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2019, Vol.76, No.4

  • 1.

    The Structure and Heroes of Nomadic Utopia in Jangar

    Cho, Hyunsoul | 2019, 76(4) | pp.13~41 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Jangar’s Bomba is a utopia that 25 years old heroes live in forever. There are only spring and autumn in that Utopia. But Bomba is an unstable utopia. The feast of Bomba is a festival to commemorate the victory, but the festival immediately brings a battle. Thus, Bomba’s feast is an exciting and disturbing one. Within Bomba’s power system, king and priest, king and warrior, warrior and priest always stand against each other. But Jangar, the chief of Bomba, does not solve this conflict from within, but solves it through external battles. Jangar shows unstable leadership. The confrontational structure of the heroes within Bomba reflects the leadership of nomadic society, which is different from that of a residential society. The outside of Bomba, which Jangar embodies, exists as a device to resolve internal confrontation. The outside of Bomba is the space of enemies symbolized by monster Mangas. The outside of Bomba is built on the structure of repeated confrontation between Jangar and Mangas. So, like Bomb, there are feasts in the country of Mangas, but there are no Jangar that coordinate conflicts in the festival of Mangas. There are only Mangas that trigger battles. In the space of the Mangas, the feast becomes a battle and the battle becomes a feast. The narratives of repeated battles between Jangar and Mangas is different from the narrative of the heroes of a residential society which aims for a peace regime beyond war. It shows the structure of an unstable and less peaceful nomadic society.
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    ‘Heroic Codes’ and ‘Behavior Patterns’ in Jangar, the Epic of Mongolia

    Choi Won Oh | 2019, 76(4) | pp.43~89 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper discusses the heroic code and behavioral patterns of heroes in Mongolia’s epic, Jangar. ‘Heroic code’ refers to the mental and behavioral codes that heroes should have, and behavioral patterns refer to certain types of behaviors of heroes. As a result of the discussion, the heroic codes of the heroes in Jangar are variously identified by fame, identity, recognition, and competition, and the pattern of behavior shows the form of behavior by oneself or by others. Most heroic narratives deal with events that take place around one hero, resulting in a single ‘heroic code’. However, the reason why the ‘heroic code’ is so diverse in Jangar is related to the appearance of a number of heroes, including Jangar, Hongor, and Sawar. In addition, the heroes in Jangar are in the political system of Bomba, ruled by the monarch Jangar. Thus, it shows the pattern of arbitrary behavior according to the command of the monarch Jangar, or sometimes the pattern of arbitrary behavior according to the will of the individual hero. This tells us that the heroic code, which refers to the spirit and code of behavior of the heroes in Jangar, is superimposed on the state and the individual. In addition, the heroic code works not only in a single relationship but in various relationships such as vertical relationship, horizontal relationship, and circular relationship. The reputation, essence, and recognition associated with Jangar are operated in a vertical relationship, the reputation associated with Hongor in a vertical and horizontal relationship, and the spirit of competition operates horizontally in both Jangar and his warriors. And Jangar’s fame is also seen in a circular relationship, which is very closely related to the ‘feast’. A feast is a way of spreading the fame of Jangar and Bomba. Considering that Jangar is composed of ‘feast-war-feast’, Jangar’s fame is maintained and spread in a circular relationship commemorating peace without war and victory after war. In this way, the heroic code in Jangar is characterized by diversity and hierarchical character. Behavioral patterns also appear as arbitrary and arbitrary behaviors. In addition, Jangar has a variety of issues about heroes as it is called ‘hero story about hero’. In that sense, Jangar is a treasure trove of heroic epic research.
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    The Tears of Heroes and the Memories of War: Focusing on Jangar, the Epic of the Kalmyk Oirad People

    LEE SO YUN | 2019, 76(4) | pp.91~119 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the epic Jangar of the people of Kalmyk Oirad, Jangar, Hongor, and Mingyan, all shed tears from time to time. Jangar builds Ar Bomba, an ideal nation, through the conquest wars that began at the age of three. He who can foresee the future sheds the tears after he senses Ar Bomba’s crisis. At this time, Jangar is preemptively saddened about the future threats he does not face yet. Hongor sheds tears with the gloomy imagination that if he enters in front of the enemy, he will be killed by the enemy. Otherwise, if he returns, Jangar will do not want to greet him. His self-esteem is severely damaged in front of the enemy. Mingyan speaks out for the difficulties of leaving his homeland and living alone in Ar Bomba after Jangar orders an attack. The focal point here is the loneliness of longing for home after fighting in a war. They can be all referred to as “melancholic heroes” because they are mourning over the loss that has not been lost yet. Jangar is the one who determines the state of exception. In this respect, the tears he shed are the tears of the sovereign. Even though he is a sovereign, Jangar has no choice but to shed tears because Ar Bomba is the result of the war of conquest; and this makes his position always highly vulnerable. Mingyan’s tears have the opposite meaning of the tears of sovereign Jangar. His tears remind him that Ar Bomba is a tribal confederation. Interestingly, Mingyan’s tears expose the Ar Bomba’s birth crisis originated from the tribal federation system. Hongor’s tears for when facing the enemy, on the other hand, seem to reflect the emotions of the people of Kalmyk Oirad, who had historically had to stand alone before the enemy in the turbulence of war. The fact that the Kalmyk Oirad people had actually heard of the Jangar spear before the war led to the possibility of projecting their position in Hongor. In 1943, the people of the Kalmyk Autonomous Republic were deported to Siberia for 13 years, accused of serving in Germany during World War II. The Kalmyks socially eradicated the memory of forced deportation until the end of the 1980s. Nevertheless, it is important to note that Jangar has been remembered in various ways. Considering their national history, which is remembered as “loss,” the hero’s tears in anticipation of “loss” in front of the mighty enemy are a condensation of the history which is resulted from the loss of the Kalmyks. In addition, when the memory of socially abolished loss, that is, the memory of forced deportation, is struck, it is possible that Jangar was a memorial narrative that comforted them in that they were talking about the loss that had not yet been lost. This is why Jangar has been constantly reflected as a memorial narrative even in the social abolition of memory.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Cultural Identity of Mongolian Heroic Epic in the Trans-boundary Era: Focusing on the Traditions and Modern Uses of the Stories of Jangar and Geser Khan

    Lee, Seon-Ah | 2019, 76(4) | pp.121~161 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The Jangar, Geser Khan epics are representative stories of the Mongolian nomad, transformed into a wide variety of genres from a wide range of regions in Northeast Asia and Central Asia, communicating closely with the populace of each region and each era. The Mongolian heroic epic has constantly evolved, accepting the most innovative media and genres of that era, from the story deifying, and the story performing, and to the story gaming etc. The regional and genre openness of the Mongolian epic is closely related to the long-standing characteristics of nomadic culture that cross borders and boundaries. In nomadic society where ethnic separating and gathering were frequent, Mongolian nomads constantly adapted to the new environment, overcoming the loss and confusion of their identity. In this process, these heroic epics become ‘historical myths’ that remind the mythological identity as ‘a shared memory of the community’ through the stories of the most ideal heroes aspired by the people of those days. In this context, the epic Jangar, which represented (mimesis) the tragic destiny of the Oirad people and the construction of the ideal nation (Ar Bumba) through their struggle and solidarity, represent the cultural identity of the Mongol heroic epic. The Mongolian heroic epic is narrative literature that has been actively handed down to a wide variety of nomadic culture genres in the vast region of Northeast Asia. In other words, the various regional versions of Mongolian heroic epic represent the diversity of the ethnic cultures and their cultural identities of the Mongolian nomadic people scattered in various places that flexibly adapted and were created at each crucial time. This aspect seems to have influenced the reorganization of cultural identity through the ‘shared memory of the community’ in which the other neighboring countries are represented by the myth of the hero through cultural exchange. The story of the hero named ‘Jangar’, ‘Geser’ and ‘Dagina’ (Qatun) was beyond the scope of construction, constantly communicating with the populace, and not hesitating to change itself according to the modern sense. From the deity of the story to the game, various variants have been created, and the Mongol nomads have been steadily loved until now. This is a good example of the nomadic openness and flexibility of the Mongolian heroic epic. The Mongolian epic embodies mythical storytelling genuinely while maintaining the main public media of the time such as musical instruments, medium of texts, stage (performing media), and images, and accumulating heritage of the literary genre with infinite fantasy and spectacle. Today, it is a major asset of cultural prototype contents and it is a major driving force for continuously creating new types of storytelling contents by connecting with modern media (multimedia) such as Internet, digital, VR (virtual reality) and AR (augmented reality). The trans-boundary of Mongolian heroic epic, transcending regions and genres, will be an important alternative to form a new cultural identity of the 21st century neo-nomadism world culture beyond the national category for our future generations.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Rhyme-Borrowing Poems of Yakcheon (藥泉) Nam Gu-man (南九萬)

    kim,hyojoung | 2019, 76(4) | pp.165~204 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to examine the targets of rhyme borrowing and imagery patterns by considering the rhyme-borrowing poems of Yakcheon (藥泉) Nam Gu-man (南九萬, 1629-1711). Among the 281 poems included in Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 of Yakcheonjip (藥泉集), a collection of Nam Gu-man’s works, 62 tenses and 82 verses that occupy nearly 30% of them refer to the rhyme-borrowing poems. It is worthy of notice that about 30% of the poems in existence have rhyme-borrowing features. 58 rhyme-borrowing poems of Nam Gu-man where rhymes that were borrowed while he associated with his acquaintances of the times, including relatives, friends and colleagues; 16 of them were borrowed from the rhymes of the poems of the ancients; and 7 of them repeated the rhymes of his own poems. Nam Gu-man communicated with his acquaintances of the times and enhanced fellowship and intimacy through the rhyme-borrowing poems. Nam Gu-man’s rhyme-borrowing poems have three imagery patterns, as follow. First, he enhanced a bond of sympathy and intimacy by sharing private memories of the past that he made with the original rhymers. Second, he calmly described what happened to him and the targets of rhyme borrowing or what he wanted to say and directly expressed his emotions by adopting direct description methods, such as prose poems. Third, he helped readers understand the poems and made them remember him long by revealing the details of the rhyme-borrowing situations or reasons for creation and the targets of rhyme borrowing in the titles of the poems or prefaces.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Living Vocabulary Concerning ‘Straw’ of the Seongju Region of North Gyeongsang Province

    hong, gi-ok | 2019, 76(4) | pp.205~238 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to collect and organize the living vocabulary related to straw through field surveys, and to systematically organize the vocabulary related to straw in order to build a DB of related vocabulary. This arrangement of straw living vocabulary will provide the basic work upon which a vocabulary related to Korean agricultural culture and living culture will be constructed. In order to investigate the vocabulary related to straw in the Seongju Region of North Gyeongsang Province, reporters who were indigenous to the region and who had been doing straw craft activities to date were selected. The survey was conducted in the order of literature survey, field survey, and supplementary survey. In addition to vocabulary, if possible, voice data, photographic data, and video data of the vocabulary were examined together to collect data for DB construction. The category of straw living vocabulary survey was presented as ‘Agricultural Supplies, Breeding Supplies, Household Items, Housing Items, Event Items’. The subdivisions were divided into concepts, drying, tools, feeding, storage, transport, clothing, gentile, materials, sowing, play, and partial names. Through investigation 145 vocabulary materials, life dictation, sound recordings, photographs, and a video could be obtained.
  • 7.

    Analysis on the Reparametrization Storydoing System of Hanseong Baekje Myth for the Academic Planning Design of the Hanseong Baekje Cultural Festival Remodeling

    DO KYUNG KWON | 2019, 76(4) | pp.239~294 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is an analysis on the reparametrization storydoing system of the <Hanseong Baekje Myth> for the academic planning design of the <Hanseong Baekje Cultural Festival> remodeling. This study follows two directions. Firstly, this study analyzes the reparametrization storydoing system of the <Hanseong Baekje Myth> in the <Hanseong Baekje Cultural Festival> from two approaches: 1) examining the reparametrization storydoing zone of the <Hanseong Baekje Foundation Myth>; 2) by examining the reparametrization storydoing zone of the <Hanseong Baekje Royal Authority Myth>. Secondly, this study considers the academical points of the <Hanseong Baekje Cultural Festival> remodeling for the development of new tourist interest. Three points are illuminated: 1) the mythical prototypicality and historical reality of the classical narrative prototype and original text of <Hanseong Baekje Myth>; 2) the structural completion that facilitates the reparametrization of the <Hanseong Baekje Myth> to the <Hanseong Baekje Cultural Festival>; 3) identification of the reparametrization storydoing system of the <Hanseong Baekje Myth>. This study will lead to the next concrete remodeling planning of the preexisting storydoing system of <Hanseong Baekje Cultural Festival> for the development of new tourist interest. This study will provide the basis for that future study.
  • 8.

    Karatani Kojin’s Interpretation of Ito Jinsai: Focused on the Critic of ‘Immanence = Transcendence’ Concept

    Hwang in sok | 2019, 76(4) | pp.295~324 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    It is noted that the ‘Immanence = Transcendence’ concept is a characteristic of Eastern Philosophy⋅Ethics. However, according to Karatani Kojin, that concept is not that exceptional but in fact is associated with a long legacy of western idealism. Karatani calls the structure of philosophical argument ‘solipsism’. The critical characteristic of the solipsism is an attitude that the one which is correct to me is always correct to the other. On solipsism, ‘the other’ who should be subject to ethical consideration subordinates to the circuit of ‘generality – specificity’, so in the end, it is treated as a being that is not different from ‘I’. Karatani notices Wittgenstein’s late language philosophy in order to overcome that kind of philosophical problem. Furthermore, Karatani notes that there are linguistic and ethical transformations, such as Wittgenstein in the criticism of Ito Jinsai’s Neo-Confucianism. While criticizing Neo-Confucianism, Ito Jinsai’s perception of emphasizing on virtue practice and teaching comes from the dialogue and ironic reality of the text of “The Analects”.
  • 9.

    Rethinking on Gender of Ecofeminism in the Era of Ecological Crises: For Promoting its Political Activism

    PARK HYE YOUNG | 2019, 76(4) | pp.325~356 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This essay clarifies the concept of gender of Ecofeminism, a theory of combination of ecological and feminist approaches with a strong emphasis on the connections between women and nature. Ecofeminism insists on bringing feminism and ecology together because it views the domination of women and the degradation of nature as the same consequences of both patriarchy and capitalism. However, Ecofeminism is charged as essentialism and discredited by many feminists due to of its idea of women’s closeness to nature. The idea of affinity of women and nature in Ecofeminism is regarded to be of the same logic of patriarchy, in which men predominate all the privileges while women are treated as being inferior to men. Also the idea of a single category of women in Ecofeminism excludes many different gender identities, just as the same exclusion principle of the patriarchy system. The criticisms on the essentialism, however, can be rebuked by examining the social strength what Maria Mies asserts as a foundation of the third world indigenous women’s activism against the dominance of the transnational capitalism. Their communal gender culture can be a powerful alternative for the sustainable future of the Earth. For promoting political activism that this communal culture traditionally has, this essay examines Mies’s concept of gender in comparison with Judith Butler’s concept of performitivity of gender identity.
  • 10.

    Body and Media: From a Point of View of Eco-Technē

    Chan-Woong Lee | 2019, 76(4) | pp.357~390 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Dans cet article, nous allons élucider le rapport intrinsèque de l’humain avec l’écosystème et la technique en nous focalisant sur les problèmes du corps et du média. L’histoire de la philosophie occidentale a proposé les perspectives variées qui conçoivent le corps vivant: animisme, mécanisme, organisme et dynamisme. Mais, suivant la perspective contemporaine du 20ème siècle, la vie, en tant qu’une force intensive qui dépasse l’individualité des organismes, est comprise comme un réseau de connexion et de collaboration qui couvre toute la surface de la Terre en pénétrant l’humain, l’animal, le végétal, jusqu’au minéral. Deleuze et Guattari nous proposent de percevoir le corps du point de vue de la vitesse et de l’affect, non du genre et de la forme, enfin d’affirmer l’humain, l’animal et la machine univoquement sur un seul et même plan. L’agencement veut dire une multiplicité complexe humain-animal (végétal)-machine qui agissent tout ensemble pour produire un effet social. D’autre part, selon le point de vue qui considère toute la Nature comme média, on peut s’apercevoir que ce qui est la technē à l’humain est ce qui est la physis au dauphin. L’humain et l’animal-végétal s’échangent et capturent des techniques, des affects ou des motifs l’un de l’autre. D’où deux pratiques écologiques: l’une, la correspondance du regard d’après Walter Benjamin; et l’autre, le devenir-animal chez Deleuze. La tâche de nos jours consiste à rechercher et expérimenter une possibilité de relancer cette rêve une fois encore avec la machine.
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