasons behind Bose’s contradictory stance to Korean’s struggle against Japan, this essay will rethink the meanings of anti-colonialism from the perspective of the trans-imperial.
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    A Study on the Benxing (本性) and Tianming (天命) of Guxiang (骨相篇) in Lunheng (論衡)

    kim woo jung | 2019, 76(2) | pp.151~174 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Wangchong (王充) claimed that Tianming (天命), which is responsible for riches and honors or poverty and lowliness (富貴貧賤), was determined by the energy of the sky and the energy of the various stars in Lunheng (論衡). Asserting that these Tianming (天命) are given differently to individuals, Wangchong (王充) argued that Tianming (天命) given from sky cannot be overcome by individual efforts. However, Wangchong (王充) insisted that Benxing (本性), which determines the good and the bad (善 惡) of the individuals, can be changed by individual effort and education. In other words, he argued that education could turn a bad person into a good person. Wangchong (王充) claimed that Tianming (天命) and Benxing (本性) show up on Guxiang (骨相) at the same time. But this argument means that Tianming (天命), granted from sky, and Benxing (本性), which can be changed by the efforts of individuals, should have the same perspective. If the Tianming (天命) cannot be changed, neither should Benxing (本性) be able to be changed.
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    The Public Law of all Nations and Foreign Recognition in Tears of Blood

    KyungJae Lee | 2019, 76(2) | pp.175~204 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It has been mentioned that, in Tears of Blood, the consciousness of the one-sided pro-Japanese dynasties was revealed in the process of the shaping of the Sino-Japanese War. The true reason for the pro-Japanese attitude is in the public law of all nations, compliance to which determines on which side of the dichotomy between civilization and barbarism one belongs to. Lee In-jik’s emphasis is not on the support of individual countries such as Japan and China, but on the division between the world that follows the laws of nation states and the world that does not. It is therefore reasonable to reassess the scene where Ok Ryun is hit by the bullets of the Japanese army rather than the Qing army; this is not a crack in the text, as previously believed, since from the aspect of the public law of all nations, it is reasonable to say that Qing is the poison applied to the bullet. In 1882, the Qing Dynasty was portrayed as an irrelevant entity to the entire the public law of all nations. This is related to the denying of the sovereignty of Joseon. Against this backdrop, the Joseon government tried to resist the system of rule by using the public law of all nations. At the time when the Sino-Japanese War broke out, ignorance or misuse of the Qing Dynasty’s civilization law was the most negative aspect compared to Japan, and it was the main focus of anti-Qing sentiment. However, at the time that the work was created, the recognition of Japan as a nation that did not observe the public law of all nations was spread widely. In Tears of Blood, there is a scene in which Japanese criticize Japan’s problems in relation to the nation’s public works law through the negative image of the Japanese who embodied Japan’s protectionism at the time of the Treaty of Friendship. However, it seems that Lee In-jik never perceived the fundamental limitations of the nation-state law, that is, the logic that supports the imperialism of the great power. This can be seen through the formation of utopia in the space of the United States. The reason why the United States is so idealized is also inextricably linked with the public law of all nations. At the entrance to the contact with the United States is the Chinese Kangyuwai (康有爲), who through the whole book 『實理公法全 書』 raised national law to the level of natural reason and claimed the equality and independence of mankind. The space of the United States where Kangyuwai is working with power naturally has a status of being a true example of the public law of all nations. Lee In-jik’s Tears of Blood is a work that shows a blind intention toward modernity which is symbolized by the nation-state, and should not merely be approached as a pro-Japanese novel.
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    The Conceptual History of Individual and Natural Rights in 1910s Korea: A Nominalistic Turn

    Yun Sang Hyun | 2019, 76(2) | pp.205~235 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    While the intellectual group Hakchikang has been recognized as a leading liberal force in previous studies, this article shows that some concepts of the ‘individual’ in 1910s’ Hakchikang lies within the ethnic organism associated with the theory of ‘Nationalism’(國粹論). Unlike the intellectuals of the late Joseon Dynasty, such as Yu Gil-joon and Park Young-hyo, their notion of the ‘individual’ prominently denied ‘Natural Right’ and ‘Du Contrat Social ou Principes du Droit Politiquethe’. Instead of dismantling the stereotypic social organic worldview of the Neo-Confucianism kinship-state network and forming a new world view based on the individual perception of the molecular ‘individual’, it shows that the combination of the existing concept of social organism and the concept of the individual was mainstream. Meanwhile there was a case where the western recognition of nominalism was introduced through the individual premise of social evolution theory. Though only a small number expressed it explicitly, it also became an occasion for the spread of individual awareness.
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    ‘Demolition Order’ Notifications Appearing in Korean Literature under the Rule of Japanese Imperialism

    PARK JUNG-HEE | 2019, 76(2) | pp.237~269 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study considers how literary works responded to the ‘demolition of the poor’ according to city planning near the end of the period of Japanese colonization and what they meant. Confirmation and advancement of town planning in Gyengseong in the middle and late 1930s led to the massive demolition of the poor, which went beyond the previous intermittent level, and became a social problem. The colonial authority notified shanty town inhabitants of ‘demolition orders’ in order to build ‘Great Gyeongseong’ by widening up the area and cleaning up the city. The inhabitants were forced out to be ‘la nuda vita’ by the demolition order, via deportation and exclusion. They resisted the ‘official demolition orders’ by submitting ‘petitions’ and by holding demonstrations, but they could not stop the demolition since they were ‘illegal occupants’. Among literary works dealing with the life of the poor in a colonial city, it is not easy to identify works that either focus on or inquire into the ‘demolition’ problem. The central subject of the works that this study pays attention to is the massive ‘demolition of the poor’ due to the urbanization of Gyeongseong at the end of Japanese colonization era. ‘Demolition order’ notifications appearing in literature at this time make a point beyond revealing the shanty town inhabitants’ lives in poverty or dealing with collective resistance. Before This Spring is Over (1937), which approaches the ‘demolition order’ situation of the shanty towns as an allegory situation of the intellectual’s ‘ideology demolition’, is particularly a representative work that demonstrates the literary developments that came out of the ‘demolition orders’ of this period. In addition, Summer (1940) symptomatically captures the violence which emerged out of the combination of the ’construction of the city as a logistics base’ and ‘demolition orders’, and Foolish People (1940) symbolizes exitlessness of ‘the naked life’ through the fall of characters who maximize personal gains using the displaced people’s anxiety. This is the first study to have covered the demolition problem and literary works of the Japanese colonial period dealing with this issue. It is a meaningful investigation of the distinctiveness of the demolition of colonial housing that could not be turned into a universal problem of colonial modernity or urbanization at the literary level. It is expected that interest in ‘demolition and literature’ will be increased in relation to the history of Korean modern literature as a result of this study.
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    Artificial Religious Intelligence Simulation: Comparative Study of the Stark-Bainbridge Model and Durkheimian Model of Religious Cognition

    Wook Joo Park | 2019, 76(2) | pp.271~312 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    One of the important contemporary questions about the possibilities and limits of artificial intelligence is concerned with human religiosity. “Can artificial intelligence simulate religious faith?” The present study investigates the implications of a machine learning experiment of William Sims Bainbridge, an outstanding researcher in the field of the sociology of religion and cognitive science. He attempted to simulate human religiosity and faith in supernatural beings in 2006. The focus is on three factors: his social cognitive theory to explain human religiosity and faith, a scenario for the actualization of this theory, and a mathematical-statistical strategy and its principles applied to experiment. In this comparative analysis of the Stark-Bainbridge model of religion and religious cognition and that of Durkheim, it is demonstrated that the insights of Stark and Bainbridge found in Bainbridge’s artificial intelligence simulation would likely be acknowledged as valid from the perspective of the Durkheimian methodology of religious studies, despite some significant differences between them. Most importantly, it seems certain that what Stark-Bainbridge and the Durkheimian model of religious cognition have in common is that they locate the origin of primitive religiosity in society, in continuous social processes. It also seems certain that they both translate the social processes into the categorizing norms of religious cognition so as to illuminate the religious nature of human kind.
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