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2019, Vol.76, No.3

  • 1.

    Is ‘rro’ the Allomorph of Case Marker ‘ro’?

    Lee, Hyeonhie | 2019, 76(3) | pp.11~24 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    ‘ke’ of Present Day Korean is never directly reduced from ‘kes’. ‘ke’ has been reanalysed from ‘kei’, the result that the word-medial /s/-deletion rule was applied to ‘kesi’. The word-medial /s/-deletion rule that changes ‘Xsi’ to ‘Xi’ was widely applied to both lexical morphemes such as ‘masi-~mai-’ ‘to drink’ and grammatical morphemes such as ‘-sipsida~-ipsida’. After ‘ke’ has been reanalysed, the ‘r’-addition rule of Middle and Early Modern Korean, that ‘r’ is added when grammatical morphemes combine to one syllable pronouns such as ‘na, ne, ce, nwu, ku, tye’, is applied to ‘ke’, ‘mwe’ and ‘mue’ in Present Day Korean. As the added ‘r’ was recognized as a part of the stem, not of the case marker, lexicalized.
  • 2.

    A Study on the ‘ro’ Constructions Expressing Qualification in Middle Korean

    Chaewon Paek , Jeong, Hye-rin | 2019, 76(3) | pp.25~63 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the characteristics of ‘NP-ro’, which expresses the meaning of [qualification]. ‘ro’ is a remarkable particle in that the meanings expressed in the sentences vary widely according to the accompanying predicates. In this paper, we presented four major characteristics of ‘NP-ro’, which have the meaning of [qualification], and discuss the characteristics of the ‘NP-ro’ constructions in Middle Korean. We also examined the constructions that can be discussed in relation to [qualification]. Through this discussion, it was possible to fill in the blanks of the grammatical history on the characteristics of ‘ro’. As a result, it was possible to arrive at a complete understanding of the usage of ‘ro’.
  • 3.

    A Historical Study on Korean Adverb ‘nalro’ and ‘sesero’ Types

    JANG, Goeun , Kim Han Gyul | 2019, 76(3) | pp.65~100 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to provide a historical explanation on the Korean adverbs ‘nalro’ (‘날로’) and ‘sesero’ (‘세세(世世)로’) types, which mean the repetition of time intervals. Although the two types appear similar in terms of morphology and semantics, they have different features in word formation. The ‘nalro’ type, a syntactic unit of a temporal noun and the postposition ‘ro’, has the meaning of ‘per X’, repetition of X intervals, e.g. ‘nalro’ (daily), in Middle Korean, since the case marker ‘ro’ has temporal usage for one of its meaning. The ‘nalro’ type adverbs come to obtain the meaning of ‘X by X’, like ‘nalro’ (day by day) in the context of change of state; thus their non-compositional meaning may lead to the lexicalization of the whole construction. The ‘sesero’ type, on the other hand, has paradigmatic relations with the reduplicated form ‘X’, ‘Xye’ and ‘Xro’, which are combined with ‘ye’ (←e) and ‘ro’ to reduplicated form, and these words have almost same usage (e.g. ‘sese’, ‘seseye’, ‘sesero’; ‘from generation to generation). The interpretation of time intervals of ‘sesero’ type adverbs comes from reduplication, and given our diachronic perspective, the ‘Xye’ and ‘Xro’ can be identified as forms inherited from a time prior to Middle Korean.
  • 4.

    A Study on the ‘ro’-marked Object in Middle Korean

    Taewoo Kim | 2019, 76(3) | pp.101~128 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The oblique case marker ‘ro’ can mark the [THEME] argument of ditransitive sentences. The [THEME] argument refers to an entity that undergoes physical or mental transfer. Movement verbs, give-type verbs, say-type verbs, converse-type verbs, and mental activity verbs require a [THEME] argument as a direct object. In this case, the ‘ro’-marked direct object must precede a [RECIPIENT, GOAL] argument. The Old Chinese character 以 highly influences the ‘ro’ marking on the [THEME] direct object of ditransitive sentences in Middle Korean. However, although there is no 以, as long as the direct object is preposed, ‘ro’ can mark the direct object. We cannot observe this in Present Day Korean. The ‘ro’ marking can be explained in two ways. First, we can view ‘ro’ object marking as a differential object marking. The differential object marking, the alternation of case markers according to the meaning of predicates, is widespread cross-linguistically. But, the detailed features of ‘ro’ object marking is slightly different from those of other languages. Considering the difference as crucial, we can regard it as a markedness marking strategy. This construction seems to be the borrowing from the Old Chinese, and under this view, ‘ro’, as an instrumental marker, delimits the meaning of a verb. Meanwhile, there are accusative marker ‘ro/rɨ’ in a few dialects in Present Day Korean. This marker stems from the accusative marker ‘ɨl/rɨl’ through sound change and morphological change, and is not related to the Middle Korean direct object marker ‘lo’ which we discussed so far. The homophony is only a coincidence.
  • 5.

    Colonial Joseon’s Reading of the Iliad: Ro Ja-Young’s Reading of the Text as “A Novel of Love”

    Heon Kim | 2019, 76(3) | pp.135~167 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    How did colonial Joseon in 1920s read the Iliad, considered to be the best classic of western literature? This article answers this question by studying Choonsung Ro Ja-Young’s The Story of Iliad. This is the first work that introduced the Iliad to Joseon. Joseon intellectuals in 1920s earnestly began to be interested in so-called world literature. As part of this trend, the Iliad was introduced to Joseon readers. However, Ro’s work is not a translation of the Homeric original, but a kind of summary. Furthermore, he adds the story of Paris’ judgement, which brought about the Trojan war, to the beginning of the Iliad’s plot, and at the end adds a story of happy ending, in which Menelaus and Helen return home together in victory after ten years of war. In this reconstruction of the story, Ro reads the Iliad as a love story and prefixes “a novel of love” to the title The Story of Iliad. In fact, he interposes romantic elements and an idea of “love for love’s sake” that do not appear in the Homeric original. What is the reason for this? It is argued that Ro tried to actively meet the needs of the publishing business and the public. In order to avoid Japanese censorship that has become stricter after the March First Independence Movement on the one hand, and to satisfy the needs of the public and to make the largest profit possible, publishing love story was most appropriate as a business strategy. However, such public needs and Ro’s publishing strategy should be also considered as the result of the cultural trend in 1920s Joseon, which could be defined as “the time of love”.
  • 6.

    Kim Sa-ryang and German Literature

    Jang Moon-seok | 2019, 76(3) | pp.169~212 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper argues about the relationship between the works of Kim Sa-ryang and the German Literature regarding the following three aspects; the literary criticism of Kim Sa-ryang and the German literature, his writings and the form of the Bildungsroman, and his praxis and the revolution. First, Kim Sa-ryang posited the identity of the literature of the colonial Chosun in the face of the crisis of the language of the colonial Chosun. While the literary scholars of Japan put Japan and Germany in the same position, Kim Sa-ryang dignosed the present stage of the literature of the colonial chosun by the analogy with the historical development of the German literature regarding a gap between the western and the non-western. He waited for the presentation of “Goethe of the colonial Chosun” considering the literature of the colonial Chosun at that time through the lends of German enlightenment. He expected the formation of the new identity of the Chosun literature by accepting the foreign literature, and a literary exchange between the literature of the colonial chosun and the Japanese literature and the world literature by the praxis of the translation. Kim Sa-ryang was concerned about the distance between the reality of East Asia and the form of the west through his writings. He expressed his discontentment with his novel to the Taiwanese writer Long Yingzong although he earned his fame as a writer in Tokyo when his work “Into the Light”(1939) was nominated for Akutagawa Prize. “Into the Light” was about the friendship and growth of a student in the context of a school as the institutional space and thmale-dominated society, which was simliar to the form of the late Bildungsroman including Demian of Hermann Karl Hesse earned a broad readership in Japan. “Into the Light” of Kim Sa-ryang was the representative novel of the modern literature in the non-West in terms of the form of the novel; its western form was in combination with the reality of the non-West. The Bildungsroman as a form of the novel was centered around the mobility and historical consciousness of western modern Bourgeois. However, Kim Sa-ryang was in the double bind as a non western-colonial writer. Given that, it was impossible for him to achieve the ideal of “Bildung”; the aim of the “Bildung” is to achieve maturity in harmony with one's self and society. Afterwards, Kim Sa-ryang explored the possibility of salvation from the religion and the Chosun or the past banished from the present during the wartime while he put an end to having a sense of consciousness of the lineal time in his work “Angel”(1942). Third, Kim Sa-ryang performed his literary act regarding the relationship between the literature and revolution. Kim Sa-ryang understood Heine as a writer who criticized Germany in his exile for love of his country. Even though he kept interested in the works of Heine, he could not fully elucidate the works of Heine because of the censorship. After escaping to Yenan in China in 1945, Kim Sa-ryang was able to reconsider the relationship between literature and revolution fundamentally. In Yenan he confronted the tradition of the folk literature in East Asia, and he discovered the possibility of literature whose subject was not the intellect but the folk. In Yenan, Kim Sa-ryang wrote his play, and his play is the representative work explores the possibility to deconstruct the western literary form with the reality of the non-West. The literary praxis of Kim Sa-ryang as the non-western writer who studied German literature in Tokyo Imperial University culminated in the East Asian Literature with a focus on the life of the folk. The topic of “Kim Sa-ryang and German Literature” leaves a further task of establishing a relationship between modernity of East Asia and Western literature.
  • 7.

    Revitalized Yangming School in Colonial Modernity: Is Jung Inbo’s Yangmyeonghak Yeonron Countering Takahashi’s History of Korean Thoughts?

    Yi, Hye-gyung | 2019, 76(3) | pp.213~250 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper argues that Jung Inbo’s Yangming Studies are related to imperial Japan’s ‘modern Yangming school’. Professor Inoue Tetsujiro of Tokyo Imperial University formed the narrative that Yangming Studies in Japan was opened in modern Japan within the framework of “from Zhuxi School to Yangming School”. Takahashi Toru, Professor of Keijo Imperial University, applied Inoue’s understanding of Confucianism to Korean studies, and defined Korea as “the stagnant society of Zhuxi School monotheism”. This paper argues that Jung Inbo’s award of Yangming School is a criticism of Takahashi, and at the same time follows the framework of Inoue’s “from Zhuxi School to Yangming School”. However, unlike Inoue, Jung himself was a Yangmning Confucian scholar; from him, therefore, “from Zhuxi School to Yangming School” was a restoration of true Confucianism. In addition, for him, a study that worries about the safety crisis of a near-familiar nation is to be Korean studies (朝鮮學) and Sincere Studies (實學). Although he used the study of Yangming as well as Inoue, he did not undermine the universality of Yangming School and stimulated nationalism with emphasis on “decreasing measures of the love due to relatives”.
  • 8.

    The Birth of Traditional Medicine’s ‘New Classic’ in the 20th Century: Lee Jema (李濟馬) and Sasang Constitutional Medicine (四象醫學)

    KIM, SEONG SU | 2019, 76(3) | pp.251~285 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Lee Jema and his Sasang Constitutional Medicine is a brainchild of traditional Korean medicine, and praised highly as a unique medical ideology. His book Donguisusebowon (Longevity and Life Preservation in East Medicine, 東醫壽世保元), published in the late Joseon period, was not regarded as highly as he had expected in the beginning. His medical approach was introduced as Sasang philosophy in Hanbangeuiyakgye (漢方 醫藥界), an institutional journal for the Association of Joseon Physicians, the first association for doctors of oriental medicine organized in the 1910s. His philosophy evolved into Sasang theory, and yet, it hardly settled firmly in the circle of oriental medicine in Gyeongseong. Then in the mid-1920 and afterwards, his reputation began to grow. This was facilitated by Lee Eulho (李乙浩), one of main discussants in disputes between Eastern and Western medicine that arose in the 1930s. Lee Eulho defined nature of Lee Jema’s theory as constitutional medicine, and introduced a philosophical, medical, and pharmacological analysis of Sasang Constitutional Medicine to the public through newspaper articles. Eventually Lee Jema became one of leading medical figures of Joseon Dynasty, and his book Donguisusebowon was raised to the status of one of two pillars in the medical society along with Heo Jun’s Donguibogam (東醫寶鑑). This transition, or the process by which new classics came to be established in Oriental medicine, showed how a basis for medical authority shifted from medieval norms related to social status to academic integrity and perception of the public. One of interesting aspects in debates regarding Lee Jema and his book Donguisusebowon is that while the emphasis of Sasang Constitutional Medicine is based on a nationalistic view, the academic backgrounds — medicine in particular — of the figures who tried to reassess Lee Jema had little to do with a nationalistic view. Jang Gimu (張基茂), Jo Heonyoung (趙憲泳), and Lee Eulho all had extensive academic expertise, and they were also strongly affected by academic atmosphere and trend in Japan. Presumably this was possible because medicine is an academic discipline that operates on dual layers of theory and practice.
  • 9.

    Ideology of Positivist Historiography: Historicism in Colonial Korea

    Hong Jong-wook | 2019, 76(3) | pp.287~323 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Ranke’s historicism criticized the universal development law of positivism and noted the singularity of the individual. But historicism, like positivism, put forward historiography as science and emphasized strict criticism of historical material. That is why historicism has been called positivist historiography. Positivist historians pursued fact-finding and value- judgment at the same time. Since the 19th century, the ideology of positivist historiography has been the nation. Chin-Tan Society, led by Lee Byeong-do in colonial Korea, aimed at combining science and nation. It aimed at establishing a Korean national history against the national history of Japanese positivist historiography. Both colonialism historiography and Lee Byeong-do’s historiography were positivist historiographies. The positivist historiography that came to be established in East Asia has taken on the role of national history, side by side, in each country and region. The ideology of the nation that had been latent during the colonial period was embodied in the description of national history when Korea became the historical subject with liberation. A just assessment of the ideology of nation that has been maintained by positivist historiography could be a starting point for the formation of a sustainable historiography in the 21st century.
  • 10.

    An Alternative View on the Clay-band Rim Pottery Communities of the Central Part of Korea

    Song, Manyoung | 2019, 76(3) | pp.327~368 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The clay-band rim pottery communities of the central region of Korea have been understood thus far from the point of view of migration, of coexistence and conflict between migrants and indigenous peoples, and in terms of exchange and reorganization. In addition, the migration of foreign residents has been regarded as a cause of cultural change, bringing about the regional integration of the wider area and transformation into a fully class-divided society. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether there are any problems with the logical structure of such a perception, and to consider whether it is a descriptive frame that is consistent with archaeological data, and to suggest alternative interpretations if required. The migration theory for the clay-band rim pottery group, which was developed by combining the methodology of making historical records as a prerequisite for annals and cultural interpretation with the epistemology of regarding a specific archaeological assemblage as a representing a population group, is an unconfirmed entity. Also, the dating of the clay-band rim pottery sites has been based on the theory of systematic awareness, coexistence, and conflict. However, no verification has taken place and occasionally errors of chronology have been identified in relation to the overlapping of dwellings and the relationship of artifacts. Therefore, relationship network theory is presented as the basis for an alternative interpretation. It is proposed that the indigenous group formed strategic networks for social integration and stratification in the process of transformation which involved the dissolution of large villages, their dispersion and the miniaturization, and the emergence of a mixed economy, which had taken place since the middle of the Bronze Age. In other words, it is argued that the indigenous group gradually accepted clay-band rim pottery and the Slender Bronze Dagger culture through a wide regional network that connected the Liaodong region, the northwestern areas of the Korean Peninsula, and the mid-western areas of the Korean Peninsula, and that the culture had spread through the regional network via nodes such as ritual sites.
  • 11.

    Oh Jang Hwan’s Metanoia: Preparatory Review on the History of the Intellectualism from 1930s through 1940s

    Igkyun Kim | 2019, 76(3) | pp.369~401 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Aestheticism, which distinguished art from everyday praxis, helped realize Culturalism in modern literature. The early works of the Decadent poet Oh Jang Hwan was closely connected to this Culturalism-based Aestheticism. In the first half of the 1940s, Oh was confronted with the task of criticizing. Culturalism through the ideas of Showa Culturalism, the main charge of Korean intellectualism at the time. By then Showa Culturalism had regained its influence through its Marxist criticism on Daisho Culturalism, even as Marxism itself was on the wane. However, it fell into the contradiction of criticizing Culturalism while simultaneously promoting it, and the contradictory demands forced intellectuals of the era into a double bind. For superficial devotees of Culturalism, this double bind served as a convenient cover for their intellectual compromise and exempted them from self-criticism. But Oh, who adhered strictly to both sides of the contradicting demands, was able to achieve metanoia through the process. This thesis identifies the link between the Culturalism of mainstream poetry in 1930s colonial Joseon and the leftist praxis of Culturalism in post-liberation Korea through Oh’s body of work.
  • 12.

    A Critical Study on the Coloniality of Hwarang Discourse: Focused on the Discourse of Hwarang Mobilization in the First Half of the 1940s

    Park Kyoon-Seop | 2019, 76(3) | pp.403~434 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The Hwarang (flower youth corps) system of Silla can be said to be an exceptional human resources training system that is unparalleled in world history of education. Due to limitations of the historical data, there are difficulties in grasping the process by which the Hwarang system appeared and disappeared. However, through information provided by Kim Boo-Shik’s Samgooksagi and Ilyeon’s Samgookyoosa, much can be read in terms of the character of the system. It can clearly be seen that the Hwarang system used music, travel, and training activities through morals as a method of education. This can be called education through poongryoo in accordance with the preface of Nanrangbi of Choi Chi-Won. However, in the 20th century, the Hwarang system came to be distorted and refracted for the purpose of colonial education by the scholars of the Japanese colonial period and pro-Japanese intellectuals and writers. In terms of its nature, an acknowledgment of its education and methods disappeared. What emerged was a bizarre scene in which the Hwarang of Silla became transformed into a Japanese imperial soldier of the Asia-Pacific War. As such, although the Hwarang system had contributed to the fostering and production of talented youths in the Silla Period, in the course of modern research and discussion, they came to be transformed into Japanese troops advancing into the Asia-Pacific War. After a thousand years, Hwarang had become a tool for political and military use, and detached from discussions about education.
  • 13.

    The History of Art as History of Repetition?: Some Deleuzian Questions Towards Thierry Davila’s Theory of Repetition

    Ji-Min Son | 2019, 76(3) | pp.435~468 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to analyze, examine and show the importance of a thesis put forward by the Swiss philosopher and art-historian Thierry Davila, which views the history of art as history of repetition. Davila’s constant reference to the Duchampian concept of “inframince” and Deleuze, especially his Difference and Repetition, is channelled towards his eventual argument: repetition is always a return with and towards difference and that difference is both essential and generic in the forming of the work of art. While the scope of his theory of repetition remains within Deleuze’s framework, it omits the discussion on the notion of force and intensity and the three levels of repetition — superficial, profound and ultimate — crucial in Deleuze’s philosophy of difference. This omission coincides with the self-contradictory use of the term repetition to describe those such as imitation and mimesis, where the latter in Deleuze’s philosophy enters in a dialectical entanglement with repetitions occurring at a deeper ontological level. At the same time, the importance of Davila’s work can be found in his advocacy of the principle of selection or casuistic method placing differentiating repetition at the very core of the ontology of the work of art and art-historical research.
  • 14.

    Ambiguous Force of Hospitality: The Problem of Being in Derrida’s Thoughts on Otherness, Law and Language

    Lee, SangWon | 2019, 76(3) | pp.469~498 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This essay examines a problematic tension of being between conditional hospitality and unconditional hospitality in Derrida’s thoughts on otherness, law and language. I argue that Derrida’s thinking of hospitality is grounded in the dual movement of being with others, which contains both the forceful openness toward the other and the determining forces of law and language. Scholarly views of Derrida’s conception of hospitality have focused on the logical contradiction (aporia) or the meaning of practical impossibility of the absolute welcoming of the other. But a close reading of Derrida’s approach to the existential problem of hospitality shows significant political questions of being with others lurking behind the antinomy of conditional/unconditional hospitality. For Derrida, the possibility and limit of receiving others implies the questionable ground of language, law, and death in everyday life of human beings. While human beings cannot avoid the other’s overflowing movement forcefully entering their own dwelling, they also aspire to determine powerful rules of embracing others based on their own mode of language (logos). This situation of hospitality ultimately reveals the persistent problem of being in the polis, which is constantly open to others while setting up its own mode of relating to them.
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